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Full text of "American Cinematographer (1926)"

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Vol. VI, No. 10 
25 Cents A Copy 



January, 1926 



U. S. Postage 

2c. Paid 

Los Angeles, Calif, 
Permit No. 941 



American 
Cinematographe 

Published bv the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 




This Month: 

The Evolution of Studio Lighting — 
By Harry D. Brown 




The Great Task of Editing "Ben 
Hur"- By William R. Swigart 

How Cinematography Aids Big Indus- 
try—By Herbert Gay Sisson 



PUBLISHED IN HOLLYWOOD CALIFORNIA 



vvxyxys 




RELE 

November 15, 1925, 


:ases 

to December 6, 1925 


TITLE 


PHOTOGRAPHED BY 


The New Commandment 


Ernest Haller, member A. S. C. 


Go West 


Elgin Lessley and Bert Haines 


Compromise 


David Abel, member A. S. C. 


The Bashful Buccaneer 


Not credited 


The Best People 


James Howe 


Lights of Old Broadway 


Ira Morgan, member A. S. C. 


The Keeper of the Bees 


John W. Bo.vle, member A. S. C. 


Seven Keys to Baldpate 


Jack MacKenzie 


Speed Mad 


George Meehan, member A. S. C. 


Triple Action 


Wm. Thornley 


Bobbed Hair 


Byron Haskins 


After Marriage 


Not credited 


The Knockout 


Roy Carpenter 


The Road to Yesterday 


Peverell Marley 


Old Clothes 


Frank B. Good, member A. S. C. 


The Scarlet Saint 


George Folsey 


The Arizona Sweepstake 


Harry Neumann 


New Brooms 


L. Guy Wilky, member A. S. C. 


The Prairie Pirate 


Georges Benoit, member A. S. C. 


Wandering Footsteps 


H. Lyman Broening, member A.S.C. 


Common People 


Max DuPont, member A. S. C. 


All Around the Frving Pan 


Ross Fisher, member A, S. C. 


Three Pals 


Robert DeGrasse 


When the Door Opened 


Ernest Palmer, member A. S. C. 


Rose of the World 


David Abel, member A. S. C. 


The Big Parade 


John Arnold, member A. S. C. 


Lord Jim 


Faxon Dean, member A. S. C. 


The Clash of the Wolves 


Joe Walker 


Stella Dallas 


Arthur Edeson, member A. S. C. 


The Ancient Highway 


Alfred Gilks, member A. S. C. 


Bright Lights 


John Arnold, member A. S. C. 


Two Fisted Jones 


Harry Neumann 


The Eagle 


Geoi'ge Barnes and J. D. Jennings, 




members A. S. C. 


Stage Struck 


Geo. Webber 


No Man's Law 


Not credited 


Heartless Husbands 


Gordon Pollock 


One of the Bravest 


Ray June 


Morals for Men 


Roland Price 


The Shadow of the Mosque 


Not credited 


Simon the Jester 


Chas. G. Clarke, membar A. S. C. 


Wages for Wives 


Ernest Palmer, member A. S. C. 


Clothes Make the Pirate 


Henrv Croniager, member A. S. C. 


The Sea Wolf 


J. C. Taylor 


The Only Thing 


Chester Lyons 


Hogan's Alley 


Charles Van Enger, member A. S. C. 


Free to Love 


Not credited 


Irish Luck 


Alvin Wyckoff 


The Scrappin' Kid 


Wm. Nobles 


The Unguarded Hour 


Roy Carpenter 


Lady Windermere's Fan 


Charles Van Enger, member A. S. C. 


The Desert's Price 


Reginald Lyons, member A. S. C. 


The Masked Bride 


Oliver Marsh 


The Desperate Game 


Wm. H. Thornley 


The Phantom Express 


Art Fried and Harry Davis 


The Best Bad Man 


Dan Clark, member A. S. C. 



Vol. VI 



JANUARY, 1926 



Nos. 10 



American 
Cinematographer 

FOSTER Goss. Editor and Business Manager 
J. W. Partridge, Managing Editor 



Table of Contents: 

Page 

A. S. C. to Stack Huge Motion Picture Hall.. 4 

Filming "Ben Hur" Chariot Race Scenes — By George Meehan, A. S. C. 5 

How Cinematography Aids Bio Industry — By Herbert Cay Sisson - 7 

The Evolution of Studio Lighting — By Harry D. Brown - - - 8 

Rack and Airbei.i. Markings on Cinema Film — ( From Eastman Research 

Laboratory — By J . I . Crabtree and C. E. Ires .... 9 

The Editor's Lens - - ------ 10 

The Great Task of Editing "Ben Hur" — By William R. Swigart - 13 

In Camerafornia ----- 26 

A. S. C. Roster — 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cenu 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California Telephone, GRanite 42 74 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHE1! 



.hi nuary. L926 



J\. S. C. to Staqe Huqe Motion Picture Ball 



Affair for F i 1 m Profession 
to Be Held at Hotel Biltmore, 
in Los Angeles. 



^ 



Saturday Night, February 2l)th, 
Is Date Set for Elaborate 
Cinema Event. 



The American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers will stage a ball for the motion pic- 
ture profession at the Hotel Biltmore, Los 
Angeles, Saturday night, February 20th, it 
has been announced by the A. S. C. Board of 
Governors. 

Extensive preparations are already well 
under way to make this the most colorful of 
all the A. S. C. balls which have numbered 
some of the most successful functions in the 
film industry. 

Fifth Ball 

This will be the first ball to be presented 
by the Society since October, 1923, at which 
time the fourth A. S. C. ball was held. The 
latter affair was conceded to have been one 
of the most beautiful events in the history of 
filmdom. Its important happenings and mu- 
sical presentations were broadcast to the radio 
world over KHJ, the outside populace hav- 
ing been given its initial opportunity to 
"listen in" on this exclusive motion picture 
ball. 

A major part of the Society's activities 
having been monopolized with the construc- 
tion of the A. S. C.'s special quarters in the 
Guaranty Building, Hollywood, no ball has 
been presented by the cinematographers in 
more than two years with the result that all of 
the stored-up energies of the membership are 
now being concentrated on making the forth- 
coming affair the most pretentious ever under- 
taken by the Society. 

In Charge 

The A. S. C. members in charge of the 
ball activities are Homer Scott, picsideni or 
the American Society of Cinematographers, 
as chairman of the ball committee; Fred W. 
Jackman, former president of the Society, 
treasurer of the ball committee; and Arthur 
Edeson, chairman of the special committee on 
entertainment. Richard Connor, widely ex- 
perienced in the staging of similar functions, 
has been retained by the Society to handle the 
actual management of the ball. 



A feature of the occasion will be a lavish 
souvenir program which will be presented to 
every person attending the affair. Space in 
the program is already being reserved by 
prominent members of the film profession as 
well as by leading cinematographic and mer- 
cantile organizations. This will be the first 
time in several years that the A. S. C. will 
issue such a program, and it is predicted that 
its success will parallel that of the ball itself. 



Philip H. Whitman, A. S. C, 

Enters New Cinema Field 

Philip H. Whitman, A. S. C, has joined 
the staff of the Mack Sennett studios where he 
is co-directing and writing stories for Mack 
Sennett comedies. 

Whitman's identification with the Sen- 
nett forces marks the resumption of an asso- 
ciation which began in 1915 at which time he 
started his cinematographic career with the 
same organization. It was there that he first 
manifested the camera genius which has made 
him one of the outstanding figures in the pro- 
fession of motion photography. The A. S. C. 
member is recognized as a master of trick and 
intricate cinematography, which stands him 
in good stead in his new connection in the 
comedy field. 

Notable Achievement 

Subsequent to his original connection 
with the Sennett studios Whitman was in 
charge of the special trick and miniature cine- 
matographic department at Universal City. 
He left Universal to become associated with 
Arthur Edeson, A. S. C, in the filming of 
the intricate phases of Douglas Fairbanks' 
"The Thief of Bagdad." Whitman's work 
commanded such wide attention that he was 
called to New York City to do similar spe- 
cial work for Cosmopolitan, after which he 
was placed under contract to handle the in- 
tricate camera work at the eastern studios of 
the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. 



January, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Five 



Filmitiq "Ben Hur 11 ^ q eOTqe Meehan, 
Chariot Race Scenes A s c 



Remarkable Results Regis- 
tered by A. S. C. Members 
on "'Circus Maxim us" 





Left: George Meehan, A. S. C. Above: A chariot race spill 
which the cine matographers captured. 



A new world's record in the 
number of cinematographers 
employed in the ''shooting" of 
motion picture action was es- 
tablished in the filming of the 



Qreal Work 1 

The following letter and the 
copy referred to herein were 
sent to E. Burton Steene, A. S. 
C, by John M. Nickolaus, head 
of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 
laboratories. Similar letters 
were sent to other A. S. C. 
members whose work proved so 
superlative on the chariot race 
scenes. 

Mr. E. Burton Steene, 
Dear Mr. Steene: 

Your work on trie Circus 
Maximus last Friday and Sat- 
urday was very excellent and I 
want to thank you personally 
and in behalf of rnis Company 
for your efforts and your fine 
spirit of co-operation. 

Enclosed you will find a copy 
of a letter which Mr. Mannix 
sent me which expresses the 
sentiments of the officials of this 
Company. 

Again thanking you, I re- 
main. 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) JOHN M. N KKOL ACS. 



chariot race scenes in the Me- 
tro-Goldwyn-Mayer version 
of "Ben Hur." Forty-two 
cameras, each directed by an 
expert cinematographer, "cov- 
ered" every angle of the Cir- 
cus Maximus act and, accord- 
ing to officials of M.-G.-M. it 
is going down in film history 
as one of the most thrilling 
race pictures ever recorded 
for the silver sheet. 

Results Praised 
Metrfo-Goldwyn-Mayer of- 
ficials, including E. J. Man- 
nix, comptroller; Joe Cohn, 
production manager, and 
John M. Nickolaus, labora- 
tory chief with that organiza- 
tion, are loud in their praises 
for the skill of the cinematog- 
raphers who captured all the 
desired results without neces- 
sitating the lapping over into 
another day which would 
have meant an added expense 
of thousands of dollars for the 
hundreds of people who were 
used in the scenes. 

The former record of cine- 
matographers used at one 



time in the filming of a mo- 
tion picture stood at 17, it is 
said, but in order to capture 
every detail of the great "Ben 
Hur" chariot races in which 



Ttlatinix Letter 

Mr. John M. Nickolaus, 
Dear Nick: 

I wish to compliment you and 
your cameramen upon the great 
work accomplished during the 
filming of the chariot scenes in 
Circus Maximus on Saturday 
last. 

I wish that you would ex- 
press to each and every one of 
these men, as a representative 
of the Studio officials, apprecia- 
tion of the fine spirit with which 
they all carried on, and the 
great results accomplished. 

It is indeed a pleasure to have 
men of this calibre do our photo- 
graphic work. 

Mr. Thalberg, Mr. Niblo, 
and I ran all of the film taken, 
and we feel proud of everything 
that they filmed. 

1 wish that you would see 
that this word of appreciation 
is carried on to each and every 
one of thrni. 

Smcerelj yours, 

(Signed) E. J. Mannix. 



Six 



AMERICAN CINE MAT O GRAPHER 



January, 1926 




E. Burton Steene, A. S. C, explaining to Ramon A ovarro 
operation of Akeley camera with which Steene recorded remark- 
able shots on the Circus Maximus set. 



Ramon Novarro and Francis 
X. Bushman were the princi- 
pals, 42 cinematographers 
were stationed about the 
mammoth amphitheatre at 
every conceivable angle and 
in such a manner that every 
beat of the horses' hoofs, the 
flexing of muscles, the careen- 
ing chariots, the tense expres- 
sions of the spectators as the 
race came to its thrilling cli- 
max were registered. 

Well-Laid Plans 
The arrangements for the 
filming of the Circus Maxi- 
mus act were made by Percy 
Hilburn, and the writer. 
Weeks of detail work pre- 
ceded the actual filming of the 
scenes but so well had the pre- 



liminaries been taken cared of 
in anticipation of the great 
event that it was carried to 
the climax with a precision 
that drew unstinted praise 
and commendation from 
Louis B. Mayer, vice presi- 
dent in charge of production, 
Fred Niblo, the director, as 
well as the stars of the classic. 
A. S. C. Members 
In addition to the writer, 
among the other members of 
the American Society of Cine- 
matographers taking promi- 
nent parts in the filming of 
"Ben Hur" race scenes were: 
H. Lyman Broening, Max 
Du Pont, Frank Good and E. 
Burton Steene. Mr. Hilburn 
was in charge of the cinema- 



tographic brigade on the first 
day of the shooting, but 
thereafter the writer was in 
charge of the remainder of 
the work which was specially 
directed by Reeves (Breezy) 
Eason. 

The work of E. Burton 
Steene, veteran cinematog- 
rapher and expert with the 
Akeley camera, alone is said 
to have saved the M.-G.-M. 
company many thousands of 
dollars. Steene, left to his 
own devices on a parallel 120 
feet in the air, got the crux of 
the entire race with unbeliev- 
able clearness — namely, the 
crash of the chariots of Bush- 
man and Novarro. Exercising 
to the utmost the facility of 
the Akeley camera, of which 
he is a recognized master, the 
A. S. C. member kept the ca- 
reening chariots of the two 
principals both in the picture, 
with the result that every de- 
tail of the impact shows in the 
finished picture. By the use 
of a seventeen-inch lens, 
Steene fills the entire screen 
with the crash. That this shot, 
which it is believed will be- 
come historic, could not be 
duplicated in a hundred fold 
of efforts is the opinion of the 
cinematographic experts who 
have viewed its exhibition. 

All Details Captured 
Regardless of what Bush- 
man and Novarro were doing 
in the wild ride around the 
track they were always cov- 
ered by the "eyes" of a dozen 
cameras. Automiobiles made 
especially for the occasion 
were so built that ample room 
was provided for a veritable 
battery of cinematographers 
and these machines kept pace 
with the principals as they 
whirled the track, thereby en- 
abling the cinematographers 
to register every detail of the 
struggling horses and men as 
they fought for victory. 



January, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Seven 



Ho id Cinematoqraphij b^ Herbert q*xi 
Jlids Big Industry Sisson 



National Cash Register 

Company Made Early Use 

of Motion Picture Film 



(The following interesting account, both 
from an historical and industrial viewpoint, 
indicates the use to which cinematography 
may be put with success by a large commer- 
cial organization. The article comes from the 
pen of Herbert Gay Sisson and is taken from 
the National Cash Register Company's bulle- 
tin, "Progress.") 

The progress of the motion picture, one 
of the outstanding developments of the first 
quarter of the present century, has affected 
not only the daily lives of millions through 
providing an inexpensive medium of enter- 
tainment, but it has also become a force in the 
industrial life of the nation. There are few 
important manufacturing establishments that 
do not have films showing their processes of 
manufacture and telling the story of the de- 
velopment of their product and its importance 
to the world. Films are also widely used by 
industry for purposes of instruction and 
training. 

The first large industrial concern in the 
country to adopt motion pictures in a program 
of ambitious scope was The National Cash 
Register Company, and it is doubtful whether 
any company today uses the motion picture 
as consistently and for so many objects as does 
the Dayton, Ohio, organization. This Com- 
pany's use of the motion picture began in 
1902, when special films were made and in- 
corporated in an illustrated lecture on wel- 
fare work which was then being given to 
manufacturers' organizations throughout the 
country and to visitors to the N. C. R. factory 
at Dayton. 

Today the National Cash Register Com- 
pany has in its film vault 773,877 feet of posi- 
tive prints of motion pictures, and 244,702 
feet of motion picture negative. In addition, 
the Company is a daily renter of film from 
the motion picture industry. Motion pic- 
tures are used in special lectures, in an educa- 
tional film service provided by the Companv 
for the advancement of visual education, in 
daily noon-hour entertainments provided free 
for its employees, in weekly Saturday morn- 
ing children's meetings given to an average of 
three or four thousand children of the city, 
and in educational work carried on bv the 
Company among its workers and members of 
its selling forces. 



Worthy Causes Aided 
The use of motion pictures by The Na- 
tional Cash Register Company is not confined 
to films that have to do with the commercial 
activities of the organization. Upon numer- 
ous occasions films have been prepared to aid 
worthy movements entirely separate from the 
cash register business. An instance of this oc- 
curred in 1924 when Frederick B. Patterson, 
president of the Company, was at the head of 
the National Aeronautic Association of the 
United States. Securing the collaboration of 
the Bray Motion Picture Studios, Mr. Pat- 
terson had a thrilling four-reel film prepared, 
entitled "Make America First In The Air.' 1 
This picture, after being approved by the 
heads of the government air services, was 
shown in most of the important cities of the 
country as the basis of an appeal for member- 
ship, with the result that the Association's 
ranks were more than tripled. 

Properly to describe the various ways in 
which motion pictures have been utilized to 
foster the development of The National Cash 
Register Company, and the spreading of its 
principles and idealism, it is necessary to go 
back in the Company's history to the year 
1894. 

The late Mr. John H. Patterson, founder 
of the Company and at that time its president, 
always firmly believed that the best way to 
teach is through the eye. Consequently, when 
in that year it became evident, through the re- 
turn of a number of defective registers, that 
the industry was suffering from faulty work- 
manship, one of the first steps taken was to 
teach the employees better ways of working 
through visual methods. This was only one 
of a number of new and advanced policies 
launched by Mr. Patterson at that time, which 
marked the inauguration of industrial wel- 
fare work in the United States, revolutionized 
working conditions in this country, and 
caused The National Cash Register plant to 
become known as "the world's model fac- 
tory." 

Moving his desk out into the factory, Mr. 
Patterson conducted an investigation and 
found many things that were wrong. He had 
crude, hand-drawn stereopticon slides pre 
pared. Calling a meeting of all employees in 

I Com Intied on Page' i s> 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



January, 1926 



The Evolution of 
Studio Lighting 



Bij Harnj D. Broum 



Film Illumination Makes 

Tremendous Strides in 

Period of Twelve Years 




In the year 1914 I became 
installed as chief electrician 
for the Universal Film Com- 
pany at the then embryo Uni- 
versal City. This was in the 
days of canvas diffusers and 
artificial lighting was un- 
known in Hollywood as red 
flannel underwear in the 
South Sea Isles. The high art 
of using reflectors had not 
even been developed. Even 
"Came Dawn" and "Later" 
had not yet begun their hec- 
tic careers as subtitles. 

"It's raining, boys, let's go 
home" was not an uncommon 
cry and all Filmdom were 
pagan worshippers of the Sun 
god. 

Indoor Studio 

Not long after my advent 
as Universal's electrician, 
along about the middle of 
January, 1915, Isadore Bern- 
stein, then general manager, 
concluded that the company 
should have an indoor studio. 
He was probably inspired by 
the difficulties attending the 



"shooting" of "The Master 
Key," a serial which Bob 
Leonard was directing and in 
which he and Ella Hall were 
featured. This had been a 
particularly stormy season — 
most unusual for California, 
as any native son will testify 
— and the serial was behind 
releasing schedule. 

First Cooper Hewitts 

Acting upon Mr. Bern- 
stein's order, we selected a 
garage and converted it into 
our first indoor studio, into 
which we invested all the 
available studio lighting 
equipment in Los Angeles, 
i. e., five Kliegl side arcs and 
one 35-amp. spotlight. To 
this we added 20 banks of 
Cdloper Hewitts, which we 
ordered from New York, the 
first to come to the coast. 

Pioneer Electrical Force 

We soon followed this up 
with the installation of 1000 
W. nitrogen lamps, which 
were just being developed as 
overhead equipment. With 
this auspicious beginning we 
proceeded to "shoot" in our 
proud indoor studio many of 
the scenes of "The Master 
Key," which also included 
several exterior street scenes. 
The electrical force at Uni- 
versal at this time was made 
up of five men, one of whom 
was Paul Guerin, now chief 
at the Mack Sennett Studio, 
and another Walter Strohm, 
now chief at United Studios. 

W infield-Kerner' s 

The spring of 1915 saw the 
coming of the Winfield-Ker- 
ner Company's studio lamp, 
which was adopted and used 
by most of the studios operat- 
ing in California. This com- 




pany had previously manu- 
factured phot o-engraving 
lamps. The Winfield-Ker- 
ner lamps came into use dur- 
ing the regimes of Messrs. 
McGill and Harry Caul- 
field as Universal City gen- 
eral managers. Our total 
capacity in transformers was 
100 K. W. A. C, which in- 
cluded all the power for 
pumps, etc. 

Five Minute Limit 
In the latter part of 1915 
Universal made a picture 
called "Lass O'Leary," which 
called for a rather large street 
set and considerable night 
stuff. Our total capacity on 
this street was 30 K. W. A. C. 
With fast work on the part of 
t h e cinematographers we 
were able to keep the load on 
about five minutes without 
burning up the transformers. 
"Lass O'Leary" was filmed 
during Henry McRae's reign 
as general manager. 

We often worked all night 



i Com inued on r v < -13) 



January, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATO GR APHER 



Nine 



Rack and Airbell Markings on Cinema Film 



Concluding Part of Exhaustive 
Treatise Begun in December Issue 
of American Cinematographer. 



Big J. I. Crabtree 
and C. E. Ives 



Findings of Authorities Reported 
in Research Laboratory Com- 
munication from Eastman Co. 



(Continued from last month, in which complete 
illustrations appeared) 

If the airbell forms on the film along the 
sides of the rack, owing to the tendency of the 
air to rise to the surface, the airbell frequently 
becomes elongated so that the area of contact 
is not circular but oval. The tendency for dis- 
tortion is greater with the larger airbells, 
which explains why the larger airbell mark- 
ings are rarely circular, while the small mark- 
ings are invariably circular. 

A typical group of circular and irregular 
airbell markings is shown in Fig. 7. 

Unless the surface of the emulsion is 
locally greasy or burnished, the points of at- 
tachment of the airbells are determined mere- 
ly by chance. However, there is usually a 
greater propensity for the airbells to become 
attached where the film passes over the ends 
of the rack so that rack marks are usually ac- 
companied by airbell markings. See Fig. 8. 
Classification of Airbell Markings 

Airbell markings may be of the following 
types : 

/. Clear white spots. These may be 
either circular or irregular in shape as ex- 
plained above. See Fig. 7. The clearcut edge 
of the spots indicate that the area of contact 
of the airbells did not materially alter during 
the course of development. 

2. Grey spots. These are' similar in 
shape to those illustrated in Fig. 5 but are not 
perfectly clear and contain more or less silver 
grains. They are caused by the airbell break- 
ing or becoming dislodged during develop- 
ment so that the spot was protected for only 
a part of the total time of development. 

3. Clear spots surrounded by a dark 
ring. See Fig. 9. The dark ring is probably a 
result of developer oxidation fog caused by 
local oxidation of the developer by the airbell. 
This type of marking occurs only rarely and 
with freshly mixed developers which are sus- 
ceptible to aerial oxidation fog. in such a 
case if the film remains stationary during de- 
velopment the oxidation products of the de- 
veloper flow down the film and frequently 
produce a fog streak or tail as shown in 
Fig. 10. 



4. Clear spots surrounded by a grey 
ring. See Fig. 11. The grey ring is probably 
caused by a diminution in the area of contact 
of the airbell with the film due to a change in 
shape during development as explained above. 

5. Clear spots with a dark central ring. 
See Fig. 12. Examination of the dark nuclear 
ring showed that this consisted largely of sil- 
ver. The exact method of formation of such 
markings is not known though they could be 
formed by bursting of the airbell just before 
the film was removed from the developer so 
that the whole airbell area became saturated 
with developer, and the reforming of a small- 
er central bubble when the film was immersed 
in the fixing bath. This second bubble would 
prevent the access of the fixing bath and per- 
mit of development of the image underneath 
by the developer absorbed by the film after 
the bursting of the first bubble. 

Such a marking could also result from 
the printing of a positive image from a nega- 
tive containing airbell markings similar to 
those described under "3" above, namely 
"clear spots surrounded by a dark ring." 

6. Clear spots with a nucleus of silver 
halide. The appearance of these spots by 
transmitted light is essentially the same as 
those shown in Fig. 12, although the dark 
central ring consists largely of silver halide 
instead of metallic silver. The method of for- 
mation of such spots is probably as follows: 
During development the airbell prevents ac- 
cess of the developer to the emulsion and per- 
sists until the film is removed from the de- 
veloper. On reimmersion in the fixing bath a 
small airbell forms where the larger bell prev- 
iously existed, thus protecting the emulsion 
from fixation. 

The difference between the spots indi- 
cated under 5 and 6 is, therefore, merely a re- 
sult of slight wetting of the previously pro- 
tected airbell area with developer immedi- 
ately before fixing. A nucleus of silver halide 
is produced in one case and a mixture of silver 
halide in the other. 
Factors Affecting the Number of Airbells 

Formed 

The quantity of airbells which may ac- 



i continued on Page 



Ten AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER January, 1926 



The EDITORS 9 LENS > « focused by foster goss 



Credit in Proqrams 

^ Now that the period of resolutions for the new year is at hand, 
the cinematographer might well ask that the exhibitor give cine- 
matography the credit that is due it in the exhibition of each 
and every production. To the mentors of the larger theatres 
might be addressed the appeal to refrain from cutting credit 
titles. To the exhibitors of the smaller houses might be directed 
the request that, if they receive a print from which the credit 
titles have been cut, they at least insert the name of the cine- 
matographer in the programs. The latter information should 
be forthcoming from the exchanges. If it isn't, a letter 
directed to the American Society of Cinematographers in Hol- 
wood — if the exhibitor's bookings are far enough in ad- 
vance — will bring the same information. 



Ilo "Hokum" in Cinematoqraphu 

<J The cinema has had to suffer, more than any industry, the ap- 
pellation, "hokum," to be associated with it. Perhaps there has 
been plenty \oi hokum relating to the films; at the same time, 
other lines of endeavor have not been clean of it. 

^ This much, however, is worthy of passing note — the basic thing 
about motion pictures, cinematography, has been singularly free 
of hokum. Of necessity, no doubt, is this so. Aside from per- 
sonal preferences for one style of camera work or the other, 
cinematography, judged from reasonable precepts, must stand on 
its own feet when it is given its one and only test — showing on 
the screen. There may be handicaps of poor projection, but 
there can be no illusions — or "hokum," if you please — about the 
cinematography that the public sees. 

<J There is little place for the unstable foibles in the field of cine- 
matography. If improvement lends itself to the steady ad- 



January, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Eleven 



vancement of the science, then it becomes a part and parcel 
thereof. If it is not conducive to progress, it is soon eliminated. 
Spasmodically, there may appear various manners of "pro- 
cesses" and the like that may hope to thrive on the supposition 
that the motion picture industry is susceptible to "hokum," but 
if those special methods do not measure up to the most thor- 
ough-going standards of camera work, the fallacies are soon de- 
tected and the promoters and sponsors find themselves high 
and dry on the rocks of incredulity. 

^ Whether cinematography is applied to entertainment, education 
or whatnot, it is a science all to itself. It is here just as surely 
and securely as photography itself. It is a gift to mankind. 
"Hokum" finds the camera a barren pasture, and they who 
would sow the seeds thereof may well put forth their efforts 
more profitably elsewhere. 

A Real Feature 

€| Continued comment on the selection by this publication of the 
productions with the best cinematography for the past year re- 
veals many interesting phases. The novelty of the feature has 
proved extremely appealing and contributors to other publica- 
tions have been quick to take note. 

^ While it was the original intention to pick the five pictures with 
the best cinematography of the past year, this idea was laid aside 
when there became apparent the size of the task of the critics 
who perforce had to delve into retrospect for the selections for 
which they were queried. If they had had the purpose in mind 
when they were reviewing the different productions during the 
course of the year, such a procedure would have been more 
feasible. Hence, as was explained in the Annual Number, all 
the features cited were presented on a single Roll of Honor, no 
consecutive number being essayed. 



Twelve 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHE 



January, 1926 



The Qreat Task oj 
Editing "Ben Hur" 



B\j IDilliam R. 
Sujiqart 



Crux of All Sequences 

Must Be Preserved in Cut- 
ting Down Lengthy Footage 



The gigantic task of editing "Ben Hur 1 
is about at the end of the rope. When we 
see it on the screen we will marvel at the huge 
sets, the mobs, the photography, the story and 
direction. But in retrospection of the task of 
building this picture, will there be a thought 
given to this branch which has played a prom- 
inent part in making such a spectacle pre- 
sentable? 

Great Amount of Work 

Let us for a moment delve into the 
tremendous amount of work involved in edit- 
ing "Ben Hur." 

After talking with Lloyd Nosier, who is 
film editor of this great motion picture, I dis- 
covered, to my amazement, the great responsi- 
bility placed upon his shoulders. More than 
1,600,000 feet of negative were shot on this 
picture from which 800,000 feet of positive 
were printed. With 16 pictures to the foot, 
this makes a total of 12,800,000 pictures with 
which Lloyd Nosier had to familiarize him- 
self before attempting to assemble and edit. 

When Mr. Nosier was appointed by the 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Corporation to edit 
the film of this epic, he appreciated the honor, 
a most enviable honor in his profession. But 
in back of this appointment, M-G-M realized 
his ability and he was selected because of his 
past record of achievement in this field. He 
immediately sailed for Europe, where he was 
to join Director Fred Niblo. Upon his ar- 
rival, Nosier found in excess of 350,000 feet 
of film awaiting him and he immediately 
waded in to reduce this footage to continuity 
form which would enable Mr. Niblo to de- 
termine what could be done with the work 
already accomplished. 

Having completed their work in Italy, 
the company returned home, where there was 
much to do to complete the picture. It was 
here that Nosier resumed the task of keep- 
ing up with the reels of film that were being 
constantly furnished after each day's work, 
but it was much more pleasant after he had 
organized a force of able assistants who knew 
what it was all about and could talk his lan- 
guage. 

Three Great Sequences 

Among the many sequences incorporated 
in this great super-production, there are three 




Lloyd Nosier 



which are outstanding because of their magni- 
tude and importance to the story. These are 
the "Joppa Gate," the "Galley" and the "Cir- 
cus Maximus." The latter was shot in Culver 
City and necessitated the building of the 
largest motion picture set ever attempted in 
the history of motion pictures. It is a replica 
of the enormous chariot racing arena as it 
existed two thousands years ago in Antioch, 
which was at that time the second largest city 
in the world and second in importance only 
to Rome. It is reported that more than 200,- 
000 feet of negative were shot on this one se- 
quence. Forty cameras were used during the 
filming of the chariot races and one would 
believe by seeing so many cinematographers 
that it was an A. S. C. convention. However, 
they must receive a large measure of credit, 
for there was not a move made in this huge 
scene but what it was picked up by one or 
more of the cameras stationed at strategic 
points throughout the set. Some remained 
stationary, while others were mounted on 



(Continued on Page 16) 



January, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHBR 



Thirteen 



The Evolution of 

Studio Lighting 

(Continued from Pase 8) 

on the li Lass O'Leary" street 
set, sleeping a couple of hours 
in the transformer room, 
where it was warm and going 
about our duties maintaining 
the plant during the day. 

Cinema Twin 
In December, 1915, Uni- 
versal purchased from W. W. 
Wohl, 50 overhead Wohls 
and 25 broadsides, and out- 
side of buying some large 
deck Cooper-Hewitts, we 
made no additions to the 
plant equipment until the late 
summer of 1917, at which 
time Winfield - Kerner 
brought o u t the Cinema 
Twin, which is substantially 
the same type of lamp in use 
today. Meantime, of course, 
other studios had introduced 
much n e w lighting equip- 
ment of varying makes. 

In this interegnum H. O. 
Davis had served his term as 
general manager and the of- 
fice came into the able hands 
of William Sistrom. In the 
early part of 1918 the Sun- 
light Arc Company intro- 
duced what is known as the 
Sun Arc. This light became 
very popular, particularly for 
street and location work, and 
is still used to a considerable 
extent. 

These retrospections are 
probably also the reflections 
of the experiences of Frank 



Gotham Critic 

Praises Clark 

An outstanding tribute to 
the cinematography of Dan 
Clark, A. S. C.j who is chief 
cinematographer for Tom Mix 
on Fox productions, is paid in 
the following New York dis- 
patch to the Los Angeles Ex- 
aminer from Eileen Creel man, 
motion picture editor for Uni- 
versal Service: 

"Tom Mix is the hero of 
'The Best Bad Man,' but it is 
his cameraman who walks away 
with most of the honors. The 
picture winds up in a long cli- 
max with some beautifully pho- 
tographed scenes of a great dam 
bursting and rushing toward 
the audience in a torrent of dan- 
ger. We are shown several re- 
markable exterior and interior 
shots of its destruction of the 
hut where Tom Mix is impris- 
oned." 



N. Murphy, now chief en- 
gineer for Warner Bros. 
Studios, and H. G. Ewing, 
president and general mana- 
ger of Minerva Pictures 
Corp., both of whom started 
their careers in 1914. The 
latter served with Famous- 
Players-Lasky Corp. and was 
responsible to a large degree 
for the illumination for the 
excellent photography turned 
out by that company. Mur- 
phy engineered his first light- 
ing in the late Thomas H. 
Ince's "Civilization." 

It is rather difficult to give 



facts and figures from mem- 
ory, but if the reader will 
stop to consider that from 
what was considered a large 
set with 30 K. W. in the days 
of "Lass O'Leary," we ad- 
vanced to the gigantic scenes 
in "The Hunchback of Notre 
Dame" with 2500 K. W. ca- 
pacity, he will then realize 
how important the lighting of 
motion pictures has become. 
Gigantic Jump 

From 500 to 1000 kilowatts 
are used on the average in- 
terior set today, and as much 
as 5000 have been used on 
others. From an approximate 
total of 30 kilowatts back in 
1914 — used by all the studios 
— the Hollywood film indus- 
try today has a capacity for 
approximately 30,000. Cer- 
tainly no mean barometer of 
the industry's growth. 

Every studio chief has con- 
tributed his talents to the de- 
velopment of the art of mo- 
tion picture lighting, and in 
no case have we had any out- 
side assistance. He has not 
only improved his lighting 
equipment, but has invented 
and perfected such mechani- 
cal concoctions as wind ma- 
chines, pumps, lighting ma- 
chines and numerous other 
devices. 

The studio chief engineer 
is a veritable tri-god, Combin- 
ing all the virtues of Helios, 
the sun god; Pluvius, god of 
rain, and Thor, lord of 
thunder. 



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Saturday, February 20th, 1926 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CI NE M AT G R APHER 



January, 1926 



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and interchangeable by reason of micrometer focusing mounts em- 
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10 to S exposures per second. 

KVEMO tills a long felt want for use in stunt and field work. Won- 
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EYEMO is designed to be held in the hand while oper- 
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January. 



1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Kilte* I 1 



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For example — the ultra speed attachment is 
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Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINE M AT OGR APH ER 



January. 1926 



The Great Task of Editing u Ben Hur" 

(Continued from Page 12) 

mobile platforms, automobile trucks and air- 
planes. In some instances cameras were sus- 
pended by cables and propelled across the en- 
tire length of the arena, which measured 
approximately 1500 feet long. And with all 
this film, produced by such a large battery of 
cameras, you can imagine what a task it was 
to select 1000 feet which at most is about all 
you will see of this sequence in the finished 
picture. 

Footage Reduced 

The "Joppa Gate" sequence, which is the 
entrance to Jerusalem and was shot in Italy, 
is estimated to have furnished over 100,000 
feet of film, which was reduced in the final 
editing to 1000 feet; and the "Galley 
Sequence' 1 having, furnished around 132,000 
feet, was edited to 1500 feet. 

Exhibiting Length 

Perhaps you can understand the mechani- 
cal part of assembling this mass of film, but 
can you conceive the tremendous importance 
of reducing it to an exhibiting length and in 
such a manner that will please the audience 
of the universe? This is an art which few 
people have mastered. In order to edit a pic- 
ture, one must know drama; he must be able 
to place himself in the same receptive mood as 
that of the great army of people who will ulti- 
mately view the picture. He must be able to 
tell the story in action and with the proper 
tempo, the same as you Would expect to see it 
portrayed in life. He must know how to time 
the many situations to get the maximum effect, 
and to do this, he must know the value of 
every bit of action and the length of time to 
keep it before the eyes of the audience. Above 
all, he must build his plot in action the same 
as the writer does in words, commanding the 
interest at all times until the climax is reached. 
To possess all these requirements, I dare say, 
it requires a great mind. 

In the case of "Ben Hur" the responsi- 
bility of the final editing does not fall upon 
one man; it would be a physical impossibility 
because of its size, and so we find at this stage, 
three great minds, Fred Niblo, Irving G. 
Thalberg and Lloyd Nosier collaborating day 
and night, exerting their every resource of 
energy and brain power for one purpose, and 
that is to make the production of "Ben Hur" 
stand out as the greatest screen epic of all 
times. 



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January, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Seventeen 



EASTMAN 

PANCHROMATIC 

NEGATIVE 

Colorful trees, flowers and clouds on loca- 
tion; colorful hangings, backgrounds and 
costumes in the studio all call for Eastman 
Panchromatic Film. 

The emulsion is made sensitive to red, 
yellow and green, as well as blue to which 
regular film responds chiefly. Consequently 
all the colors you see, either on location or 
in the studio, can be reproduced in the 
negative in their true relationship. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Kightpen 



AMERICAN CI NE M AT OGR APHER 



January, 1926 



rContlnued from Paere7) 



a nearby Jewish synagogue which had been 
abandoned and rented by the Company, he 
showed them by means of these slides the 
practices that were wrong and how they could' 
be bettered. The effect was salutary and this 
marked the beginning of the Company's ex- 
tensive use of the stereopticon, which has 
since been supplemented to a great extent by 
the motion picture. 

100,000 Slides 
In 1896, a photograph department was 
started at the factory, and after that time pho- 
tographic slides were used. Despite the mo- 
tion picture, the use of slides has by no means 
been discontinued. The Company has on 
hand at this day approximately 100,000 slides, 
containing views from every part of the earth 
and covering a wide variety of topics. The 
Company's auditoriums are equipped with 
wide screens, and double-screen stereopticons 
are used. In this manner a picture can be 
shown on one side of the screen and accom- 
panying comment on the other. Songs for 
group singing are illustrated in this manner, 
a picture being on one side and the words of 
the song on the opposite side. 

Following the inauguration of welfare 
work, Mr. Patterson had a lecture made up, 
which was illustrated with the stereopticon. 
It showed the beneficent results of welfare 
work, and Mr. Patterson gave the lecture per- 
sonally to manufacturers' organizations in va- 
rious parts of the United States to arouse their 
interest in more considerate treatment of their 
personnel. Shortly afterwards the Company 
adopted the policy of inviting visitors to go 
through the factory. Then a small room 
was fitted up as an auditorium and the lecture 
on welfare work was shown to the factory's 
daily guests. 

Use of the 'Movie' 
In 1902 the motion picture was still in 
a state of infancy and a smaller footage of 
film was being shown in the entire country 
than in any important city today. Intensely 
interested in visual education, however, Mr. 
Patterson saw that the motion picture was 
more effective in many ways than the stereop- 
ticon. He secured from the Edison Company 
a complete motion picture outfit and a cam- 
eraman and brought them to the factory. 
Thereafter both the traveling factory lecture 
and the one given at the plant were given as 
a combination of stereopticon and movies. 




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' J 



January, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



While traveling in Europe in 1911 Mr. 
Patterson saw an exhibition of Kinemacolor 
films, the first colored motion pictures. He 
became so interested that he paid the expenses 
of the inventor across the sea, brought him to 
Dayton and had him make a series of colored 
motion pictures, the first produced in Amer- 
ica. The Kinemacolor pictures were princi- 
pally views of landscape gardening around 
the factory and the beautiful front yards, back 
yards and window boxes in the neighborhood. 
They were used to illustrate a lecture on land- 
scape gardening and home beautification. 
Three traveling outfits were sent with this 
lecture to all parts of the United States in the 
interest of community betterment. 

Children's Meetings 
A further use of the stereopticon that 
later was supplemented by motion pictures 
was in the case of the "pleasant Sunday after- 
noons," started by Mr. Patterson in 1897 for 
the benefit of the children of the neighbor- 
hood. The main feature of these entertain- 
ments in those days were talks on travel il- 
lustrated by the stereopticon. At the present 
time these children's meetings are held on 
Saturday mornings, the attendance weekly 
averaging 3,000 or more, and instructive and 
entertaining motion pictures constitute the 
bulk of the program. These meetings are 
free to all children of the city or vicinity. 
Each child enjoys an hour or more of motion 
pictures and songs, and refreshments are 
served. 

In 1915, a motion picture was produced 
entitled "The Troubles of a Merchant and 
How to Stop Them." This was used in con- 
junction with another film entitled "Getting 
the Most Out of Retailing." For a number 
of years, five traveling lecturers presented 
these films to educate the retail mer- 
chants throughout the United States and Can- 
ada. They were given to Chambers of Com- 
merce and leading merchants' organizations. 

A year or two before America entered 
the World War a film was made in different 
hospitals throughout the country showing the 
terrible results of social diseases. This was 
shown to the conventions of salesmen and to 
the factory employees, and is still being shown 
to all new employees. In 1917, Mr. Patter- 
son had the picture revised and sent it to 
Washington where it was approved by gov- 
ernment officials and he then sent this picture 
out to all army camps so that it was seen by 

'Continued on rajf* •■ -~) ■ — -■-■ ■ . 



Akeley Camera 




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Twenty 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHBR 



January, 1926 



Rack and Airbell Marking on Cinema Film 



(Continued from l>;is(> '■<) 



cumulate on the film is determined by the fol- 
lowing factors : 

/. The manipulation of the rack. This 
determines: 

(a) The rate of immersion of the film. 
If the film is immersed rapidly there is a much 
greater tendency for it to carry down airbells 
than when immersed slowly. It is important 
therefore, to immerse the rack slowly, es- 
pecially when the end slat touches the surface 
of the developer because most airbells usually 
accumulate along the end slats. 

Rapid immersion is also apt to cause 
foam on the surface of the developer and the 
small air bubbles constituting the foam at- 
tach themselves to the film causing airbells. 

(b) The time of soaking before remov- 
ing from the developer. Experience has 
shown that if the film is immersed quickly in 
the developer, allowed to remain submerged 
for only a few seconds and is then lifted com- 
pletely out of the developer and resubmerged, 
a much larger quantity of airbells will be 
formed than when the film was originally im- 
mersed. 

Short immersion of the film in the de- 
veloper followed by exposure to the air leaves 
the film in a partially swollen state and in this 
condition it has a much greater propensity to 
carry along airbells with it on subsequent im- 
mersion than the dry or completely swollen 
film. It is usually necessary to allow the film 
to soak for at least twenty to thirty seconds 
after the first immersion in order to remove 
this tendency. 

(c) The degree of agitation of the rack. 
In many cases airbells can be dislodged after 
the film has been thoroughly soaked by rapid 
agitation of the rack or by slapping the end 
slat against the surface of the developer, 
though when developing by time it is neces- 
sary to duplicate the rack agitation precisely 
and too much rack manipulation is not prac- 
tical. It is preferable to remove the airbells 
manually as described below. 

2. The Quantity of Grease on the Film. 

A very slight trace of grease or oil on the 
film will so affect the surface of the emulsion 
that it has a greatly increased tendency to at- 
tract airbells. Any appreciable quantity of oil 
or grease will also act as a resist and prevent 



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American Cmematoqrapher 

1219^0 21-22 Guaranty Bldq. 
Hollywood. Calif. 



January. 1926 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHE 



Twenty-one 



the access of the developer. Preliminary soak- 
ing of the film in a solution of sodium car- 
bonate will often overcome this tendency (see 
below). 

3. The Condition of the Developer 
Experiments have shown that old devel- 
oper which frequently tends to loan badly has 
a greater tendency to give airbells than new 
developer. This foaming is the result of the 
presence of decomposed gelatin produced by 
the action of the alkali in the developer on the 
small particles of emulsion removed from the 
film by abrasion. The effect of the addition 
of ethyl alcohol to such a foaming developer 
was tried but no beneficial effect was observed 
by the addition of increasing quantities of the 
alcohol up to \0[ < . 

Method of Preventing the Formation of Air- 
bells 

The formation of airbells may be pre- 
vented as follows : 

1. By soaking the film in water or a so- 
lution of sodium carbonate (about 2%) be- 
fore development. This has the effect of 
thoroughly soaking the gelatin, in which con- 
dition the propensity for airbells to form is a 
minimum, while the carbonate solution tends 
to remove traces of grease which would other- 
wise cause airbells and prevent access of the 
developer. The carbonate treatment, how- 
ever, will not remove splashes of mineral oil. 

Any airbells which cling to the film dur- 
ing the soaking process can be removed manu- 
ally by passing a soft camel's hair brush along 
the top slat, reversing the rack in the tank and 
repeating the process. 

After soaking the film it is very necessary 
to thoroughly agitate the rack for the first 
minute after immersing in the developer, 
otherwise the liquid carried over by the film 
will still adhere and cause development 
streaks. 

Soaking is objectionable insofar as it in- 
volves an extra operation and is really not 
necessary if the manipulation outlined below 
is followed. 

2. By taking care not to use developer 
which is too old and which foams badly, by 
immersing the rack slowly, and by allowing 
the film to remain under the surface of the 
developer for at least 30 seconds before lifting 
out of the developer for any reason whatever. 

3. By removing the airbells mechani- 
cally. : •-•- 

' ". ' ,, ' , . ' " T~* - -— { Co nt inued jm- PaB O— 83 ) ■ •— - — ■ — 



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Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



January, 1926 



(Continued from Pago 10) 



every enlisted man shortly after he entered 
camp. This film is regarded as the most ef- 
fective warning against the dangers of sexual 
vice that has ever been produced. 

Helped Nation's Morale 

As a further contribution to the winning 
of the war, Mr. Patterson had prepared a lec- 
ture entitled "Wake Up America," in which 
both the stereopticon and moving pictures 
were used. The object of this lecture was to 
teach the American people the causes of the 
war and why we were in it, and to arouse the 
country to the necessity of devoting all their 
energies to winning. The five lecture outfits 
that were given the merchants' educational 
lectures devoted all their time in presenting 
this lecture in all parts of the United States. 

One of the most noticeable effects of the 
war in the industrial life of the country was 
the fostering of inefficiency and wastefulness 
on the part of workers. To combat this at- 
titude, in 1919, The National Cash Register 
Company had a film made up which was en- 
titled "Waste Can't Win." It was a clever ex- 
position of the prevalent bad habits and ten- 
dencies of the day, and the results of showing 
it were so evident that it was borrowed by 
hundreds of manufacturers throughout the 
United States and shown by them to their em- 
ployees. This film was everywhere regarded 
as a big factor in the return of the American 
workman to "normalcy" following the hectic 
war days. 

About six years ago the factory lecture 
was revised and is now all motion picture, in- 
stead of a combination of movies and slides. 
It is given in the N. C. R. Schoolhouse twice 
a day to those who visit the factory, in num- 
ber about 26,000 per year. 

Special 'Movies' 

Motion pictures are made of all of the 
Company's sales conventions, pageants, spe- 
cial visitors. These pictures, as well as our 
merchants' pictures, are used as part of the 
instruction of salesmen in the Company's 
sales school. 

Both the stereopticon and motion pic- 
tures are used daily in the Company's repair 
school in connection with the teaching of the 
mechanics of cash registers to service men. 

The main projection room is in the N. 
C. R. Schoolhouse, an auditorium that seats 
about 2,300 people. This auditorium is 
equipped with a complete stage,, capable of 



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AMERICAN CINEM ATO GR APHER 



Twenty-three 



putting on the largest productions. In this 
projection room are three high intensity arc 
simplex projectors, one double screen stereop- 
ticon, two single stereopticons, and four spot 
and flood lights. There are four other pro- 
jection rooms; one in a classroom back of the 
Schoolhouse stage, one at the N. C. R. City 
Club auditorium, one at the screening room, 
and one in the repair school. Each of these 
is equipped with two motion picture projec- 
tors and double screen stereopticon. 

The Company also maintains an educa- 
tional film service, loaning films to schools, 
churches and organizations for the purpose 
of promoting visual education. This film 
service contains travel pictures, scenics, films 
depicting various industries, pictures of ani- 
mal and plant life and others. They are 
loaned free of charge to any worthy organ- 
ization. 



(Continued from Page 21) 



Experience has shown that even when the 
above precautions are taken some airbells may 
still cling to the film, and especially at those 
parts where the film passes over the end slats. 
The only way to be absolutely certain of the 
absence of airbells at these points is to remove 
the airbells by passing the hand or a soft 
camel's hair brush along the upper and lower 
slats during the course of development. If 
this is done with reasonable care the film 
emulsion will not be damaged or scratched in 
any way although no trace of hyp>o must be 
present on the fingers or brush, otherwise 
streakiness will result. 

With the usual rack it is not possible to 
pass the hand across the slat owing to inter- 
ference by the separating pins. This difficulty 
may be overcome by offsetting the pins at an 
angle of 45" as shown in Fig. 4 or by omitting 
the pins on the slats and placing a bar fitted 
with spacing pins slightly below the end slats. 
Practical Instructions for Preventing Rack 

Marks and Airbell Markings 

Both rack marks and airbell markings 
may be largely prevented by adhering to the 
following manipulative procedure which 
should be applied when developing both nega- 
tive and positive film. 

1. Use racks with cylindrical end slats 
approximately 2 inches in diameter, with the 
spacing pins offset at approximately 45° so as 
to permit of passing the hand or brush along 



Taken in a Pouring Rain 
at Dusk, with 



7 Ae Ultrastigmat~/i .9 



Gentlemen : 

I enclose some pieces of negative which 1 took 
in a pouring rain at ten minutes to 6 o'clock on Sep- 
tember 12, the last event of the Rochester Horse 
Show. 

This film was used in International News 
Reel No. 78. 

Without your wonderful Ultrastigmat speed 
lens F. I. 9 I believe it would have been impossible 
to get this picture. 

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Motion Pictures — Production and Ex- 
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Twenty-four 



AMERICAN CiNEM AT OGR APHER 



January, 1926 



the length of the slats so as to dislodge anv air- 
bells. 

2. Lower the rack slowly and carefully 
into the solution and when the lower slat is 
just below the surface pass the Hand quickly 
along its entire length so as to dislodge any 
airbells. Then completely submerge the rack, 
and in a similar manner quickly pass the hand 
across the upper slat and allow the rack to re- 
main submerged for 30 seconds. Then allow 
the rack to float, resubmerge immediately and 
repeat this operation once every minute dur- 
ing the period of development. 

3. In case this treatment docs not entire- 
ly prevent airbells, the film should be soaked 
in water or a 2% solution of sodium carbonate 
for 3 or 4 minutes before development, and in 
addition to this the rack should be moved con- 
tinuously during the first 30 seconds while 
submerged in order to prevent streakiness. 



Fail to Credit A. S. C. Member 

for Filming Big Productions 

A number of trade journals failed to 
carry credit in their reviews to Georges 
Benoit, A. S. C, for the cinematography in a 
number of important productions. Included 
among these are "The Scarlet West," "Off 
the Highway," in which, by virtue of the dual 
role of William V. Mong, Benoit again had 
an opportunity to display his thorough execu- 
tion of multiple exposure; and "The Rubaiyat 
of Omar Khayyam," which is being released 
under the title of "The Lover's Oath." 



Ernest Palmer, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing the Fox feature, "The Price of Pleasure," 

directed by Emmett Flynn. 

* * * 

Barney McGill, A. S. C, is filming the 
Fox production, "A Trip to Chinatown." 

Ross Fisher, A. S. C, is photographing 
"The Tough Guy," the latest Fred Thompson 
feature being produced at the F. B. O. studios. 

Charles Stumar, A. S. C, is filming 
"Poker Faces," a Universal production di- 
rected by Harry Pollard. 

Robert Kurrle, A. S. C, is making prep- 
arations for the photographing of the next 
Edwin Carewe production for First National. 




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January, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHBR Twenty-five 



Jlmerican Society 

of 

Cinematographers 

Ball 



Hotel Biltmore, Los Anqeles 



Saturday 

February 20th, 1926 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN C I NE M ATOGR APHER 



January, 1926 








Robert Kurrle, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing "Heirs Apparent," an Edwin Carewe pro- 
duction for First National. Among those who 
will appear before Bob's camera are Edwards 
Davis, Alec B. Francis, Dolores del Rio, Rita 
Carewe, Lloyd Hughes, Mary Astor and 

John Murray. 

* * * 

Arthur Edeson, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing "The Bat," which Roland West is direct- 
ing as a John W. Considine, Jr., production 

for United Artists. 

* *- * 

John W. Boyle, A. S. C, has completed 
the cinematography on "The Far Cry," a 
First National production directed by 
Sylvano Balboni, and is at present engaged 
on the photographing of Lambert Hillyer's 
latest production for the same organization. 

* *• * 

Bert Glennon, A. S. C, is photographing 
the latest Paramount production starring 
Pola Negri. Dimitri Buchowetzki is direct- 
ing. This is the third consecutive feature on 
which the A. S. C. member has been chief 
cinematographer for Miss Negri. 

* * * 

E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, has been on loca- 
tion on a big sheep ranch near Santa Paula, 
California, for the filming of the latest War- 
ner Bros, production starring Rin-Tin-Tin. 
The title of the feature is "The Night Cry." 
The cast includes June Marlowe, John Har- 
ron, Gayne Whitman, Heinie Conklin and 
Don Alvarado. Herman Raymaker is direct- 
ing. The past year has been one round of 
locations for the A. S. C. member who, prior 
to his departure for Santa Paula, had just re- 
turned from location in Toronto, Canada, 
where he went with Lubitsch and Charles 
Van Enger A. S. C, for the filming of scenes 
in "Lady Windermere's Fan." 

Through the courtesy of C. J. Hubbell, 
west coast manager for International News- 
reel Corporation, there was presented at the 
A. S. C. open meeting of December 14th the 
reels of International's compiled "thrills" of 
the past ten years. The exhibition was well 



received by the A. S. C. members, several of 
whom began their careers as news cinematog- 
raphers. Refreshments were served follow- 
ing the meeting. 



■sfc % $£ 



The A. S. C. open meeting of December 
28th was featured by the showing of the latest 
pictures in the "Secrets of Life" series, photo- 
graphed by Louis H. Tolhurst, A. S. C. 
These proved some of the most interesting of 
the Tolhurst pictures that have been viewed 

to date. • 

* * * 

John Arnold, A. S. C, is being congratu- 
lated on all sides for his superior cinematog- 
raphy in "The Big Parade," the Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer success which he photo- 
graphed. 



* * 



Dan Clark, A. S. C, is out of the city 
several days on location for the filming of the 
latest Tom Mix feature. 

■jp- -^ ^ 

Victor Milner, A. S. C, has completed 
the filming of "The Golden Journey," the 
R. A. Walsh production for Paramount. 
Buster Collier and Greta Nissen head the 

cast. 

* * * 

Norbert Brodin, A. S. C, through the 
courtesy of Frank Lloyd productions, is 
photographing "Paris at Midnight," a 
Frances Marion production being directed 
by E. Mason Hopper at the Metropolitan 

studios. 

* * * 

Frank Cotner, A. S. C, has finished 
shooting "The Blind Trail" and "Without 

Orders," both of which star Leo Maloney. 

* * # 

George Schneiderman, A. S. C, has com- 
pleted the filming of the Fox production, 
"The Johnstown Flood," directed by Irving 
Cummings. The flood scenes call for all of 
the A. S. C. member's expertness as a cinema- 
tographer. 

* * * 

Reginald Lyons, A. S. C, has finished 
shooting "The Fighting Buckaroo," a Fox 
product/on starring Buck Jones. 



HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Phone GRanitc 4274 

OFFICERS 

Homer A. Scott President 

Victor Milner First Vice-President 

Daniel B. Clark Second Vice-President 

L. Guy Wilky Third Vice-President 

Bert Glennon Treasurer 

John W. Boyle Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Bert Glennon Gilbert Warrenton Daniel B. Clark 

Victor Milner George Schneiderman Charles J. Van Enger 

John W. Boyle Homer A. Scott Norbert F. Brodin 

H. Lyman Broening L. Guy Wilky Paul P. Perry 

Henry Sharp Fred W. Jackman Alfred Gilks 

Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. landers. Sam — with Waldorf Studios. 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture Corp. Lockwood. J. R. — 

I.undin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropolis 
Barnes. George S. — with Geo. Fitzmaurice. United Studios. tan Studios. 

Beckway, Wm — Lyons, Reginald — with Buck Jones, Fox Studio. 
Benolt, Georges — with Metropolitan Studios. 

Boyle. John W. — with First National Productions, United Marshall, Wm. — with Carlos Prods. 

Studios. McCoid, T. D. — with First National. United Studios. 

Brodin. Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions, First National, McGill, Barney — 

United Studios. MacLean, Kenneth G. — with Warner Bros, 

r.roening, H. Lyman — Meehan, George — 

Brotherton, Joseph — Milner. Victor — with R. A. Walsh, Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan, Ira II. — with Marion Davies. Cosmopolitan, Metro- 
Olark. Dan — with Tom Mix. Fox Studio. Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Clarke. Chas. G. — with George Meltord. Metropolitan Studios. 

Cowling. Herford T. — 251 So. La Salle St.. Chicago. 111. Norton, Stephen S. — F. B. O. Studios. 
Cotner. Frank M. — with Goodwill Picture Corp. 

Crockett. Ernest — with Mack Sennett Studios. Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio 

Cronjager. Henry — with Famous Players-Lasky, New York Perry, Harry — 

City. Perry. Paul P. — with Universal. 

Polito, Sol — with Hunt Stromberg Productions. 
Dean Faxon M. — 

Doran. Robert V.— Ries Park j_ 

Dored. John-Riga. Latvia. Roos Len H _ vvith Fox Fj]]n Corp Ijtd Vancouver, B. C. 

miPont, Max B. R Jackson J. — with Universal. 

DuPar. E. B.— with Warner Bros. Rosher, Charles-with Mae Murray. "Ufa." Berlin. 
Dubray. Joseph A. — 

„, , ., ,..,.i Schneiderman. George — with Fox Studio. 

Edeson Arthur Lmted Studios. Scott. Homer A.— 

E\ans. Perry Seitz. John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Fildew, Wm. — Sharp. Henry — with Douglas Fairbanks, Pickford-Fairbanks 

Fischbeck, Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players Studio. 

Lasky. New York City. Short, Don- 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, F. B. O. Studios. Smith. Steve, Jr. — 

Steene. E. Burton — 

Gaudio, Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Gilks. Alfred — with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar, John — with Universal. 
Glennon. Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Good, Frank B.— Tolhurst. Louis H.— "Secrets of Life." Microscopic Pictures, 
firay, King D. Principal Pictures Corporation. 

Griffin. Walter L.— Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin. Chaplin studio. 

Guissart, Rene— Paris, I- ranee. Turner, J. Robert— with Fox Studios. 
Haller. Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. 

Heimerl. Alois G. — Van Buren, Ned — 

Van Enger, Charles-with Ernst Lubitsch, Warner B-others 

Jackman. Floyd— Fred \\ . Jackman Prods. Van Trees James r ._ with Metropolitan Studios 
Jackman. Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods., Hal 

Roach Studios. 

Jennings, J. D.— with Metropolitan studios. warrenton, uiiDert— 

\\ enstrom, Harold — 

Koenekamp, Hans F. — with Larry Semon. Whitman. Philip H. — with Mark Sennett Studios, Scenario 
Kull. Edward — with Universal. Dept. 

Kurrle. Robert — with Edwin Carewe, United Studios. Wilky. L. Guy — 

Edison. Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb. Arthur C. — Attorney. 



Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 



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Vol. VI, No. 11 
25 Cents A Copy 



February, 1926 



U. S. Postage 

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Los Angeles, Calif 
Permit No. 941 




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American 



Cinemat o qrapher 

Published by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 



In this Issue: 



Announcing New 
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PUBLISHED IN HOLLYWOOD CALIFORNIA 



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Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Co. 

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Vol. VI 



FEBRUARY, 1926 



No. 11 



American 
Cinematographer 

FOSTER Goss. Editor and Business Manager 
J. W. Partridge, Managing Editor 



Contents : 



cS^) 



Page 

CAMERA CROWDS ARE CURIOUS WORLD OVER .... 4 
FORM QUERY DEPARTMENT ON AMATEUR 

CINEMATOGRAPHY 5 

A. S. C. MEMBERS WHO KEEP IN THE 

CINEMATOGRAPHIC LIMELIGHT 6 

BEHIND THE CAMERA FOR WILLIAM de MILLE— 

By L. Guy Wilky, A.S.C 7 

BRAVES TURBULENT WAVES FOR SOUTH SEA FILM ... 8 

URGE CREDIT IN THEATER PROGRAMS 9 

THE EDITORS' LENS 10 

A. S.C. BALL TO BE BRILLIANT FILM EVENT 12 

RELEASES 13 

IN CAMERAFORNIA 15 

A. S. C. ROSTER — 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California Telephone, GRanite 42 74 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematotraphers, Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CIN E M A T G R A P HE R 



February, 1926 



Camera Crowds Are 
Curious World Over 

Even Hollywood, supposedly blase to 
picture making, will produce a crowd when- 
ever a motion picture camera is set up in a 
public thoroughfare and "shooting" is begun. 
What, then, can be expected in the far corners 
of the civilized world? 

Len H. Roos, whose camera has caused 
savages to flee as well as attracted crowds 
which almost stampeded the instrument off 
the street on the other side of the world, gives 
interesting anecdotes in this direction. 

"While I was in Canada," Roos writes, 
"making some mountain scenes for a Fox 
Varieties picture a few months before I sailed 
for Australia, I was working at Lake Louise, 
Alberta. The particular shot that was keep- 
ing me busy was some stop-motion footage of 
a cloud formation at sunset. The habit of the 
inquiring public, when they sight a motion 
picture camera, is to watch carefully for a 
while, and then come up to ask: 'Are you 
making movies?' In this instance, a middle 
aged gentleman and a small boy were about 
50 feet away, watching carefully. Finally, 
the old chap, just addressing the world in gen- 
eral and no one in particular, came out with : 
T wonder if he's making movies' — and the 
modernized small boy replied scornfully: 
'No, dad, he's picking rawsberries!' 

"While traveling on ships or trains the 
tripod of a camera outfit is the subject of 
much speculation on the part of the pas- 
sengers; it is presumed to be anything from a 
patented fishing rod to a folding automobile 
tent. The best one on the poor tripod was 
pulled by a lady with a youngster at her side. 
While the tripod was being deposited under 
the seat of a Pullman, the child asked: 
'Mumma, what's 'at?' and started io explore 
the tripod ; whereupon the good lady replied : 
'Come away from there, Willie; those are golf 
sticks!' 



It 



Len H. Roos, A. S. C, Gives 
Rare Highlights on Psycholo- 
gy of the Camera Struck 

Where Shown? 

"At most places where crowds of people 
assemble the cinematographer is in for a bad 
day unless he has at least three inquiries as to 
how much 'photos are a dozen.' When he 
explains that they are not photographs but 
motion pictures which he is taking, he is then 
asked where and when they are to be shown. 
After passing out this information to the best 
of his ability, the party inquiring then tells 
him of a place that 'would make a great 
movie.' The informant then proceeds to 
elaborate about his quarter section which is 
perfectly flat, has not a tree or a shrub on it 
and is covered with the greenest grass any- 
one ever saw. And then the inevitably tri- 
umphant question: 'Wouldn't that make a 
great movie?' Most of these people, when 
they saw the 'Fox News' name plate on my 
cameras remember that they have a wonder- 
ful scenario kicking around the house some- 
where that would make a 'great movie for 
Tom Mix.' Mix and Dan Clark, his chief 
cinematographer, don't know how many bad 
dreams I have saved them by advising these 
people to write to the company first to ascer- 
tain whether 'they need any just now.' 

Surveying Instrument? 

"In Wellington, New Zealand, I set up 
the camera on the curb as I was going out into 
the center of a busy street Co make a shot that 
was wanted by the Sydney office. I was just 
putting the cranks on the tripod when a very 
tall, thin chap with at least a four-inch collar 
and no tie but displaying the latest thing in a 
front collar button asked: 'What's the ma- 
chine worth?' The machine, to which he re- 
ferred, was my new De Brie, and I answered: 
'About 400 pounds.' He said: 'Oh, no, I 
won't have that.' I told him that I couldn't 
help it; I knew that was what it had cost be- 
cause 1 had paid for it. 'Well,' he volun- 
teered, T've got a thedolite and it only cost a 
hundred and fifty!' I opened the camera then 
and showed him the difference between a hun- 
dred and fiftypound surveying instrument and 
a motion picture camera. He appeared to be 
convinced. 

. ._LC" r > t l n .ueil on Fngc 2.'!) 



February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Five 



Form Quenj Department on Amateur Cinematography 



Question and Answer Depart- 
ment to Be Made Regular 
Monthly Feature 



^ 



Amateur Motion Photography 
Brings Forth Special New 
Department 



A QUESTION and answer department, created to meet the needs of the many owners 
jLX and users of amateur cinematographic sets, will be introduced in the next issue of 
the American Cinematographer. At the same time this department's scope will be 
extended in general to the affairs of amateur cinematography which has advanced to a re- 
markable stage during the past several months. 



With the advent to the market of various 
types of practical motion picture outfits and 
the consequent wide use thereof, queries con- 
cerning amateur cinematography have been 
directed from points "throughout the country 
to the American Cinematographer and to the 
American Society of Cinematographers. As 
a result, it has been decided to answer the 
questions of the owners and users of such out- 
fits through the medium of this publication, 
the answers being prepared under the direc- 
tion of the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers. In this way, it is hoped to simplify 
to a large degree the problems which arise 
before the amateur cinematographic enthusi- 
ast from time to time. While this department 
is designed to be highly informative, only 
legitimate inquiries will be considered; none 
which tend to jeopardize general motion pic- 
ture production by divulging trade secrets 
will receive attention. 

It is believed that the operation of this 
department will prove a boon to amateur 
cinematography as its details will be favored 
with the expert cinematographic knowledge 
centered under the banner of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, whose member- 
ship comprises the ace cinematographers of 
the world. 



Giant Steamer to Carry Full 

Film Projection Equipment 

The largest and fastest high-powered 
passenger steamship ever to be built in the 
United States will have, as a part of the 
equipment designated for the comfort and 
enjoyment of her passengers, facilities for the 
showing of motion pictures both in the 
lounge and on the open deck. 

The ship is the Malolo, Hawaiian for 
Flying Fish, which is now being built for the 
Matson Navigation Company at Cramp's 



Censorship Worries for News 

Cinematographer May Soon End 

A move to relieve news cinematograph- 
ers from the onus of having to contend with 
measures which cause the "killing" of "shots" 
that very often have been obtained only 
through great expense and personal danger is 
seen by the Motion Picture News in a bill re- 
cently introduced in the New York Legisla- 
ture. The News report on the matter follows : 

The first bill pertaining to the motion 
picture industry to be introduced at the pres- 
ent session of the New York State Legislature, 
made its appearance in the Senate on Wednes- 
day, January 20, being introduced by Senator 
J. Griswold Webb, a Republican from 
Dutchess county. The bill modifies the pro- 
vision of the present censorship law in New 
York State, to the extent that it exempts news 
reels from examination. In some quarters the 
bill is viewed as the opening wedge of a move- 
ment calling for the abolishment of the com- 

(Continued on Page 23) 



(Continued on Page 25) 




Bert Glennon, A. S. C, explaining so/if cinemat- 
ographic lot e to Pola Negri ivhom he is photographing 
in the third consecutive Paramount production. 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



February, 1926 




JL S. C. members 

iwho Keep in the 

Cirtematoqraphic 

Limeliqht 





TmjHM ^^ 




« 


L*V 


1 




t< 


*%Sifc*^ 






5^1 wi\\ 



John Arnold, A. S. C, 
whose newest achievement is 
"The Bit/ Parade." 



Dan Clark, A. S. C, who 
creates photographic master- 
pieces in Tom Alix films. 




Robert Kurrle, A. S. C. 

w ho makes Edwin Car civ e 
features photographic gems. 



Ernest Holier, A. S. C — 

his latest contribution is 
"Bluebeard's Seven Wives." 



Charles Stumar, A. S. C, 
who ranks high as one of Uni- 
versal s camera aces. 




3 


— |i 
1' ** ^^Hk 






HlrM 


Sim |i ^ 


1 - xx: 1» . fc** 


-W, 



Frank B. Good, A. S. C, 
"between" Jackie Coogan pic- 
tures, is at Fox where he 
made many early successes. 



Sol Pol it o, A. S. C, w'ho 
has guided the cinemato- 
graphic destinies of Harry 
Carey for many moons. 



\ orberi Brodin, A . S. C, 

— his cinematography ideally 
h a r m o n iz e s with Frank 
Lloyd's superb direction. 



I 



February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Seven 



Behind the Camera 
for IDilliam de HUlle 



Bij L. Quij XUilkxj, 
A. S. C. 



The following story appeared orig- 
inally in The Motion Picture 
Director, which is sponsored by the 
Motion Picture Directors Associa- 
tion. It gives interesting camera 
"angles" on one of the most cele- 
brated direct'/ r-cinematographer 
teams: 

(Registering the psychological qual- 
ities of a director's genius on cellu- 
loid, getting just the right shad- 
ing, the proper balance between high 
lights and low lights, translating 
on to the him the underlying spirit 
of the story and the director's con- 
ception of its treatment — these are 
some of the problems which must be 
met and solved by the cinematog- 
rapher. Upon him devolves a respon- 
sibility commensurable with that of 
an artist working in oils or in stone, 
for no matter how much feeling is 
expressed by the principals and mem- 
bers of the cast, no matter how much 
artistry is developed by the director 
in his treatment of theme or scene, 
unless feeling and artistry are ade- 
quately caught by the camera and 
registered for all time on the film 
with the same appreciation of artistic 
qualities their value is utterly lost. 
L. Guy Wilky, who tells here of his 
experiences as cinematographer for 
William deMille, shares with that 
director the artistic honors accorded 
deMille productions.) 

There is no set form of 
cinematography. Perhaps 
that is why it has earned the 
right to be termed an "art." 
To attempt to standardize it 
strictly would deprive it of its 
expression, and it would soon 
become rigid and inflexible, 
slow to progress, rather than 
being the extremely facile 
medium that it is today. 

Any effort to classify or 
designate the various stand- 
ards of cinematography, is, 
therefore, extremely difficult, 
outside of indicating, in the 
most general way, the kind of 
photography that is used for 
the outstanding types of mo- 
tion picture direction. 

The cinematographer who 
has a theme of rousing action 



with which to work. — costume 
stuff, with plenty of sword- 
play and back grounds of cas- 
tles, and the like — possesses 
the opportunity to blossom 
forth with the kind of motion 
photography which, if prop- 
erly done, must command the 
attention of even the casual 
layman. He has, it has been 
said aptly, a "photographic 
picture" to work with. He is 
enabled to conjure results 
which are as spectacular in 
their own way as are the di- 
rection and action which they 
help so much in "putting 
across." 

On the other extreme, we 
encounter comedy cinematog- 
raphy, replete with "special 
effects," necessary in aiding 
and abetting the spontaneous 
registering of the endless 
array of "gags" on which the 
average short comedy thrives. 
Strangely enough, this 
branch of cinematography 
has proved the training 
ground for cinematographers 
who have later been retained 
to utilize their knowledge in 
putting the intricate action of 
some of the greatest dramatic 
productions on the screen — as 
witness Fred W. Jackman, 
who, though now a director 
and a member of the Motion 
Picture Directors Associa- 
tion, is still acclaimed for his 
mastery of "trick" cinematog- 
raphy and who has continued 
to be an active member of the 
American Society of Cinema- 
tographers. The work of the 
comedy cinematographer, in 
short, is such that it, too, 
stands out for recognition to 
all those who view motion 
pictures. 



Between the foregoing t\\ 



*o 



extremes then, there lies a 



A. S. C. Member Writes 
Story Relative to Famous 
Director-Camera Team 

field of cinematography 
wherein the highest compli- 
ment that could be paid to 
the cinematographers, who 
are giving forth their efforts 
in it, is that their work, in a 
given production, is scarcely 
"noticeable." By that is not 
meant that the cinematog- 
raphy fulfills its mission in 
such instances by being in- 
ferior or merely passable — by 
no means; it must, on the 
other hand, be just as con- 
ducive of attaining the end of 
action and story that the di- 
rector has in view. 

The writer knows of no bet- 
ter means whereby to identify 
this sort of cinematography 
than by referring to the pro- 
ductions of William deMille, 
with whom, if the personal 
mention may be pardoned, he 
has been associated for the 
past six years during which 
time he has been chief cine- 
matographer on the twenty- 
five productions which Mr. 
deMille has produced for 
Famous Players-Lasky. 

As is readily recognized, 
Mr. deMille's productions 
have not been of the swash- 
buckling action sort; nor have 
they been, on the other hand, 
of the strictly comedy type. 
Hence there was no call for 
the two extreme "types" of 
cinematography as have been 
heretofore mentioned. Far 
from it — this director's touch 
required a treatment all of its 
own, and it was in this direc- 
tion that the writer immedi- 
ately bent his efforts as soon 
as he became associated with 
Mr. deMille. 

For the purposes of this ar- 
ticle, Mr. deMille might be 
referred to as a "psycholog- 

(Continued on Page 18) 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINE M AT OGR APHER 



February, 1926 



Braues Turbulent IDaues for South Sea Film 



Fischbetk Conquers Moun- 
tainous Surf Cinemato- 
graphically in Porto Rico 



% 



A. S. C. Member Narrowly 
Escapes Deatb while on 
Treacherous Water Location 




By raft and boat, Harry Fischbeck, A. S. C, took his camera into the swirling surf at Porto Rico for the 
filming of Paramount' s Aloma of the South Seas" starring Gilda Gray, and had his daring rewarded by being 
almost drowned by the dashing waves. Once a gigantic wave caught htm and threw him far from the shore, 
and he was slowly floundering in the undertow when a native stammer reached him in the nick of time. 

Above: In toiu to photograph a sail — no studio lank this'. Lohuer left: Launching to gel a 
close-up of the breakers and rocks. Harry Fischbeck, A. S. C, I loiver right) is at the camera. 

The rocks in the background are 55 feet high, 'while the ivaves break still higher. From the perspective oj the camera, 
Fischbeck had to look on a 65 degree angle to see the top of the waves -which came 200 feet above the rocks. 





February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Nine 



Urge Credit in 
Theatre Programs 



^9 



Story in Exhibitors Her- 
ald Suggests Cure wben 

Credit Titles Eliminated 



Recognition for the cinematographer is 
a subject which has long commanded the 
attention of those in the cinematographic- 
branch of the film industry. 

Through the continued efforts of the 
American Society of Cinematographers and 
the co-operation of the part of the important 
producers, screen credit, on major produc- 
tions, has become the rule rather than the ex- 
ception. The line, photographed by " 

-, A. S. C," has become an integral 



part of the credit titles of innumerable pro- 
ducing organizations. 

Now that the cinematographer has 
achieved recognition, to such a large degree, 
from the producer, it has come to pass that 
the credit for which he has striven so ardu- 
ously is in serious danger of being obliterated 
insofar as the ultimate theatre-going public is 
concerned. Reports from widely diverse 
parts of the country carry the information 
that many of the influential exhibitors are en- 
gaging in the practice of cutting credit titles 
from the prints which they exhibit. While 
in some instances the responsibility of the ex- 
hibitor in the situation is denied, in other cases 
the argument is advanced, as an extenuating 
circumstance, that this gross elimination of 
the credits is essential in order to meet time 
requirements in programs. 

Deleted Captions Lost 

The most serious aspect of the entire 
affair is the fact that once the credit titles have 
been taken out at the larger houses they sel- 
dom if ever find their way back into the print 
before it is assigned to the hundreds of smaller 
houses. The result is that the photographic 
"by-lines" of the cinematographers, as well as 
other deserving film artists, are precluded 
fr)om being presented to the millions of pa- 
trons who make up the theatre audiences 
throughout the world. 

Aside from the fact that the few seconds 
required to project the ordinary credit title 
renders almost absurd the claims as to the time 
saved by cutting such, the cinematographer 
and his co-artists feel as justified in having 
their work carry their "by-lines" as do the 
author and the magazine illustrator — and so 
on down the line. 



Damage May Be Permanent 

While the present may be an unripened 
perspective from which to hazard a prognos- 
tication, it might well be imagined that some 
of the cinematographic efforts might be, a 
few generations hence, masterpieces to the 
cinema world, just as the works of the old 
masters are to painting. What a pity it would 
be to have such moving pictures unsigned — 
which the indiscriminate hacking of credit 
titles could make possible. 

It has been suggested that if the exhibitor 
finds the credits missing from his print, he 
may insert the properly accredited names in 
his program. If such names are not forthcom- 
ing from the exchange, a letter sent to the 
American Society of Cinematographers, Hol- 
lywood, if the exhibitor knows the dates of 
his bookings sufficiently in advance, will elicit 
the desired information. 



A. S. C. Members Purchasers of 

Iris Made by Fred Hoefner 

Park Ries and King Gray, both mem- 
bers of the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers, and Walter J. van Rossem are re- 
cent purchasers of the Hoefner iris, which is 
manufactured by Fred Hoefner in Holly- 
wood. 

Hoefner also maintains a machine shop, 
specializing in expert and precision me- 
chanics for camera work. 



American Society of 
Cinematographers 

BALL 

Hotel Biltmore 

Los Angeles 

SATURDAY 
February 20, 19X6 



Ten AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER February, 1926 



The EDITORS 9 LENS > focused by foster goss 



A Revo national Instrument 

f| Students of events in the photographic world believe that they 
see indications of the history of the "kodak" repeating itself with 
the influx of amateur motion picture outfits to the film marts of 
America. The original amateur still camera was something of a 
curiosity, but once the good citizens awoke to the fact that they 
could take their own pictures with a simplicity that they had never 
imagined, the American family album had to throw off its plush 
cover, pitch out its trick music machine, and substitute therefor 
an abundance of loose leaves to make room for each week-end's 
supply of prints. Making one's own pictures has become institu- 
tional — as institutional, in fact, as it is to visit the rrrotion picture 
theatre. 

•J The general popularity of the motion picture, the thoroughness 
of the basic and revolutionary science of cinematography, could but 
pave the way to the time when moving picture's would come into 
extensive personal use, in any amateur way, among the public at 
large. The American likes to have his picture taken as well as to 
look at pictures. The naturalness of the motion picture's portrayals 
makes it ideal for the informal picture-taking of the American fam- 
ily. It was only necessary to remove the recording of cinematog- 
raphy to a basis where it could be indulged in conveniently, inex- 
pensively and with a minimum of bother, before an era of wide- 
spread amateur motion photography would set in. 

Cf The beginning of that era is at hand. The products, which reliable 
manufacturers are placing in the field of amateur cinematography, 
are making possible a universal usage of the motion picture. Truly, 
it is the history of the "kodak" repeating itself. With volume pro- 
duction and marketing of the small, simplified cinematographic 
sets, moving pictures are being put within the reach of those who 
never before believed that such could be made available to them 
without an enormous outlay for professional equipment. The transi- 
tion from a rich man's hobby to a poor man's pastime has set in. 



February, 1D2G 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHBR 



Eleven 



i With these developments in the air, this publication has decided, 
as is announced elsewhere in this issue, to devote a department to 
amateur cinematography, with liberal attention being paid to legiti- 
mate questions and answers. It is hoped in this way to contribute 
materially to the progress of amateur cinematography, which prom- 
ises a verv full future indeed. 



CThe Projector Consolidation 

CflThe consolidation of the manufacturers of the Powers, Simplex 
and Acme projectors is being looked on generally as a move which 
should prove ultimately of great advantage to the motion picture 
industry as a whole. Reduction of overhead, the combining of facil- 
ities under one centralized head, and the aggregate experience of 
the respective organizations are viewed as making for a body of 
workers who will maintain, in the greatest way, high projector man- 
ufacturing standards. 

CJ The consolidation will be known as the International Projector 
Corporation, which will have headquarters in a ten-story build- 
ing at 90 Gold street, New York City. The companies, which 
were merged in the new corporate identity, include the Nicholas 
Power Company, the Precision Machine Company of New York 
and the Acme Motion Picture Projector Company of Chicago. 



Twelve 



A M NIIICAN CINEMATOORAPHER 



February, ifl2tl 



JL S. C. Ball to Be ^ 

Brilliant Film Event 



Occasion to Be Most Ex- 
clusive Formal Function 
in Motion Picture Annals 




View of the Biltmore Ba!ln 



Preparations for the motion picture ball 
to be staged by the American Society of Cine- 
matographers at the Hotel Biltmore, Los An- 
geles, on Saturday night, February 20, give 
every indication that the affair will be the 
most elaborate in the history of the A. S. C. 

In the past the A. S. C. balls came to be 
recognized as the most exclusive staged in the 
capital of motion pictures, and the forthcom- 
ing affair, it is stated, will transcend even its 
predecessors in brilliance. The occasion will 
limit attendance to members of the motion- 
picture profession. 

Special Features 

Arthur Edeson, chairman of the enter- 
tainment committee, is arranging for a num- 
ber of surprise presentations which are 
planned to outshine even the spectacular num- 
bers which the Society has presented at sim- 
ilar affairs in the past. Affairs of the ball are 
being conducted by Homer Scott, president 
of the A. S. C, as chairman of the ball com- 
mittee, Fred W. Jackman, treasurer of the 
ball committee, and Richard Connor, spe- 
cially engaged to conduct the direct manage- 
ment of the event. 



Boxes 

Reservations are already being made for 
boxes in the Biltmore ballroom which con- 
tains 13 boxes, which will seat 6 people; 2 
boxes which will seat 12, and 2 which will 
seat between 16 and 18 individuals. 

Tickets for the affair have already been 
placed on sale and may be secured through 
A. S. C. members or at the A. S. C. offices, 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty building, Holly- 
wood. 

Only a few days remain for the reserva- 
tion of advertising space in the souvenir pro- 
gram which will be presented to every per- 
son attending the ball. The program will 
carry a diversified array of advertising ma- 
terial; it is not being limited to professional 
advertising, but includes the messages of spe- 
cialty shops, mercantile and other establish- 
ments. 

The physical appearance of the program 
will represent a distinct achievement in the art 
of typography, to be printed on the finest 
grade of stock and a rich, gold-embossed 
cover. 

Dance music for the ball will be fur- 
nished by one of the most prominent orches- 
tras in California, jt is announced. 






February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



Thirteen 



RELEASES 

December 7, 1925, to January 17, 1926 



TITLE 

The Splendid Road 

Seven Sinners 

What Happened to Jones 

Cobra 

Sally, Irene and Mary 

The People vs. Nancy Preston 

A Broadway Lady 

We Moderns 

Skinner's Dress Suit 

The Golden Strain 

Joanna 

Time, the Comedian 

The Man from Red Gulch 

The Golden Cocoon 

The Lawful Cheater 

The Splendid Crime 

The Cowboy Musketeer 

Tonio, Son of the Sierras 

The Midnight Limited 

The Perfect Clown 

Tumbleweeds 

The Wedding Song 

His Secretary 

A Woman of the World 

Madame Behave 

A Desperate Moment 

When Husbands Flirt 

The Unchastened Woman 

A Kiss for Cinderella 

Sweet Adeline 

Bluebeard's Seven Wives 

Steel Preferred 

The First Year 

Soul Mates 

That Old Gang of Mine 

Infatuation 

Blue Blazes 

Stop, Look and Listen 

The Ancient Mariner 

Enemy of Men 

The Midnight Flyer 

The Still Alarm 

The Enchanted Hill 

That Royle Girl 

Braveheart 

The Palace of Pleasure 

Mike 

My Ladys of Whims 

Fighting Fate 

Mannequin 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY 



C. 



Norbert Brodin, member A. S. 

David Abel, member A. S. C. 

Arthur Todd 

J. D. Jennings, member A. S. C. 

John Arnold, member A. S. C. 

Sol Polito, member A. S. C. 

Not credited 

T. D. McCord, member A. S. C. 

Arthur Todd 

George Schneiderman, member 

A. S. C. 
Robert B. Kurrle, member A. S. C 
Oliver Marsh 

Georges Benoit, member A. S. C. 
Byron Haskins 
Not credited 

L. Guy Wilky, member A. S. C. 
John Leezer 

Alfred Gosden and Jack Johnson 
Ernest Smith 

H. F. Koenekamp, member A. S. C 
John Stumar, member A. S. C. 
Not credited 
Ben Reynolds 

Bert Glennon, member A. S. C. 
Gus Peterson 
Roland Price 

Sam Landers, member A. S. C. 
Wm. O'Connell 
J. Roy Hunt 
Philip Tanura 

Ernest Haller, member A. S. C. 
J. D. Jennings, member A. S. C. 
Chester Lyons 
Oliver Marsh 
Not credited 
Hal Rosson 
Jack Young 

H. F. Koenekamp, member 
Joseph August 

Frank Good, member A. S. C. 
Harry Perry, member A. S. C. 
John Stumar, member A. S. C. 
Alfred Gilks, member A. S. C. 
Harry Fischbeck, member A. S. 
Faxon Dean, member A. S. C. 
Ernest Palmer, member A. S. C 
David Kesson 
Jack Young 
H. Lyman Broening, member 

A. S. C. 
Karl Brown 



A. S. C. 



Fourteen AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER February, 1926 



This booklet yours for the asking 

"Eastman Panchromatic 

Negative Film for 

Motion Pictures" 



An interesting, practical booklet on the 
properties and uses of Eastman Panchromatic 
Film. Contains the information directors and 
cinematographers have been looking for. 

Write for a copy. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER. NEW YORK 



February, 192C 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Kil'lceii 








Max Dupont, A. S. C, photographed 

the Universal production, "His People," 
which, directed by Edward Sloman, is be- 
ing accorded the praises of the critics. 

* * * * 

James C. Van Trees, A. S. C, is filming 
"The Prince of Pilsen" at the Metropolitan 
studios. The cast includes Anita Stewart, 
George Sidney and Allen Forrest. 

Norbert Brodin, A. S. C, has completed 
photographing "Paris at M i d n i g h t," a 
Frances Marion production directed by E. 
Mason Hopper at the Metropolitan studios. 
Brodin is now ready for duty on the next pro- 
duction to be directed by Frank Lloyd, the 
latter having recently returned from his trip 

to the Orient. 

* * * * 

H. Lyman Broening, A. S. C, has been 
on location in San Francisco for several days, 
photographing for Warner Bros. 

* * * * 

Faxon Dean, A. S. C, is being congratu- 
lated on the cinematography in "Braveheart," 
the Cecil B. DeMille production directed by 
Alan Hale. Rod La Rocque starred before 

Dean's camera. 

* * * * 

J. D. Jennings, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing the latest Buster Keaton feature. 

* *- * *■ 

Bert Glennon, A. S. C, is back in Hol- 
lywood from a week's stay in Truckee, Calif., 
where he went on location for snow scenes 
in the latest Paramount production starring 

Pola Negri. 

* * * * 

Len H. Roos, A. S. C, who recently re- 
turned from an extended cinematographic 
trip to Australia and New Zealand, has joined 
the Alexander Film Company, Denver, Colo., 
as chief cinematographer. 
* * *• # 

Arthur Edeson, A. S. C, is still engrossed 
in filming the mysteries of "The Bat," which 
Roland West is directing for United Artists 
release. 



Henry Sharp, A. S. C, has completed 
the cinematographv on Douglas Fairbanks' 
"The Black Pirate." 

* * * * 

Harry A. Fischbeck, A. S. C, has fin- 
ished photographing "Aloma of the South 
Seas," starring Gilda Gray, at the Paramount 
eastern studios. Fischbeck is making prepar- 
ations for the filming of "Sorrows of Satan," 
the next production to be directed by D. W. 
Griffith, for whom the A. S. C. member is 
chief cinematographer. 

Dan Clark, A. S. C, has returned to Hol- 
lywood from a location trip for the photo- 
graphing of the latest Tom Mix production 
for Fox. 

■Sfc % ^ %r 

Victor Milner, A. S. C, is filming the 
current William Wellman production for Fa- 
mous Players-Lasky. 

* * * * 

Frank B. Good, A. S. C, has completed 
photographing "The Gilded Butterfly," a 
current Fox special production. He is now 
filming "The Dixie Merchant," a Fox fea- 
ture directed by Frank Borage. 

* * * * 

Jay Turner, A. S. C, is photographing 
the Fox production, "From the Cabby's Seat," 
one of the series of vehicles based on the O. 

Henry stories. 

* * # * 

Ernest Palmer, A. S. C, is filming 
"Dangers of a Great City," a Fox production 
directed by Chester Bennett. 

* * * * 

Frank Cotner, A. S. C, is shooting 
"Without Orders," a Malaford production 
starring Leo Maloney. 

* * -s? * 

Georges Benoit, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing "Forbidden Waters," a Metropolitan 
production starring Priscilla Dean. 

* * * * 

Charles G. Clarke, A. S. C, is filming 
"Whispering Smith," George Melford's lat- 
est production for Metropolitan. 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



February, 1926 



Marshall Re-joins Paramount; 
Abel Signs New Warner Contract 

William Marshall, A. S. C, has re- 
joined the cinematographic staff of the Fa- 
mous Players-Lasky Studios in Hollywood, 
where he photographed numerous of the out- 
standing hits released under the Paramount 
banner several years ago. Marshall will film 
the next production starring Raymond Grif- 
fith ; Art Rosson will direct. 

Marshall was long identified with 
George Melford productions for Paramount 
and filmed such features as "Moran of the 
Lady Letty," with Dorothy Dalton and Ru- 
dolph Valentino; and "The Sheik," which 
signalized the popular designation of Valen- 
tino as "the sheik." Among the other Para- 
mount vehicles photographed by Marshall 
were "The Great Impersonation," with James 
Kirkwood; "Our Leading Citizen" and 
"The Proxy Daddy" with Thomas Meighan, 
and "The Ghost Breaker." 

Abel Signs 

David Abel, A. S. C., has signed another 
contract for a period of one year. Abel has 
just returned from New York City and Mon- 
treal, Canada, having been absent for ten 
weeks on a combined business and pleasure 
trip. 

Abel has been responsible for the cine- 
matography on numerous of the most notable 
Warner Bros, productions, including "Beau 
Brummel," "Babbitt," "The Lover of Ca- 
mille," "The Dark Swan," "A Lost Lady," 
"Recompense," "The Man Without a Con- 
science," "How Baxter Butted In," "Com- 
promise," "Rose of the World" and "Seven 
Sinners." 



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February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOG RAPHE R 



Seventeen 













^ e ' FlC C °TY CALIFO"" 1 



unW 



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September X. 

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cameras P ft ur past V "VJestern 3 



y^lVE^SAL 



Eighteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



February, L926 



y 



%, 



y 



"%\ 




A CLOSE UP 

OF A 

TEMPERAMENTAL ACTRESS 

MADE WITH A 

Universal Motion Picture 
Camera 

Motion picture of a humming bird in flight. Taken at a distance of 18 
inches, and the bird held within this extremely small field for a full minute 
period. The bird is so large on the screen that it is easy to determine the 
exact manner in which the feet are carried in flight; a fact heretofore not 
definitely known. 

Photographed and Produced by T. Walter Weiseman 
of "Bird Manor" 

THIS ILLUSTRATES ONE USE OF A UNIVERSAL CAMERA. 

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r Continued from Page 7 ) 

ical" director. His action is 
not expressed via the medium 
of violent action. If the key- 
note may be struck at all, his 
story is told by suggestion — 
subtly, as the critics seem to 
agree. Now, then, if Mr. 
deMille's direction is subtle, 
his cinematography must be 
all that, and more. Above all, 
it must be unobtrusive. The 
bold, hard effects cannot be 
gone into. They might jar 
with the story, rather than 
working along with it. That 
is the point that the writer 
reasoned out at the beginning 
of his association with Mr. 
deMille; the diagnosis 
prbved correct and is only 
more emphasized at each 
script reading which Mr. 
deMille holds with all the 
members of his cast and staff 
at the beginning of each pro- 
duction, at which time he tells 



the story of the picture in his 
own words with recommenda- 
tions to the cinematographer 
as to "key" in which the cine- 
matography is to be struck. 

It must be admitted that 
there is no hard and fast cine- 
matographic rule for direc- 
tion such as Mr. deMille's. 
As had been said heretofore, 
this matter of motion photog- 
raphy is difficult of standard- 
ization. Then how, it may 
be well asked, may Mr. 
deMille's direction be exem- 
plified in cinematography, if 
that direction is recognized 
as being distinctive in its own 
right? TV) such a query it 
must be answered, that the 
cinematographer who would 
be successful in the portrayal 
of direction such as that of 
Mr. deMille must, basically, 
view the entire production 
exactly from the perspective 
of the director himself. He 



must put himself "in the di- 
rector's shoes." His" view- 
point is that of the cinema- 
tographer, to be sure; but not 
exclusively so. He m u s t, 
briefly, look at the matter 
from a dual promontory — 
from that of the director and 
the cinematographer both. 
If he can put on the celluloid 
what the director has in mind, 
then he is successful ; other- 
wise he isn't. If he thinks 
exclusively cinematographic, 
then there is apt to result that 
"jarring" which Mr. deMille 
has so endeavored to avoid in 
his productions. 

If the writer were able to 
suggest a formula — what kind 
of light to use and where to 
place it, what sort of lens to 
use and how to expose it, and 
so on — he would only be es- 
tablishing an equation, the 
correct answer of which 
would be that after all cine- 



February, 1926 



AMERICAN CI NE M AT O GR APHER 



Nineteen 



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matography is standard. 
However, it isn't. Therefore, 
knowing what the deMille 
"idea" is, the cinematog- 
rapher must literally sense the 
best manner in which to han- 
dle the photographing of any 
one given scene. Mind you, 
it is not said that he gropes 
about wildly for ideas. If 
artists have souls and if cine- 
matographers are artists, then 
it might be ventured that the 
camera artist's soul is suscep- 
tible to inspiration when he 
endeavors to crystalize some 
scene in this subtle kind of di- 
rection. But behind that in- 
spiration there must be thor- 
ough and basic knowledge, 
not only of the fundamentals 
of cinematography but of the 
working methods of the direc- 
tor whose "style" is univers- 
ally heralded wherever mo- 
tion pictures are shown. 
For i n s t a n c e, in Mr. 



deMille's "G rump y," the 
theme revolved about Theo- 
dore Roberts in the role of a 
grandfather. There was a 
great deal of grouchiness 
about the characterization, 
although it radiated its share 
of humor in the aggregate. 
The cinematography for this 
production may be said to 
follow the lines of something 
definite and sharp, to use a 
technical designation. It is 
severe and conventional, 
whereas that of "Midsummer 
Madness," a production made 
by Mr. deMille some six 
years ago, struck the chord of 
softness, of moonlight, and of 
the romance of youth. That 
of "Only .IS," while it had to 
fit in with a decided love 
theme, called for something 
less vague and more mature. 
The lighting and the expos- 
ures had Jo be conducive of 
something more substantial, 
more sophisticated. Then we 



come to "The Fast Set." The 
cinematography properly was 
light and airy — "fast," as it 
were. There could be no 
sombreness about it, such as 
in the stark "Grumpy" and, 
more recently, "The Splendid 
Crime," just completed. The 
latter production called for 
an atmosphere that is gloomy, 
with long shadows and thin 
rays of light. There is much 
action in semi-darkness. 
There is the extinguishing of 
all lights but that coming 
from the lamp on a table in 
the center part of a room; 
then that too is put out with 
a resulting darkness that is to 
be pierced by a flashlight. 
And sio it is that we arrive 
at a treatment in cinematog- 
raphy that represents the 
other extreme from some- 
thing breezy and rollicking 
as that in Barrie's "What 
Every Woman Knows" which 
Mr. deMille produced. 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINBM ATOGRAPHER 



February, 1926 



Harry D. Brown Introduces 

New Iris for Cinema Work 




By special arrangement with C. S. 
Worth, Harry D. Brown has become sole dis- 
tributor of a new iris device for motion pic- 
ture cameras. This invention is principally a 
shading and matting device and is announced 
to be quite an improvement over the original 
iris. 

It is already in use and it is claimed that 
it gives a picture greater volume and depth. 
It can be attached to any type camera and 
contains a matting device in the form of 
slides which come in gauze and solids, which 
are already within the attachment, leaving 
no separate pieces to be carried. 

To facilitate rapid handling of double 
exposures the whole device is built to move 
universally and can be used for any lens from 
26 millimeters to 6 inches. It has a bellows 
extension, filter holders, sky filter, gauze mat- 
box, four-way sliding gauzes and four-way 
solid matting plates. The iris is 4j/> inches 
in diameter and clears perfectly on 28 milli- 
meter lens, closing out entirely. 

The theory of the new iris is that light 
rays do not travel in a straight line, but have 
a rolling motion from sides and bottom, there- 
fore making necessary a shading device that 
would reach a greater depth of picture and 
so concentrate the light rays. This is accom- 
plished with a specially constructed hood 
with numerous light traps and which is re- 
movable from the instrument. 



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1636 Lemoyne St. DUnkirk 4975 Los Angeles, Cal. 



February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-one 



New Hollywood Studio Club 

Soon Ready for Occupancy 

The Hollywood Studio Club tor girls which is being 
erected by the National Board of the Y. W. C. A., at 
the corner of Lodi Place and Lexington Avenue, is near- 
ing completion and will be read}' for occupancy late in 
February. 

Girls and women of the motion picture industry 
are watching its progress with interest — as a club house 
and centre of activities as well as a residence for the 
eighty girls who will live there. 

A central patio, a large studio for dancing or 
amateur theatrical performances, writing, make-up and 
rest rooms are some of the features which will serve all 
members of the club. 

Membership plans will be worked out early in 1926 
and an opportunity will be given for all girls and women 
who are interested in its purpose and affiliated with the 
picture industry, to become members. The opening date 
will be announced later. 

Miss Julia Morgan, the architect, met with the 
committee last week at the home of Mrs. Cecil B. 
de Mille, and plans for furnishing and equipment were 
discussed. The entire cost of the building and lot have 
been met by funds raised by a building campaign con- 
ducted in 1923 to which most of the motion picture 
corporations and more than 2000 people contributed, 
together with the profit realized from the sale of the old 
property on Carlos Avenue. 

The furnishing and equipment will cost $25,000 
more and the committee has just sent out an appeal for 
contributions to this fund. They have suggested that 
gifts be made personal by designating what items of furni- 
ture and equipment they are to cover and have submitted 
this partial list of items with their estimated cost : 

Furnishing one of the 50 single bedrooms ..$ 150.00 

Furnishing one of the 20 double bedrooms 200.00 

China and glass 500.00 

Dishwashing machine 500.00 

Linen 1,000.00 

Electric light fixtures 1,000.00 

Office furniture and equipment 600.00 

Garden 500.00 

Dining room furniture and draperies 1,500.00 

Estimates have not yet been made on other articles 
needed, including piano, and projector. 

Among those who have already responded are the 
Feagans Co., Mar)' Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, 
Florence Vidor, Mr. and Mrs. Lucien Littlefield. A 
fund of $3,000 was raised some time ago by girls who 
lived at the old club and the decision as to how it is to 
be used will be left to their committee. 



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"under the Coops." 

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And that's what we are here for. 

No need to worry about anything with 
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Wire, write or phone! 



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Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHBR 



February, 1926 



Reginald Lyons, A. S. C, Hurt; 

Thrown From Trailer in Crash 

Reginald Lyons, A. S. C, sustained pain- 
ful injuries last month when, during the 
filming of Buck. Jones' "The Fighting Buck- 
aroo" for Fox, he was thrown from a camera 
trailer which was traveling at the rate of 40 
miles per hour. The accident occurred on 
Hollywood Boulevard near St. Andrews 
Place, Hollywood. 

Lyons suffered a broken nose, severe 
body bruises, a sprained wrist and lacerated 
knees and limbs. He was confined in bed at 
home for a week, but is now back at his post 
as chief cinematographer on Buck Jones fea- 
tures. 

Lyons was precipitated to the street when 
the wheels of the trailer, which was being 
pulled by an automobile, caught in the street 
car tracks, the back wheels of the vehicle 
passing over the A. S. C. member's body. 
The camera and lenses which Lyons was op- 
erating were practically a total wreck. 

New Photographic Firms Starts 

Business in Hollywood Field 

William Thornley and Tony Korn- 
mann, well known in Hollywood photo- 
graphic circles, have opened a portrait, mo- 
ton picture and commercial studio at 5422 
Santa Monica Boulebard, Hollywood. 

They will engage in the various phases 
of photographic and cinematographic work, 
with special attention to developing, printing, 
enlarging and copying. In addition, they will 
carry motion picture and still cameras for 
rental purposes. 

John W. Boyle, A. S. C.,.is photograph- 
ing "The Second Chance," a First National 

feature directed by Lambert Hillyer. 
* * * # 

Robert Kurrle, A. S. C, is hard at 
work on the cinematography on Edwin 
Carewe's latest production, "Running Wild," 
for First National. 

■M 7i'- 3J& -#- 

Sol Polito, A. S. C, is filming "The 
Frontier Trail," Harry Carey's latest starring 
feature. * * * * 

Harry Perry, A. S. C, is in Arizona 
with Charles Brabin, in search of locations 
for "The Winning of Barbara Worth," a 
Principal Pictures Corp. production. Brabin 
will direct and Perry will be chief cinema- 
tographer. 




ia^l^t^l^l^l^l^t^ll.vS(Jl.vR<JWJWjWJl\^ 



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prominent users of Zeiss Tessars are the 
U. S. Army Air Service, The national 
geographical Society, The American 
Museum of natural History, Famous 
Players and a legion of others. The 
Tessar f4.5 is standard equipment on 
the finest imported cameras. For greater 
rapidity there is the Tessar f3. 5 and the 
'lessor f 2. 7 has recently been introduced. 
For rapid distance -photography the 
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Aprochromatic Tessars enjoy an enuiable 
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February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHHR 



Twenty-three 



(Continued from Page 4) 

"The best of all," Roos continued, "was 
accorded me in Sydney, Australia. I .was 
making a shot in the Domain and took, my 
camera over to the gate to set up away from 
the crowd. A chap on the other side of the 
gate had one of those tin-type, quick-finish 
cameras all ready for business. He watched 
me draw out the tripod legs and then yelled: 
'Kre now, 'op it. I've 'ad this plice for a long 
time and this is my plice. Now 'op it!' Talk 
of American newsboys and how they guard 
their 'corners' — I ' 'opped.' " 

Roos, who is now back in the United 
States with the Alexander Film Company at 
Denver, Colo., recently returned from a trip 
of several months to Australia, New Zealand, 
and lands on the other side of the equator. 



(Continued from Page 5) 



mission, the bill being introduced by a Re- 
publican, naturally being accorded support 
from members of that party. 

Governor Alfred E. Smith named John 
H. Walrath, former Mayor of Syracuse, to 
the New York State Motion Picture Commis- 
sion on Monday night of this week. Mr. 
Walrath will succeed George H. Cobb, of 
Watertown, who has been chairman of the 
commission since it began to function in 
August, 1921. Mr. Cobb will return to his 
home in Watertown and take up the practice 
of law. The position pays $7,500 but there 
is a possibility that the commission will be 
wiped out of existence this year by either 
Governor Smith or the reorganization plans. 

All three heads of the commission are 
now Democratic politicians and leaders in 
their respective cities. Mr. Walrath was for 
many years a leading business man in Syracuse 
and served as Mayor for several terms, being 
defeated last fall. Mrs. Elizabeth' V. Col- 
bert, also one of the heads of the commission, 
is Democratic vice chairman of Albany 
county, while Arthur Levy, secretary of the 
commission is a Democratic politician of 
New York. 

Although Governor Smith has named a 
person to succeed Mr. Cobb, he let it be 
known that he is firmly convinced that cen- 
sorship should go and that he was still stand- 
ing on the same policy of years past in declar- 
ing that motion picture censorship was ab- 
solutely unnecessary. When Mr. Walrath 



Taken in a Pouring Rain 
at Dusk, with 



7 he Ultrastigmat~/i .q 



Gentlemen : 

I enclose some pieces of negative which I took 
in a pouring rain at ten minutes to 6 o'clock on Sep- 
tember 12, the last event of the Rochester Horse 
Show. 

This film was used in International News 
Reel No. 78. 

Without your wonderful Ultrastigmat speed 
lens F:1.9 I believe it would have been impossible 
to get this picture. 

(Signed) CAROL FENYVESSY, 

Motion Pictures — Production and Ex- 
hibition. 

IVr'tte for the Complete Gundlach 
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and Apparatus for Still Photography. 

GUNDLACH-MANHATTAN OPTICAL CO. 

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Twenty-four 



AMERICAN (JliNEMATOG RA P H E R 



February, 1926 



was selected for the position, he was ac- 
quainted with the situation and the possibility 
of the position being little more than a tem- 
porary one. 

The plan as outlined by the leading Re- 
publican majority in the Assembly as well as 
the Senate according to the best authorities 
is that no action will be taken or the Repub- 
lican attitude on censorship will not be known 
until the Charles E. Hughes non-partisan re- 
organization committee files its report with 
the Legislature. 

The proposition is to see what this com- 
mittee decides relative to the consolidation of 
the state departments. It is reported that the 
Hughes committee will not recommend the 
abolition of the commission entirely, but will 
recommend that the functions of the censor 
board be transferred to the State Department 
of Education. 

The report of the New York State Mo- 
tion Picture Commission, just submitted to 
Governor Smith, outlining the work of the 
commission during the last twelve months, 
there were 4,236 eliminations made by the 
commission during the last twelve months, 
these consisting of 3,868 scenes and 368 titles. 
All told the Commission examined 8,949 
reels. Eliminations were made frfc>m 712 
films, while 2,598 films were approved by the 
commission without eliminations. There 
were 592 permits granted without examina- 
tion and 3,310 original licenses issued, while 
duplicates were issued to the extent of 36,039. 

Twelve features were condemned in their 
entirety by the commission. Eliminations 
were made on the following grounds, in some 
cases eliminations being made on more than 
one ground: Indecent, 656; inhuman, 1,438; 
tending to incite to crime, 1,804; tending to 
corrupt morals, 318; sacrilegious, 20. 

Of the eliminations made by the Com- 
mission, 428 came from dramas; 140 fr*om 
comedies; 61 from comedy dramas; 65 from 
serials; two from news reels; two from edu- 
cational; one from cartoons, and 13 from 
miscellaneous. During the year 32 appeals 
from decisions of the Commission were made 
by producers seeking a review by the entire 
commission. 

The report of the commission to the Gov- 
ernor stresses the fact that it is a revenue- 
producing body and calls attention to the fact 
that during the period of its existence from 
August, 1921, to January 1, last, the receipts 
of the censoring body amounted to $853,- 




0^t^ecf/ 



The Bausch & Lomb Ultra 
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Neiu York San Francisco Washington Chicago 
Boston Rochester. N. Y. London 



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(Note: Camera Craft will be sent for a slight addi- 
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February, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-five 



986.85 and that its running expenses over the 
same period amounted to $373,927.97, leaving 
a profit to the state of $480,058.88. During 
the past year receipts amounted to $197,- 
049.34, the largest in the history of the com- 
mission, but its operating expenses of $89,- 
956.33 were also the largest. 

In connection with the Commission's re- 
port, a portion is devoted to the aid that has 
been given the commission by state troopers 
who visit the theaters in the smaller communi- 
ties and who report directly back to their 
head, on any violations of the law. The same 
recommendations were made by the Commis- 
sion as a year ago, which include one giving 
the Commission power to stop the showing 
of pictures in which criminals or persons of a 
debased character appear. 

The Commission also calls attention to a 
question as to the power of municipalties to 
prevent the exhibition of films that have been 
licensed by the state. It appears that there 
have been one or two complaints of this sort 
coming fdom the municipality which has a 
censoring board of its own, and where per- 
sons in charge insist that different eliminations 
be made from the picture other than deemed 
necessary by the Commission. 

According to the Commission pictures 
have shown great improvement since the cen- 
sorship became effective in New York State, 
the report closing with a declaration to the 
effect that on account of the millions invested 
in motion picture theaters, that there is even 
greater need of censorship and clean, whole- 
some pictures than ever before, not only to 
protect the public, but also to protect those 
whose fortunes are invested in the theaters. 



(Continued from Page 5) 



Shipyard, Philadelphia. She will be 
launched this Coming spring and will be 
placed in service on the San Francisco-Hono- 
lulu run in the spring of 1927. 

Both of the motion picture projection 
quarters will be provided with electrically 
driven exhaust blowers, doors, and other 
equipment to meet the requirements of the 
National Board of Fire Underwriters. The 
lounge projection quarters will be a built-in 
steel structure lined with magnesia and gal- 
vanized sheet iron. The screen will be de- 
signed to roll up and lie concealed within a 
false beam aft of the fireplace. 



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ILEX OPTICAL COMPANY 

Manufacturers of 
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Rochester, New York 



Twenty-six AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER February, 1926 



Filmdoins Most Exclusive FunSiion-— 



American Society of 
Cinematographers 

BALL 



Hotel Biltmore Ballroom 
Los Angeles, California 
SATURDAY NIGHT 

February 20th, 19 2 6 

FORMAL 



Tickets, Ten Dollars Reservations for Hoxes 

Per Couple Now Being Made 

Q| Tickets may be obtained from A. S. C. Members or 
at headquarters of American Society of 
Cinematographers, 1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, 
Holly wood 



HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Sociehj of CinematoqrapKers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Homer A. Scott President 

Victor Milner First Vice-President 

Daniel B. Clark Second Vice-President 

L. Guy Wilky Third Vice-President 

Bert Glennon Treasurer 

John W. Boyle Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Bert Glennon Gilbert Warrenton Daniel B. Clark 

Victor Milner George Schneiderman Charles J. Van Enger 

John W. Boyle Homer A. Scott Norbert F. Brodin 

H. Lyman Broening L. Guy Wilky Paul P. Perry 

Henry Sharp Fred W. Jackman Alfred Gilks 

Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. Landers, Sam — with Waldorf Studios. 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture Corp. Lockwood, J. R. — 

Lundin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropoli- 
Barnes, George S.— Samuel Goldwyn, United studios. tan Studios. 

Beckway, Wm. — Lyons, Reginald — with Buck Jones, Fox Studio. 
Benolt, Georges — with Metropolitan Studios. 

Boyle, John W. — with First National Productions, United Marshall, Wm. — 

Studios. McCoid, T. D. — with First National. United Studios. 

Brodin, Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions, First National. McGill, Barney — 

United Studios. MacLean, Kenneth G. — with Warner Bros. 

Broening, H. Lyman — Meehan, George — 

Brotherton, Joseph — Milner, Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan, Ira H. — with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan. Metro- 
Olark. Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studio. Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Clarke, Chas. G. — with George Melford. Metropolitan Studios. 

Oowllng. Herford T. — 29 So. La Salle St.. Chicago. 111. Norton, Stephen S. — F. B. O. Studios. 
Cotner. Frank M. — with Goodwill Picture Corp. 

Crockett, Ernest — with Mack Sennett Studios. Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio 

Cronjager, Henry — with Famous Players-Lasky. New York Perry, Hairy — with Chas. Brabin, Principal Pictures Corp. 

City. Perry, Paul P. — with Universal. 

Polito. Sol — with Harry Carey. Hunt Stromberg Productions, 
Dean. Faxon M. — 

Doran. Robert V.— Ries Park j_ 

Dored. John— Riga, Latvia. Roos, Len H. — with Alexander Film Co.. Englewood, Denver, 
DuPont, Max B. — Colo 

DuPar. E. B.— with Warner Bros. Rose Jac kson J —with Universal. 

Dubray, Joseph A. — Rosher, Charles — with Mae Murray, "Ufa," Berlin. 

Edeson, Arthur— with Roland West. United Studios. Schneiderman. George— with Fox Studio. 

Evans, Perry— Scott H omer A.— 

Fildew Wm Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram. Europe. 

Fischbeck. Harry A.— with D. W. Griffith. Famous Players Sharp, Henry— with Douglas Fairbanks. Pickford-Fairbanks 

Lasky, New York City. , Studio. 

Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson. F. B. O. Studios. Short, Don 

Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Steene, E. Burton — 

Gilks, Alfred — with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Glennon. Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar. John — with Universal. 

Good, Frank B. — with Fox Studios. 

Gray, King D. — Tolhurst. Louis H. — "Secrets of Life," Microscopic Pictures, 

Griffin, Walter L. — Principal Pictures Corporation. 

Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 

Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Haller, Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. 

Heimerl, Alois G.— Van Buren, Ned- 

Van Enger, Charles— with Ernst Lubitsch, Warner Brothers. 

Jackman, Floyd — Fred W. Jackman Prods. Van Trees. James C. — with Metropolitan Studios. 

Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. 

Jennings. J. D. — with Metropolitan Studios. Warrenton. Gilbert — with Emory Johnson. F. IS. O. Studios. 

Wenstrom, Harold — 

Koenekamp, Hans F. — with Larry Semon. Whitman, Philip H. — with Mack Sennett Studios. Scenario 

Kull. Edward — with Universal. Dept. 

Kurrle. Robert — with Edwin Carewe, United Studios. Wilky, L. Guy — 

Edison, Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb. Arthur C. — Attorney. 



Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



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PROGRESS 



ART 






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Vol. VI, No. 12 

25 Cents A Copy 



March, 1926 




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For More Than a 
Century 




has produced a quality of merchandise which has established 
world standards of satisfaction, and now offers for the ap- 
proval of the discriminating producer and cinematographer, 
a negative and positive motion picture film which sustains the 
high degree of perfection demanded by D u p o n t before the 
placing of any of its products on the market. 

It is only after years of research and experimental work 
that this film is offered to the trade, and the results obtained 
will more than justify its use. 

A trial will convince you of the superiority of D u p o n t. 



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Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Aller, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 
1056 North Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 6669 

Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VI FEBRUARY, 1926 


No. 11 


American 




v^irieiTiciiocjrcip tier 

FOSTER Goss. Editor and Business Manager 




Contents : 




«&> 




• 


Pane 


Amateur Cinematography 


4 

.. 5 


Prominent Features ox Compact Cameras.... 


Cowling Films Coronation of Sir Hari Singh 


7 
.. 8 


"Black Light" — By Herbert S. Marshutz, A. B., I). Opt 


Boyle Invents "Close-Up Long-Shot" Device— 




By Maxwell Shane 


.. 9 


Releases 


.... 10 


In Camerafornia 


11 

12 

16 

.. 24 


The Editors' Lens 


A. S. C. Members in New Film Connections 


PROJECTION — Conducted by Earl J. Denison 


A. S. C. Roster. 


An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photi 


>graphy. 


Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ('IN EM APOGRAPH KRS, 


Inc. 


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Advertising ratt-N on application. 




1219-20-21-22 Guarann Building, Hollywood, California. Telephone 


GRanite 4274 


(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 





Pour 



A M K H I C A N CINEMA T OGRAPHER 



March, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 



-S9 



^ 



^ 



(]J ( Questions on amateur cinema- 
tography will be gladly an- 
swered in this department. In- 
quirers should sign all queries 



with correct name and address. 
Only legitimate questions will 
be considered. None ivhich 



tend to jeopardize general mo- 
tion picture production by di- 
vulging trade secrets will re- 
ceive attention.) 



The extremely portable motion 
picture cameras which make it pos- 
sible for the amateur to indulge in 
cinematography open an entirely new 
era of "picture taking." As fascinat- 
ing as it has been, still photography 
of the past has been necessarily lim- 
ited, and, at the best, could offer only 
a fragmentary record of any given 
occasion. 

Complete Record 

With the newly created cameras 
and projectors at the disposal of the 
amateur, a practically complete rec- 
ord, of that which the still camera 
could make only partially permanent, 
is possible. Action pictures are feas- 
ible at last. The fastest of the ama- 
teur still cameras could present only 
one phase of a given "scene," whereas 
the new motion picture cameras per- 
petuate the entire happening. "Nat- 
ural" pictures are to be had for the 
asking. The posing incident to the 
average still shot is not conductive of 
naturalness. 

Amateur "Stills 

However, the amateur still cam- 
eras that have served so faithfully in 
the past need not be put in the dis- 
card because the owner has a new 
motion picture outfit. As in the pro- 
fessional motion picture studios, the 
still outfit should prove as indispens- 
ible as the cinematographic equipment 
itself. No production company would 
think of photographing a picture with- 
out ample provisions for "stills." The 
same should apply to the amateur. 

Freedom of Motion 

The new cinematographic crea- 
tions make it possible for the amateur 
photographer not to be "tied to the 
ground" any more. Too many own- 
ers, in the habit of keeping their sub- 
jects stationary for still pictures, pur- 
sue the same method once they begin 
filming with their cinema outfits. 
This is positively not necessary. They 
are as free, photographically, as the 



Welcomes Idea 



A merican Cinematographer , 
Hollywood, California. 
Gentlemen : 

Enclosed please find check for 
$3.40 for "clubbing offer" of 
A merican Cinematographer and 
Camera Craft. 

I am pleased to note the new 
department on amateur cinema- 
tography as I have always felt 
your magazine could fill a great 
need along this line. 

I am sure both the profes- 
sional and amateur will gain by 
this department. 

Wishing your magazine suc- 
cess, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed H.W. GEORG. 

Herbert Georg Studio, 
514y 2 East Capitol Ave., 
Springfield, 111. 



winds. Put the subjects of the film 
through as much action as they would 
naturally go through. They do not 
have to hold still until the shutter 
clicks. Keep them away from posing 
as much as possible. 

Wealth of Angels 

In amateur still photography, vir- 
tually all pictures have been habitu- 
ally shot "head on" from the front. 
That has been the sole shooting angle. 
The cinema camera releases the ama- 
teur photographer from such stereo- 
typed perspectives. He may shoot 
from the level of the ground, from 
overhead, side, back, etc., and his ac- 
tion will always be on the film. He 
may invade places heretofore thought 
to be inaccessible, photographically, 
and get results. Don't be afraid to 
take the amateur set to the edge of 
a cliff, to an upstairs window or to 



a house- or tree-top to photograph. 
Portability is the keynote of the man- 
ufacturers' plan, and their equipment 
is designed to work from every con- 
ceivable angle. 

Study Perspectives 

Study camera angles. Give thought 
to the position from which the sub- 
jects of the picture can be photo- 
graphed to the best advantage. The 
results will be surprising. Original 
and effective angles are a great factor 
in the success of professional cinema- 
tography. In visiting motion picture 
theatres, give attention to the various 
angles from which the different scenes 
are shot. The amateur cinemato- 
grapher will soon pick up many mute 
suggestions as to how his own efforts 
may be made more forceful. The 
individual will well find amateur 
cinematography as interesting as 
professional film productions them- 
selves ! 



E. I. E. S. Chooses 

New Officers 

At the regular monthly 
meeting of the Electrical Il- 
luminating Engineers on 
Thursday evening, February 
1 1, at the Hollywood Athletic 
Club, the annual election of 
officers took place, naming 
Frank Arrousez as the new 
president succeeding William 
Whisler. 

Harry D. Brown, acting as 
chairman of the nominating 
committee, submitted Arrous- 
ez for president, Herbert Al- 
den for vice president, Ray E. 
Delaney for secretary, and 
Duke Daggy for treasurer, 
which was unanimously 
adopted by the members pres- 
ent. The two latter are re- 
elections having held these of- 
fices during the past term. 



March. 1!)2G 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Five 



Prominent Features 
on Compact Cameras 



cS^p 



Important Facts Concern- 
ing Each Make Presented 
in Answer to Inquiries 





Left: J "lew of Bell and Howell Eyemo' \ 
Above: Interior view of Eastman's Cine-Kodak, 
"Model B". 



For many months past queries have come 
to the AMERICAN CINEMATOGRA- 
PHER from all parts of the world concern- 
ing the features of the various cameras and 
projectors on the market, suitable for the use 
of the amateur or those requiring an ex- 
tremely compact and portable outfit. For the 
benefit of the many inquirers seeking such 
information, there are compiled herewith sali- 
ent details relative to the various instruments: 

Bell and Howell "Filmo" 
The Bell and Howell "Filmo" weighs 
4y 2 pounds. Its size is 3 by 6 by 8 inches. 
The camera is automatic, being set in motion 
by the touch of a button. It will take a single 
picture as well as "moving" pictures. The 
film is 16 mm., of the reversible type. No 
tripod is required with the outfit. The shut- 
ter opening is 216 degrees. All regularly 
mounted standard micrometer Bell and How- 
ell mounts may be used with an adapter. 

Bell and Howell Projector for "Filmo" 

The Bell and Howell projector to exhibit 
film taken with the "Filmo" weighs 9 pounds, 
and may be carried in a case 8 by 11 by 1 1 
inches in size. Four hundred feet of the film 



used requires the same projection time as 1000 
feet of standard film. Universal mounts for 
objective lenses are provided, ranging from 
one and one-half to 4 inches. Pictures may 
be projected to the size of 9 by 7 feet. Con- 
densers are of the piano type. Other details 
include mirror reflector; self-centering lamp 
mounting; 200-watt, 50-volt lamp; two-ounce 
air-cooled rheostat and auto fire shutter. The 
projector runs either forward or backward, or 
may be halted for a single picture without 
danger of warping the film. 

Bell and Howell "Eyemo" 
The Bell and Howell "Eyemo" uses' 
standard motion picture film. The measure- 
ments of the camera are \y 2 by 6 by 8 inches 
and the weight is seven pounds. The 
"Eyemo" is entirely automatic. Power is fur- 
nished by a spring motor, which is rewound 
with a key. To insure an equal and uniform 
exppsure of every frame, a governor controls 
the spring. The motor is controlled by a trig- 
ger. The speed of exposure is adjustable. 
Single pictures may be photographed. No 
tripod is used, but the instrument is held to the 
eye in field-glass fashion. However, a tripod 
may be applied by virtue of a universal socket 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEMA TOGRAPHER 



March, 1926 





Upper left: Comparative size of Eastman 's Cine- 
Kodak, Model" B", and of 3- A Kodak, folded. 
Upper right: Illustrating De Fry Camera. 



Lower right : Show- 
ing Bell and How- 
ell's Filmo" 

Lower left: Show- 
ing the inside mech- 
anism of the De Fry 
camera. 




which is provided. Long range lenses are 
interchangeable with the Taylor-Hobson 
Cooke F 2.5, 47 mm. lens with which the cam- 
era comes equipped. The camera has a ca- 
pacity of 120 feet of standard film. Rolls of 
100 feet for daylight loading are available. 

Eastman Cine-Kodak, Model A 

The Eastman Cine-Kodak, Model A, is 
hand-cranked or motor-driven. It measures 
8 by ^y^ by 8^ inches. The weight is 7j4 
pounds. The instrument is daylight loading. 
A light-weight tripod is provided. Sixteen 
mm. film is used, and is of the reversible tvpe 
—reversing negative into positive. Recent 
additions to Model A equipment include a 
1.9 lens, and a telephoto 78 mm., F 4.5 which 
is interchangeable with the 1.9, giving triple 
magnification. The model has a Cop and a. 



rear finder. The motor drive unit is 6^i by 
iy% by 7}s inches in size. Weight is 4-li 
pounds. The motor is a two-volt electric, 
propelled by a two-volt storage battery. 

The tripod, when folded, is 26 inches 
long, and, when extended to maximum, is S7 
inches in length; panning and tilting are both 
provided for. 

Eastman Cine-Kodak, Model B 

The Eastman Cine-Kodak, Model B, fol- 
lows the same underlying principles as the 
original model, but is even more compact 
and lighter. Jt weighs 5 pounds, loaded, and 
is about the size of a 3A Kodak, closed. Its 
size is 8 13-16 by 5 9-16 by 3 1-16. The film 
is 16 mm., reversible. This model is spring- 
driven. A tripod is not required. The film is 

(Continued on Page 23) 






March, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seven 



Coupling Films Coronation of Sir Hari Sinqh 



Officially Retained to Re- 
cord Durbar Ceremonies for 
Ruler's Private Archives. 



% 



Maharaja of Kashmir Person- 
ally Retains A. S. C. Member 
for Unique Film Mission. 



In one of the most distinguished missions 
ever accorded a cinematographer, Herford 
Tynes Qowling, A. S. C, left last month for 
Kashmir, India, to officially film the corona- 
tion of Sir Gen. Hari Singhi K. C. I. E., K. C. 
V. O., as Maharaja of Kashmir. 

Cowling's trip carries all the color of the 
most romantic fiction. He entered on his 
I 5,300-mile journey on the shortest possible 
nfotice, and had scarcely the proverbial mo- 
ment to spare in making the many rail and 
ship connections which his record jaunt en- 
tails. 

Personal Offer 

Cowling was at his home in Suffolk, Va., 
when he was cabled the offer to film the coro- 
nation ceremonies. The offer was sent by Sir 
Gen. Hari Singh personally, and came to the 
A. S. C. member out of a clear sky. There 
was an exchange of several cablegrams, and 
on January 7th, the future ruler of Kashmir 
accepted the terms quoted by Cowling. 
Short Notice 

The A. S. C. member discovered, on in- 
vestigating train time and sailing dates, that, 
in order to arrive in India in time for the coro- 
nation, he would have to sail from New York 
City at 10 o'clock on the morning of January 
9th — which gave him less than two days in 
which to make the extensive cinematographic 
preparations for his historic trip. 
Close Connections 

The veteran cinematographer and globe- 
trotter pressed the telegraph wires into serv- 
ice and, with his home town in Virginia as the 
base of operations, was soon taking care of the 
details in his campaign. He found that by 
sailing from New York on the 9th on the Le- 
viathan, he would arrive in Paris on the 16th. 
Thence he would proceed by rail across Eu- 
rope to Naples; then by steamer to Alexan- 
dria; by train to Port Said, and by steamer to 
Bombay where he would arrive on February 
5th. From Bombay to Kashmir, Cowling's 
destination, stretches a distance of 800 miles 
which the A. S. C. member would have to 
traverse by native railways and by automobile 
over native roads — and the latter are not re- 
puted to be among the best in the world. This 



schedule was calculated to land Cowling in 
Kashmir on February 10th. 

"Just a month to make the trip," the A. 
S. C. member stated before he left, "and it 
could not be done a minute quicker. If I 
miss a train, I'm sunk — but I don't intend to 
miss any." 

Whole-h ear ted Coop e ratio n 

Cowling's urgent telegrams and tele- 
phone messages, by virtue of which he made 
possible his speedy departure, met with ready 
response among the various representatives of 
the industry. The Eastman Kodak Company 
rushed his film to the ship where it arrived 30 
minutes before the vessel sailed. Bell and 
Howell sent through special supplies for 
Cowling's new Eyemo, and these arrived 
shortly before sailing time. The Akeley 
Camera organization fitted a special F 1.9 
lens to Cowling's Akeley, in a micrometer 
focusing mount furnished by the manufactur- 
ers, within a period of two hours' time — all of 
which the A. S. C. member regarded as "some 
rush job". In New York, Carl L. Gregory, 
dean of the New York Institute of Photo- 
graphy, veteran cinematographer and life 
friend of Qowling, stopped his work and as- 
sisted in arranging passports and other inci- 
dentals. Through the cooperation of J. C. 
Kroesen, of the Edison lamp works, arrange- 
ments were made to send to Bombay, from the 
Paris plant of the organization, a quantityof 
1500-watt Madza bulbs to assist lighting the 
actual coronation scene in the Durbar Hall at 
Jammu, Kashmir. Cowling will also remove 
a section of the roof of the building to allow 
the entrance of sufficient daylight fbr the oc- 
casion. 

"Had it not been," Cowling wrote aboard 
the Leviathan at sea, "for my friends in the 
Eastman Kodak Company and other branches 
of the cinema sales business I could not have 
made my hasty departure. If I did not have 
the confidence in Eastman, Bell and Howell, 
and the others that 1 had, I would not have 
attempted it. In view of the fact that all 
photographic goods had to be packed especi- 
al I v for tropical protection and transport, and 



(Continued on i'age IS) 



Eighl 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



March, 1926 



"Black 

Light" 



Bij Herbert S. Marshurz, 
A. B M D. Opt. 



"Invisible" Light Brings 
Interesting Speculation 
in Scientific World 



rHE old say in y "there is nothing new under the sun" is sometimes contradicted. To state 
that white lamp black has been invented might inspire you to laugh or tap your fore- 
head significantly. We can say, however, that "black light" has been discovered and you 
should not laugh because it is scientifically true. 

Black light! Sounds just as ridiculous as bration at some 150 quintillion times a second, 

white lamp black. According to calculations in "The Forum" 

At first thought, one might conclude that the pendulum of a clock would have to swing 

black light must be the light in a totally dark for over a billion years to make as many back 

room. Thinking about such a problem is a and forth motions as the gamma ray does in a 

good deal like trying to determine whether single second. 



there really is sound or not, when a book falls 
on the floor in a room where no one is within 
ear-shot. 

Mixture of Colors 
But black light has nothing to do with 
light in a dark room. All light — sun light 
and artificial light — being a mixture of all 



Scientific Attention 
Invisible light, unknown and then consid- 
ered of minor importance for decades, is now 
holding the center of the world's scientific 
stage. Employment of ultra-violet and infra- 
red rays for invisible long distance signalling 
has been reported. The highly exploited but 



colors, the more thoroughly and correctly the still myst erious "death rays" — intended to 

colors are mixed according to nature's formu- destroy an aeroplane in midair, etc., depend 

lae, the whiter the light. upon "black light." Still more recent honors 

Rainbow Effect have come to invisible light, with the an- 

Now if white light is broken up into its rjouncement of unusually successful celestial 

component colors by means of such a simple photographs employing infra-red rays. Per- 

device as a prism, or a very complicated deli- haps the real story of life on the planets will 



cate instrument such as a spectroscope, the 
rainbow effect obtained is the spectrum. The 
rainbow is of course nothing more than the 
light of the sun broken up into the various 
colors that make it white — the familiar red- 
yellow-green-blue-violet, each color with a 
different rate of vibration speed . 
Light Invisible to Eye 
These Colors are all that the eye can see 



be revealed when black light is sufficiently 
understood and controlled to provide detail 
photography over millions of miles. 



Smith and Aller to Handle 

Dupont-Pathe Film on Coast 



Distribution of a new brand of motion 
picture film in Hollywood and on the Pacific 
With instruments, however, light that the eye coast was announced during the past month. 



cannot see can be measured and photo- 
graphed. This light is both at the red end 
and at the violet extremity of the spectrum. 
We have known of this invisible light and 
have called it infra-red and ultra-violet, res- 
pectively. 

But because it cannot be seen, has no qual- 
ity of illumination or color, British scientists 
have appropriately called it "black light." 

Vibrations 



Dupont-Pathe is the new film product; it 
will be distributed by Smith and Aller, Inc., 
as Pacific Coast distributors for the Dupont- 
Pathe Film Manufacturing Company. The 
principals of the new film distribution firm 
are J. Wesley Smith and Simeon Aller, both 
of whom are well known in cinematographic 
and laboratory circles on the Pacific coast. 

Prior to announcing the formation of his 
firm to handle the film, Smith made a trip to 



The characteristics .of black light are as New York City and the East where he con- 
well known as our old friends infra-red and ferred with factory officials on the product 



ultra-violet. The former has a lower vibra- 
tion rate than its neighbor, red, and the latter 
vibrates at a higher rate than violet, but not 
as high as the X-ray. Still faster than even 
the X-ray are the gamma rays of radium, vi- 



which is being produced and marketed under 
the famous Dupont insignia. 

Smith and Aller, Inc., are establishing 
headquarters at 1(K6 North Cahuenga Ave- 
nue, Hollvwnod. 



March, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Nine 



Boyle Invents "Close-Up Long-Shot" Device 



qA. S. C. Member De- 
vises Invention to Com- 
bine Tivo Standard Cam- 
eras for Two Shots of 
Same Subject. Record 
Is Put on Film in Same 
Photographing Opera- 
tion. 






Bij Itlaxujell Shane 

Of the greatest interest to 
motion picture people, and 
also to those scientists using 
the motion picture camera 
in any way, is the announce- 
ment that John W. Boyle, A. 
S. C, has invented a device 
by which two negatives can 
be secured with one "set-up 1 ' 
of the tripod. 

Experiments 

Cameramen who have seen 
the device in operation are 
of the opinion that it will rev- 
olutionize that process of cin- 
ematography known as "pan- 
oramism," and will also elim- 
inate much of the time wasted 
at present in matching up 
close-shots with correspond- 
ing long shots. Simple as it 
may seem on description, the 
device fills a crying need of 
cinematographers, and is the 
result of several years of hard 
work on the part of Mr. 
Boyle. 

Operation 

Briefly, the device consists 
of a metal block, which is 
clamped to the top of an Ake- 
ley camera, and to which a 
Bell and Howell camera is 
in turn clamped by its bottom 
side. Both lenses, that of the 
Akeley and that of the Bell 
and Howell, are set to cover 
the same field. The device 
operates in this manner: the 







1 ^'r^flHRs 




^' ff\Rj ajrgB i 


i ^£, - 


WmmJFmS 


P¥- 



John If . Boyle, A. S. C, explaining his dual camera 
device to Anna O. Nilsson, who is being featured in First 
National's "Her Second Chance," on which Boyle is using his 
invention. 



Akeley camera i s hand- 
cranked as usual, but the Bell 
and Howell is operated by a 
motor drive. Both cameras, 
in this way, revolve on the 
perfectly balanced Akeley 
tripod. 

Duplex 
This duplex arrangement 
makes it possible to secure at 
the same time not only two 
perfectly matched negatives, 
but it will also provide the 
director with a perfectly 
matched long shot and close- 
up at the same time, whenever 
desired. In order to procure 
the long shot and close-up 
simultaneously it is merely 
necessary to fit one camera 
with a wide lens for the long 
shot and the other camera 
with a long focus lens for the 
close-up. In this way much 
time is saved for the director 
in eliminating the necessity 
for retaking the same action 
in a far and near set-up. 



Principle 

The element of ameliorated 
panoramic potentiality is ex- 
plained as follows: ordinar- 
ily it is necessary to use two 
separate camera units each on 
individual tripods. When a 
panorama of more than one 
hundred eighty degrees i s 
taken, the instruments come 
within photographic range of 
each other, thus spoiling at 
least one of the negatives. Mr. 
Boyle's method eliminates 
this possibility as one camera 
is above the other instead of 
alongside. It also eliminates 
the necessity for two camera 
operators, a necessity which is 
often impossible to comply 
with. 

Advantages 

With these objects in view, 
that of saving time, that of 
matching negatives perfectly, 
that of attaining a better pan- 
orama, that of obtaining close 



Ten 



AMERICAN C INE M AT OCR APHER 



.March, 1926 



RELEASES 



January 17, 1926, to February 15, 1926 



TITLE 

The Outsider 
Hands Up 
Just Suppose 
The Sea Beast 

The Checkered Flag 

Too Much Money 

Rocking Moon 

The Golden Strain 

Ship of Souls 

The Gilded Butterfly 

Nell Gwyn 

The American Venus 

Memory Lane 

The Yankee Senor 

The Danger Girl 

Lure of the Wild 

The Reckless Lady 

Flaming Waters 

The Black Bird 

The Song and Dance Man 

The Shadow on the Wall 

Dance Madness 

North Star 

Made for Love 

The Beautiful Cheat 

The Cowboy and the Countess 

Behind the Front 

The Million Dollar Handicap 

The Phantom of the Forest 

Combat 

The Count of Luxembourg 

Queen of Diamonds 

S. O. S. Perils of the Sea 

Lovers' Island 

Six Shootin' Romance 

The Red Kimono 

The Pleasure Buyers 

When Love Grows Old 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY 

G. O. Post 

H. Kinley Martin 

Stuart Kelson 

Byron Haskins and H. Lyman 

Broening, member A. S. C. 
Not credited 
George Folsey 

Chas. G. Clarke, member A. S. C. 
Glen MacWilliams 
E. B. DuPar, member A. S. C. 
Karl Struss 
Roy Overbaugh 
J. Roy Hunt 
Percy Hilburn 
Dan Clark, member A. S. C. 
Georges Benoit, member A. S. C. 
George Meehan, member A. S. C. 
Ernest Haller, member A. S. C. 
William Marshall, member A. S. C. 
Percy Hilburn 
James Howe 
Ray June 

John Arnold, member A. S. C. 
Not credited 
Arthur Miller 

Jackson J. Rose, member A. S. C. 
Reginald Lyons, member A. S. C. 
Charles Boyle 
J. D. Jennings, 
Ray June 
Charles Stumar 
Steve Smith, Jr. 
Roy Klaffki 

George Meehan, member A. S. C. 
Alfred Ortlieb 
William Nobles 
James Diamond 
Joseph Walker 
William Miller 



member A. S. C. 

member A. S. C. 
, member A. S. C. 



March, 192G 



AMERICAN C I NE M AT OG R APHB R 



Elfvpn 




Al Gilks, A. S. C, has completed the 
filming of "Blind Goddess," a Paramount pic- 
ture directed by Victor Fleming, with a cast 
including Jack Holt, Esther Ralston, Ernest 
Torrence and Louise Dresser. 
-* * * * 

E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, is enjoying the 
distinction of what is believed to be the first 
cinematographer to photograph a South 
American condor in a dramatic picture. Du 
Par filmed this new player in "The Night 
Cry," a Warner Brothers production, which, 
just completed, stars Rin-Tin-Tin, the cast 
including, in addition, June Marlowe, John 
Harron, Gayne Whitman, Don Alvarado and 
Baby Louise Miller. 

The feathered actor had a wing spread of 
12 feet, which gives some indication of its size 
—which served to become a real "menace" 
when the bird decided to show its savage 
traits. On one occasion, the king of the South 
American altitudes took a piece out of its own 
trainer's cheek. When the condor, therefore, 
developed a complex for alighting on the top 
of Du Par's camera, the A. S. C. member can- 
not be considered as having been totally en- 
thusiastic over the new player's fond proxim- 
ity. The bird weighed 40 pounds, so that Du 
Par had to be exceedingly careful that it did 
not knock the camera over — at the same time 
making no unbecoming moves that might be 
misinterpreted by the fractious actor. Once 
the condor did roost on the cinematographer's 
matte box with the result that the box was 
broken. 

In the story Rin-Tin-Tin is accused of 
stealing sheep, but it is later learned that the 
condor is the culprit. Du Par had plenty of 
excitement before his camera when the dog 
star and the villainous bird of prey engaged 
in a fight in which the condor showed that it 
had courage galore. 

Du Par is now filming a new Warner 
Brothers production, "The Sap," which, di- 
rected by Erie Kenton, features Kenneth 
Harlan. 



Victor Milner, A. S. C, has finished the 
photographing of "The Cat's Pajamas," a 
Paramount picture directed by William 

Wellman. 

* * * * 

Jackson J. Rose, A. S. C, has had to 
cease his cinematographic work at Universal 
City temporarily to go on a sad mission to 
Chicago where Rose's mother has just passed 
away. Ruse began his career as a cinemato- 
grapher in Chicago with the old Essanay 

company. 

* * * * 

James C. Van Trees, A. S. C, has com- 
pleted photographing "The Prince of Pil- 
sen," a Metropolitan production. 



Walter Griffin, A. S. C, is back in Holly- 
wood from Detroit where he has been for 
some time on an extensive cinematographic 

assignment. 

* * * * 

Gilbert Warrenton, A. S. C, has re- 
turned from location and has finished the pho- 
tographing of the latest Emory Johnson pro- 
duction for F. B. O., and has begun work on 
the filming of a current Universal production. 



Paul P. Perry, A. S. C, has come back 
from two location trips to Nevada for special 
scenes for the Universal miniature depart- 
ment. 

* * * * 

Ernest Palmer, A. S. C, has completed 
the filming of "Yellow Fingers," a Fox pro- 
duction directed by Emmett Flynn. 



Ernest Haller, A. S. C, is still holding 
forth in New York City, where he is photo- 
graphing P*obert Kane productions for First 
National. Among the Kane vehicles which 
Haller has recently photographed are "The 
New Commandment," "Bluebeard's Seven 
Wives," "The Reckless Lady" and "The 
Dancer from Paris." Haller is at present 
filming "The Wilderness Woman." 



Twelve AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER March, 1926 



The EDITORS 9 LENS * • focused by foster goss 



"Culture" and Cinematoqraphij 

^ Under the head, "Claims Cameramen Are Incompetent," Film 
Mercury, Hollywood, reports that Milton Sills, in a recent speech 
before the National Board of Review, New York, "was especially 
severe on the limitations of the cameramen, saying that many of 
them knew nothing whatever about the physics of light and had 
not the cultural background which would aid them in extracting 
from scenes the full measure of artistry." 

(§ Despite Mr. Sill's more or less widely publicized collegiate back- 
ground in Chicago, we do not believe that any reason should exist 
for him to entertain a warped academic perspective. Mr. Sills 
has endeavored to portray life enough during his esteemed career 
to lift him from the role of a cloistered pedagogue, so that we 
might venture that whatever premium might be placed on "cul- 
tural" foundations for cinematographers, Mr. Sills must rightly 
recognize that cinematography as an art or science must rise or 
fall on the strength of its practical application. We believe that 
Mr. Sills will stipulate that cinematography certainly has not 
failed in its practical renditions. After all, what shows on the 
screen does not have to dome, in order to meet the most critical 
artistic standards, through the medium of a university degree or 
its equivalent — no more than did the works of the master painters 
have to come from minds, "cultured" according to Mr. Sills' 
precepts. 

i§ "Culture," through university courses or otherwise, is as desirable 
for cinematographers as it is for presidents, but good cinematog- 
raphy is no more predicated thereon as is masterful statesmanship. 



March, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Thirteen 



Abe Lincoln might be cited in this connection. What about 
Thomas A. Edison, father of modern electricity and not a sloven 
student in the physics of light, and his opinion of "cultured" and 
college-trained workers? And how much about the physics of 
light did the wizard Steinmetz learn in college or other fields of 
"culture." 



<J In the final analysis, the cinematographer, according to the fairest 
of present standards, is a pictorialist, judged by what he can pro- 
duce on the screen, regardless of the fact whether or not he enjoys 
discussing Freud "off set" with male stars. And Mr. Sills can- 
not deny that the results which the cinematographer has pro- 
duced on the screen are nothing short of remarkable — especially 
in view of the fact that he has created his calling, with zero as 
the starting point, within the period of the last twenty-five years. 
Nor do we believe that the cinematographers' accomplishments, 
gauged from the ultimate screen test, could have been made any 
more meritorious had they all immersed themselves, in universi- 
ties ior elsewhere, in Mr. Sills' desired "culture." 



<J The hotbeds of "culture" can do no more and no less toward turn- 
ing out the best there can be in cinematography than have the 
university courses in dramatics and writing of plays done in pro- 
ducing master dramatists — and the latter applies from the time 
of Shakespeare to the day of George M. Cohan. For the good 
of the respective callings, cinematography cannot thrive on 
pedantry — no more than can playwriting or even acting! 



Fourteen 



A MIORICAN C I N E M A T O O R A P H E R 



March, 1926 



Bell & Howell Cameras Keep Is 

THE MOTION PI 




STANDARD PROFESSIONAL 
PORTABLE AUTOMATIC 




Charles G. Clarke 

filming 
Whispering Smith 




Built to B. & H. 
Professional Standards 

Made, as ii is, by the builders of 
1)5 per cent of the professional cam- 
eras and equipment in world-wide 
use, EYEMO conforms to the tlior- 
ou^hbred standard of service set by 
its related equipment under the B. 
& H. trademark. A 47 m-m F 2.". 
"Taylor-Hobson Cooke lens in mi- 
crometer mount is standard equip- 
ment. Other lenses up to 20" tele- 
photo are regularly stocked and are 
quickly interchangeable on EYEMO. 
Adjustable speed feature permits 
varying the speed from 1G to 8 ex- 
posures per second. 

You need EYEMO for stunt and field 
work. Wonderfully suited to com- 
edy cinematography. See it on dis- 
play at our New York and Holly- 
wood offices. Or write at once for 
descriptive circular. 

BELL & HOWELL CO. 

J SOJ5 Larchmont Avenue 

CHICAGO 



JUST THE CAMERA 
for field and stunt use! 



ACTION!— EYEMO!— two words that now speak 
volumes on busy locations. The EYEMO 
Standard Automatic Camera is here to elimi- 
nate time waste — to make difficult "stunt" shots — 
to get to the action on the run — and to deliver 
professional performance under all conditions. 

EYEMO weighs but seven pounds and is as compact 
as a really professional camera of equal capacity 
can ever be made. Designed to be held in the hand 
while operating. No trirod necessary — an important 
feature when portability and speed are desired. Lift 
it to the eye, adjust diaphragm and focusing dials 
(visible through the finder tube) — and press the trig- 
ger. What you see in the finder you get in the film. 

EYEMO is entirely automatic, operated by a spring 
motor. Has maximum film capacity of 120' stan- 
dard negative. Or uses 100' rolls prepared for day- 
light loading. Descriptive folder giving all details 
and specifications sent upon request. Write for it. 



WMi 



1805 



ARCMMONT AVE. 

CHICAGO. 



Hoilgwood.1 

January 21 

Bell snd Howell Co. . 
Chicago, Ills. , 
Deer Sirs: 

I am <incl"r inl 
filir.ihg "Whispering Smitl :. 
.r.ade by the Metropolitan 
cits by the csrseras direi 
and John Bowers. I am us; 
success along with my ref 
this production and everj| 
and unusual shots made lq f. 
about 'hem. I am very pli J 
highly recom-.end.it to J I 
convenient, yet portable c 

It cee.-r.s to Hi it 
good photography assured 
that this -.vonderfull lit 
success it deserves. 



Member American Societyj 
6275 Sel.ma St.. Hollywol 



Pioneer and World's Largest ManufaetB 



-March. I!l2<i 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T O G R A P H E R 



[•Mfteeti 



face With All Requirements of 
ILTURE INDUSTRY 

The Never-Obsolete B. & H. 
PROFESSIONAL STANDARD 




en while 
ction being 
orp. George Melford 
ne Kith Eugene Paulet'.e 
mo* -.vith great 
nd "ovrell on 
s seen the effective 

is very enthusiastic 
■-he camera snd 
isircs a Etardy, 

ity i.axes 
zr.z I hope 
:nt .-aeets with the 



igrophers. 



A 19 YEARS TEST 

FJR 19 years the Bell & How- 
ell Professional Standard 
Camera has been keeping 
pace with all the requirements 
of the industry. B. & H. Cam- 
eras built in 1907 are still in 
service. Interchangeability of 
parts has kept them up to date. 
When a new improvement is 
developed by Bell & Howell it 
is designed to fit the cameras 
now in service. B. & H. Cam- 
eras may grow old — but never 
obsolete. Buying one of these 
standard ma- 
chines is like 
buying a govern 
ment bond. You 
may be certain 
that full value in 
service is there 
any time you call 
for it. 



Displays 

at our 

Hollywood, 

Chicago 

and 

New York 

offices. 



ematograph Cameras and Equipment 




Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



March, 1926 



A. S. C. Members in Film Connections 



H 



(§ Henry Sharp Signs with 
Metro-Go/dwyn Mayer ; 
Charles J. Van Enger 
Leaves Warner Brothers 
on First National Con- 
tract; Harry Perry Back 
Again with Paramount 
for Zane Grey Vehicles 
Supervised by Lucien 
Hubbard. 




*$ 




Formation of new cinematographic con- 
nections by three prominent members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers was 
among the outstanding happenings in the field 
of motion photography in Hollywood during 
the past month. 

With First National 
Charles J. Van Enger, A. S. C, who has 
been chief cinematographer for Ernst Lu- 
bitsch since that director began his notable 
American career with Warner Brothers, 
signed a contract with First National on the 
expiration of the period of his agreement with 
Warners'. Van Enger has already left for 
New York City, where he will film his initial 
First National picture which is to be an- 
nounced later. 

Lubitsch Vehicle 
Productions photographed by Van En- 
ger have been among the most successful in 
film history. For Lubitsch he has done 
"Lady Windermere's Fan," "Kiss Me Again," 
"Three Women," and "The Marriage Cir- 
cle," all under the Warner banner. In addi- 
tion, he photographed Lubitsch's "Forbidden 
Paradise," starring Pola Negri, for Para- 
mount. Van Enger was farmed out by the 
Warners to Universal to film "The Phantom 
of the Opera." The A. S. C. member's earlier 



successes included Nazimova's "Salome" and 
her production of Ibsen's "The Doll House." 

Sharp With M-G-M 
With Douglas Fairbanks having com- 
pleted, in "The Black Pirate," his final pro- 
duction before he begins his scheduled trip 
around the world with Miss Pickford, Henry 
Sharp, A. S. C, has moved his cinematogra- 
phic activities to the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 
studios with which organization he signed a 
contract last month. 

Fairbanks Film 
Sharp was chief cinematographer on 
Fairbanks' "Don Q," as well as "The Black 
Pirate" which as yet has not been released. 
Critics throughout the country bestowed un- 
stinted praises on the cinematography in "Don 
Q." It is stated that "The Black Pirate" is 
no less a cinematographic success. 

Long With Ince 
Before joining Fairbanks, Sharp had 
been connected with the Thomas H. Ince stu- 
dios for several years. In fact, Sharp origi- 
nally went to the post of first cinematographer 
while with Ince and subsequently filmed many 
of that producer's most important productions 
including "Beau Revel," "Mother o' Mine," 
"Hail the Woman," "Lorna Doone" and "En- 
ticement." 

(Continued on Page 20) 



March, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Seventeen 



EASTMAN 

PANCHROMATIC 

NEGATIVE 



When the scenario calls for brilliant, colorful 
sets only Eastman Panchromatic Negative can do 
justice to the cinematographer's art. Sensitive to 
all colors it renders them in monochrome in their 
correct relationship. 

That is its most important advantage — but by 
no means the only one. In photographing land- 
scapes, including distant, hazy views and clouds; 
for close-ups; for night effects — Eastman Pan- 
chromatic Negative is emphatically superior. 

Write for the booklet "Eastman Pan- 
chromatic Negative Film for Motion 
Pictures." Properties, uses, handling, 
development of the film are described. 



Motio?i Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Eighteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



March, 192G 



m'iiiiI muni h 



l*UR< 



that 1 had to conduct my arrangements from 
Suffolk by telegraph, 1 consider it a pretty 
quick get-away." 

Singular Mission 

Cowling's commission is particularly uni- 
que in that he is photographing the entire 
ceremonies for the Raja with no connections 
with any producing companies in the United 
States or elsewhere. The cinematographic 
record is to be exclusively for governmental 
archives. 

Knows Sir Hari Singh 

In 1923, during the course of his most re- 
cent photographic journey around the world, 
Cowling spent several months with the Raja 
of Kashmir as his guest. As indicated by the 
title, the Raja was at that time crown prince. 
He became greatly impressed with Cowling's 
work and adventures, and it was through the 
good graces of the future ruler of Kashmir 
that the A. S. C. member was enabled to take 
what is believed to be the first motion picture 
camera to enter unknown Tibet. Cowling be- 
came very friendly with Sir Hari Singh, 
whom he found to be developing into an en- 
thusiastic motion picture fan. 

The A. S. C. member subsequently pur- 
chased, in the United States, two projectors 
for the Raja which he installed in his summer 
and his winter palaces respectively. He sub- 
scribes to a film service in Bombay for pic- 
tures to show on his private screens. Upon 
his ascension to the throne, he will allow his 
subjects, it is said, to have motion picture 
theaters. This the old Maharaja, who was 
an orthodox Hindu of the Dogra caste, would 
not permit. Sir Hari Singh is a reform Hindu 
sect adherent and therein, it is stated, lay con- 
siderable intrigue to prevent his coming to. the 
throne, such as the "mysterious Mr. 'A' ' 
stories which emanated from London several 
months ago. Some observers state that the 
situation was manufactured by the opposition 
to prevent the British government from recog- 
nizing Sir Hari as Maharaja on the death of 
the late ruler. 

Great Caution 

In the latter connection lies a particular 
reason for the new Maharaja's insisting that 
Cowling, whom he knows and trusts, come to 
officially photograph the coronation. A ruler, 
in the atmosphere in which the ceremonies 
will take place, never knows what plots of 
assassination are being directed against him. 
Hence he has a direct interest in knowing 
"who" is pointing "what" at him. 



GOERZ 

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March, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHBR 



Nineteen 



. 



The new ruler, who is 35 years old and 
an Oxford graduate, is spending upward of 
two million dollars on the coronation — which 
is not counted as so much in his land of three 
million subjects since it comes but once in a 
lifetime. 

Cowling will use three motion picture 
cameras and will shoot approximately 20,000 
feet of negative. He will return to New 
York about April I 5th^ 

Eastern Editor Scoffs at 

"Prologues" on Film Bills 

Striking a chord similar to that which 
was sounded in the December issue of this 
publication, Arthur James, editor of MOTION 
PICTURES TODAY, in his issue of February 6th, 
speaks pointedly on a subject that is gaining 
ever-increasing intention. Mr. James' edi- 
torial is re-printed herewith: 

Presentation, prologue, preliminary and 
all the rest of the names given to that which 
precedes the showing of the feature motion 
picture on the screen, has about reached the 
height of its foolishness. By example and by 
promotion the idea of a big show spread from 
Broadway to Chicago, from Chicago to the 
West Coast and then all over our motion pic- 
ture theater map. 

In its beginning it was a good idea and it 
was successful. It served to dress up and 
garnish the meal of entertainment in the large 
capacity houses and enhanced the importance 
of these institutions. 

It still is an important factor in — and 
only in — the largest houses. Now as before, 
it is, after all, only a garnishment, the parsley 
on the well served steak. When the steak it- 
self proves tough the customers are not fooled 
by the parsley, and they won't come around 
unless there is nourishment. The nourish- 
ment, the juicy and sustaining meat of all pic- 
ture house entertainment, is the picture. 

Broadway houses for example have been 
garnished up with bundles of parsley in the 
way of vaudeville, soloists, and monkey-doo- 
dle performers who ruin the bill. Recent 
shows at the Rialto, a Katz house, have been 
described by New York newspapers as "hick" 
with nothing to praise but the polite manners 
of the ushers. 

The net result of these strivings toward 
class and fancy show business has been a dis- 
couragement of public patronage. Paying 
the price of these bills makes a smaller amount 
available for picture rentals and good pic 

(Continued on Page 22) 



Akeley Camera 




AN INSTRUMENT 
OF SUPERIOR 
ACCOMPLISH- 
MENTS 

Chosen by 

AMUNDSEN for the 

NORTH- 
FLAHERTY for the 
SOUTH SEA 
ISLANDS 



A Necessity for Every Production 

Time Payments May 
Be Arranged 

AKELEY CAMERA INC. 

244 West 49th Street 
New York, N. Y. 



PAIUS 



BRUSSELS 



MADRID 

ID 



LISBON 

rr 



JERUSALEM 



LONDON 



RENE 
GUISSART 

Atmospheric Shots in Any 
Part of Europe 



Taken according 
to your own in- 
structions in an 
artistic manner to 
match the pho- 
graphy of your pro- 
duction. 



OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENT IN 
EUROPE FOR: 

American Society oj 
Cinematographeri ; 
Frank D. Williams 



11 X Avenue des Champs-Elysees 

PARIS 

Cable Address: 

I.OUVERANDE-PARIS 



BERLIN 



BUDAPEST 



GENEVA 



CAIRO 



ALGIERS 



ETC. 



ETC. 



• 



'I' wen I y 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOG RAPHE R 



March, 1926 



(Continued from Page 10) 



Perry Goes to Paramount 
Harry Perry, A. S. C, has been retained 
at the Famous Players-Lasky studios in Hol- 
lywood as chief cinematographer for Lucien 
Hubbard, supervisor on the Paramount pro- 
ductions of the Zane Grey stories. Perry's 
work in "The Vanishing American" gained 
wide recognition for bringing the beauties of 
western scenic country to the screen. Perry 
worked with Hubbard on the prologue in this 
production which was photographed with 
Charles E. Schoenbaum as regular staff cine- 
matographer. Perry later served with Hub- 
bard on Zane Grey's "Desert Gold," soon to 
be released. The A. S. C. member was sched- 
uled to photograph Sol Lesser's production 
of "The Winning of Barbara Worth," the 
famous novel by Harold Bell Wright, but the 
sale of film rights to the vehicle to Samuel 
Goldwyn brought an end to the Lesser pro- 
duction plans. 

Started With Famous Players-Lasky 
The present affiliation is not Perry's first 
with Famous Players-Lasky. It was with that 
organization that he first rose to prominence 
as a cinematographer. Paramount pictures 
filmed by Perry include "The Easy Road," 
"The City of Silent Men," "White and Un- 
married," "The Conquest of Caanan," "A 
Prince There Was," and "If You Believe It, 
It's So," all starring Thomas Meighan. When 
Tom Forman, who had been Meighan's di- 
rector, left Paramount to direct for B. P. 
Schulberg, Perry went with Forman as chief 
cinematographer, filming a number of impor- 
tant productions including "The Broken 
Wing" and "The Virginian." 



Subscribe for the 

American 
Cinematographer 



% 




M ! ^J^Q$&f/ 



The Bausch & Lomb Ultra 
Rapid Anastigmat is an 
f:2. 7. lens. This not only is 
its rated speed ' — it is the 
speed at which it actually 
performs. 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. 

Neiv York San Francisco Washington Chicago 
Boston Rochester. N. Y. London 



CRECO 



The New Iris Combination may be had 

with 4-in. Iris or Sunshade 

FRED HOEFNER 

Cinema and Experimental Work 

5319 Santa Monica Blvd. (rear) 
GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Cal. 



HARRY D. BROWN 

Cinema Studios Supply Corp. 

1438 Beachwood Drive - • HOIIy 0513 

, . „ HOIIy 0514 

Brown-Ashcraft * 

Studio Lamps Carbons, and Other 

Wind Machines Siudio Equipment 



March. 1926 



AMERICAN CINBM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-one 



A. S. C. Members Principals 

in Big "Wampas" Ball Act 

Members of the American Society of 
Cinematographers were the principals in one 
of the feature acts of the "Wampas" annual 
frolic and ball, held by the Western Motion 
Picture Advertisers on February 4th, at the 
Shrine auditorium, Los Angeles. 

The novelty and originality of the A. S. 
C. act brought down thunderous applause 
from the brilliant assemblage of more than 
5000 people who attended the affair. 

Attired formally and with cameras set 
up in regular studio fashion, a score of A. S. 
C. members were arrayed over the breadth of 
the mammoth Shrine stage. The various 
members were introduced individually to the 
audience by Charles Murray, prominent 
comedian, who announced production suc- 
cesses photographed by the cinematographers. 
As each member was introduced a spotlight 
was centered on him. When the last member 
was introduced, Murray shouted "camera," 
and the audience was given the thrill of being 
"turned on" by the first and the most notable 
body of cinematographers ever to be assem- 
bled on a theatre stage. 

The idea for the act was that of Sid 
Grauman, famous showman, who was direc- 
tor general of the Wampas presentations. 

A. S. C. members who constituted the 
act were Norbert Brodin, Frank B. Good, 
Bert Glennon, Hans Koenekamp, John Ar- 
nold, Robert Kurrle, Reginald Lyons, George 
Schneiderman, William Fildew, Alfred 
Gilks, Homer Scott, Arthur Edeson, Ira 
Morgan, Fred W. Jackman, Dan Clark, 
Charles G. Clarke, Floyd Jackman, L. Guy 
Wilky, Kenneth G. MacLean, John W. Boyle, 
Park Ries and Er nest Palm er. 

At the opening meeting of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, held February 
8th, in the A. S. C. assembly rooms, Guaranty 
Building, Hollywood, examples of the "Bino- 
scope" method of stereoscopic photography 
were exhibited. William Worthington, well- 
known director and actor, and Harry Fairall 
were in charge of the exhibition. 

Musical offerings were rendered by 
Henry Goodman's orchestra, the personnel of 
which numbered Master Bobby Goodman, 
Miss Lea Goodman, Bill Borzage and Messrs. 
Karpaty and Molavsky. 

The orchestra appeared from the Fox 
studios through the special arrnngement and 
courtesy of Dan Chirk, A. S. C. 



Here to keep you happy 
"Under the Coops" 

IN the old days you frequently heard 
of some temperamental star refusing 
to work under anything but Cooper Hewitt 
light. Now they don't get a chance to 
refuse. Roam as you will, it's hard to 
find a studio that isn't busy and happy 
"under the Coops." 

We think service has a lot to do with it. 
And that's what we are here for. 

No need to worry about anything with 
"Mike" Shannon on the job. 



Wire, write or phone! 



>£^ 



A 



COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office — 7207 Santa Monica Bldg. 
KEESE ENGINEERING CO., John T."Mikk" Shannon, Mgr. 

107 © C. H. E. Co., 1926 



E. Burton Steene 

Freelance 

Akeley Camera 
Specialist 



HEmpstead 
4 16 1 



Care of American Society of 
Cinematographere 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 
Hollywood, Calif. 



GRanite 
4274 



FOR RENT! 

MITCHELL and BELL & HOWELL 

CAMERAS 

F 2. 3. - F. 2. 7. - F. 3. 5. Lenses 
40-50-75 M. M. 

COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 

J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 North Orange St. 
Phone Glendale 3361 W Glendale, California 



~iiu 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGKAP HER 



March, 1921! 



1 1 'run Inued from Page I !• > 



tures cost money. The presentation money 
is in most instances thrown away. The sur- 
rounding bill does not bolster a poor picture 
and does not supplant a good picture. 

The picture now, as always, is first and 
last the attraction. Short lengths, novel in 
character and with picturesque or comedy 
values, help tremendously but they, also, are 
pictures. 

With good pictures on the market the 
bigger houses no matter how they are signed 
up would do better to shelve the poor product 
they have contracted to use, pay the price and 
spend their presentation money for the good 
product available but now outside in the cold 
because of our strange and seemingly unavoid- 
able block booking system. Good pictures 
and only good pictures will win patronage. 

The Capitol Theatre with an excellent 
accompanying show at all times rises or falls 
in its receipts according to its picture attrac- 
tion. With a lemon there is a falling off of 
sometimes as much as $20,000 in a week and 
with a real picture the new box office records 
are hung up. 

From where we sit with no end to serve, 
save that exhibitors and producers should all 
make money and plenty of it on good pic- 
tures, we are moved to describe the presenta- 
tion enthusiasm as mistaken and coming under 
the popular though possibly low term 
HOOKY. 

We appreciate the art of Sid Grauman 
and the genius of Row, but their fields are 
their own and not for general imitation. The 
good picture brings its own crowds. The 
p)oor picture keeps them away and that is 
likely to be the situation for long years to 
come. 

Harry D. Brown 'in $50,000 

Cinema Expansion Program 

Harry D. Brown consumated arrange- 
ments last month whereby the Cinema Studios 
Supply Corporation, Hollywood, will under- 
go an expansion to the extent of $50,000. 

This addition of this capital to the re- 
sources of the corporation will enable that 
concern to make new additions to the shop 
and increase lighting equipment service ren- 
dered the motion picture studios. This ex- 
pansion, according to Brown, was necessitated 
by the growing needs of the motion picture 
industry. He predicts an unprecedented year 
of cinematic activitv for the Hollywood dis- 
trict. 




^I^^I^l^^l^^l^lSiiill^llvWixwiWiJW 



NO CATTlERA can be better than its 
lens. There is a life-time of satisfaction 
and pride for the otuner of a Carl Zeiss 
Tessar- — the lens which is doinq the 
world's finest photography. Amonq 
prominent users of Zeiss Tessars are the 
U. S. Army Air Service, The Rational 
Qeoqraphical Society, The American 
Museum of natural History, Famous 
Players and a leqion of others. The 
Tessar fi.5 is standard equipment on 
the finest imported cameras. For qreater 
rapidity there is the 'Tessar f3. 5 and the 
Tessar f'2. 7 has recently been introduced. 
For rapid distance -photoqraphy the 
Tele-Tessar and for photo-enqrauinq the 
Aprocbromatic Tessars enjoy an enuiable 
popularity. 

IDhich cataloque may tue send you? 

'Zeiss Photo Lenses' 
The neo» Extra-Rapid Zeiss Photo Lenses" 
(f2.7 series) 

'The Tele-Tessar' 
"Optical Instruments for Process IDork" 

Harold M. Bennett 

153 U7 23rd Street 
lieu; Uork 



A NEW LENS 

"That has made good" 
Large aperture F:2.3. To a large extent responsi- 
ble for the Bas-relief, or solid appearance of the 
subject on the screen. 

Good definition over the entire field, yet not harsh 
or wiry. 

A portrait lens In short focal lengtlis 

lOmm, 50mm, 76mm, with full closing diaphragm. 

Price is reasonable 

40mm $50.00 

r.O m in 50.00 

75mm 55.00 

A trial wiU be satisfying 

ASTRO-GESELLSCHAFT, mbh., Berlin 

FOR SALE BY 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. - - Los Angeles, Calif. 






March, L926 



AMERICAN C I N E M AT OGR APHB R 



Twenty-three 



(Continued from Page C) 



daylight loading. The lens is F 6.5, wide 
angle, with 20 mm. focus that is fixed. 
Eastman Kodascope 
The Eastman Kodascope, the projector 
which shows the 16 mm. reversible film, 
weighs 20 pounds, and measures 18}/> by 14% 
by 10 -\x inches in size. Its capacity is 400 feet 
of 16 mm. film — which gives projection for 
approximately 16 minutes on the screen. The 
lens is a SO mm. focus, throwing a picture 30 
by 40 inches at 18 feet with a 56-watt lamp, 
\it a 39 by 52-inch picture at 23 feet with a 
200-watt lamp. Source of power and illumi- 
nation for the Kodascope's electric motor may 
be taken from any house circuit, alternating 
or direct current, not over 125 volts nor less 
than 105, by ''plugging in" on an ordinary 
bulb socket or wall plug. There is an adjust- 
able rheostat, with ammeter, to furnish cor- 
rect voltage for a special 14-volt, 56-watt 
Mazda lamp or for a 50-volt, 200-watt Mazda 
lamp. There are provided special rheostats 
for adaptation to 210-250-volt circuits, or to 
32-volt home generators. 

Pathex Camera 

The Pathex camera is approximately 3 
by 6 inches in size and weighs \ l /\ pounds. It 
has a fixed focus F 3.5 lens, with an adjustable 
iris diaphragm; the focal length is 20 mm. 
The film is supplied in daylight loading 
magazines which have a capacity of 26 to 30 
feet. The Pathex film runs 40 frames to the 
foot. Development is by the reversible pro- 
cess, sent to company laboratories, as with the 
Eastman 16 mm. film. A tripod comes with 
the Pathex. 

Pathex Projector 

The Pathex projector weighs 5 pounds; 
5 ounces, and measures 4^ by 7 by 12j/> 
inches. Power is drawn from the ordinary 
electric socket. A special Mazda lamp, 12 
volts, .5 amperes, furnishes the illumination. 



Gets Shots that You 
Couldn't Get ai 
all Without it 




ITS ALL 
1 IN THE 
^LENS 



use the 
Ultrastigmat 

a great deal In 
commercial work, j 
I find that I can make inter- 
iors with it that would require lights with- 
out it, and get outdoor shots on bad days that 
I could not get without it." 

(Signed) QUINCY PEACOCK. 

1611 Market St.. Jacksonville, Fla. 



Write for Folder 

Gundiach-Manhattan Optical Co. 

900 Clinton Street ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



DEBRIE CAMERA BARGAIN 
Latest model with complete equipment including all 
electrical attachments, portable battery, platforms 
and holding devices 'for using camera without tripod, 
etc. Most complete DeBrie outfit in America. 
Priced to sell quickly. 

35-50-75-105 m. m. lenses factory mounted. 
• Address, AMERICAN CIN EM ATOGRAPH ER 



CLUBBING OFFER 



Subscribed for separately. Camera Craft 
and the American Cinematographer will cost 
a total of $4.50 per year. As a special clubbing 
offer, both magazines may be had at a total 
price of $3.40 per year. 



American Cmematoqrapher 

121920 2122 Guaranty Bldq. 
Hollywood. Calif. 



(Continued on Pace Z6] 



Boyle Invents "Close- 
up Long-Shot" Device 



< < "on t iniiHil from 



shots and Jong shots at the 
same time, and because of its 
efficiency and inexpensive- 
ness, Mr. Boyle believes that 
the device will soon be in 
common use in all studios. 
M a n v camera authorities 



agree with the inventor, who 
has taken papers of patent out 
on his mechanical brain- 
child. 

Mr. Boyle is at present us- 
ing this device in photograph- 
ing fast racing scenes for 
"Her Second Chance," a 
First National Him, being di- 
rected by Lambert Hillyer. 



The entire circumference of 
the track will be taken in one 
shot by this camera. 

The device was also suc- 
cessfully used, through the 
courtesy of Mr. Boyle, by J. 
I). Jennings, A. S. C, in the 
filming of "The Million Dol- 
lar Handicap, " a Metropoli- 
tan production. 



Twenty-lour 



AMERICAN UlNBMATOGRAPHER 



March, 1926 



PROJECTION + Conducted by Earl J. Denison 



PLATE A 

SPLICING MACHINE 




I ^^^. y m ■ 



( The Hell and Howell splicing ma- 
chines, the proper care and use of 
which are illustrated herewith, were 
especially designed for use in all Fam- 
ous Players-Lasky exchanges where 
they have been installed under the 
supervision of Earl J. Denison. — Edi- 
tor's Note.) 

The Bell and Howell splicing ma- 
chine makes a perfect splice .156 
wide — of the full hole type. The 
machine is automatic in operation and 
electrically heated to about 120 de- 
crees which keeps metal plates, film 
and film cement at the same tempera- 
ture, thereby insuring a permanent 
splice. 

The registration of the perfora- 
tions is perfect and splices will not 
buckle. Experienced people can 
make a splice on these machines in 
about 10 seconds. The use of these 
machines has practically eliminated 
film damage due to splices. 

The following instructions, as 
given in the Paramount exchanges, 
regarding the care and operation of 
these machines must be closely fol- 
lowed at all times : 

First, the machines will not func- 
tion properly unless they are kept 
scrupulously clean at all times. 
(Cleanliness is the most important 
factor in handling film under any 
conditions.) 

Second, the machines are mechani- 
cally perfect and require no adjust- 
ment whatsoever. Therefore, under 
no consideration, attempt to make any 
adjustments on the machines. (In 
case of accident or breakage, the 
home office must be notified.) 

Third, use a fresh blade every 
morning. At mid-day, reverse the 
blade and use the other end. Under 
ordinary conditions this will insure 
having a sharp blade at all times. 
However, in case a blade is nicked 
or for any other reason it does not 
scrape properly, immediately get a 
new blade. Machines are to be thor- 
oughly cleaned and covered every 
evening and before closing. 

Fourth, turn the electric heating 
unit on the first thing in the morning 
and do not turn off until the day's 
work is finished. 

Fifth, the scraping blade holders 
are not interchangeable and under no 
condition change holders. 



March, 192(i 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenl y-five 



Loiver Riff fit : Plate D, Serv- 
ice Table and Setting Gauge. Up- 
per Right : Plate E, Blade Holder 



in Proper Position for Setting. 
Center Right : Plate F , Rear View 



of Toggle Arms, Toggle Spring, 
Oil Holes. Lower Left : Plate G, 
Blade Holder with Blade Set. 



Sixth, it is highly important that 
each day's work be started with fresh 
cement. Never mix fresh cement 
with old cement but drain the bot- 
tles the previous evening and refill in 
the morning. 

Seventh, girls will alternate each 
week in operating the machines and 
are not to switch machines any time 
during the week, or switch positions 
at any individual machine as the two 
girls sitting at any one machine will 
be held responsible for the condition 
of that machine. 

Eighth, keep feet on the pedals all 
the time you are sitting at the ma- 
chine, and whenever it is necessary to 
leave the machine always close down 
the cutting blades. 

A /'////;, oil all places marked "o" 
once each week. 

By following the above simple in- 
structions no trouble whatsoever 
should occur. 

Key to Letters and Numbers 
on Photographs 
( Letters and numbers on all photo- 
graphs have the same meaning.) 
X umbers 

No. 1. — Upper left cutting blade. 

No. 2 — Upper right cutting blade. 

No. 3 — Lower left cutting blade. 

No. 4 — Lower right cutting blade. 

No. 5 — Puller for registering pins. 

No. 6 — Film clamp lever. 
Letters 

X — Keep all screws and bolts 
marked x tightened. 

S — All screws marked s must not 
be touched. 



(Continued on P;i 



20) 





■I 



Twenty-six 



AM ERIC: AN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



March, 192C 



(Continued lie 



23) 



De Vry Camera 
The De Vry camera, being manufactured 
by the De Vry Corporation of Chicago, is au- 
tomatic, operated by a spring motor. This 
camera carries 100 feet of standard motion 
picture film. It weighs S l / 2 pounds, and may 
be spanned by a man's hand. While no tri- 
pod is needed, a universal screw socket is pro- 
vided in the event that a tripod is desired. 
There is a hand crank for special work. The 
lens is standard F 3.5. The De Vry camera 
is a fellow creation of the De Vry portable 
projector which has been on the market for 
several vears. 



(Continued from l-H-.ce 25) 



iy 



O — All places marked o to be oiled week- 
(Use 3 in 1 oil only.) 

R P means registering pin. (Oil 
weekly.) 

C E in circles means cutting edges. 
(Keep clean.) 

K C means keep clean. 

H N means hexagon nut (for adjusting 
film clamp lever.) 

C S — Clamp screw for blade holder. 

B H— Blade holder. 

F — Felt for setting blade holder on. 

T J— Toggle joint, 

T S — Toggle spring. 

S B — Scraping blade. 

C N — Clamp nut (for tightening blade, 
in holder.) 



Keep Up With 

Amateur 
Cinematoqraphij 

in the 

American 
Cmematoqrapher 



ILEX 

CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

LENSES 

For MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

Hex Super Cinemat F:2.6 
Ilex Paragon Cinemat F:3.5 
Hex Paragon Cinemat F:4«s 



Three Series of Highly Corrected Cinematographic- 
Lenses Designed for SPEED — DEFI- 
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SPEED— 

Where Speed Is Essential We Recommend 
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Which Is About Twice As Fast As The F:3.5 
And Possesses Marvelous Illuminating Power. 
For General Ail-Around Work The F:3.5 
Or F:4.5 Is Preferable, Owing /To The 
Greater Depth Of Focus. 

DEFINITION- 

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COVERING POWER- 

Even At Their Largest Aperture They 
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Listed Below. 

ILEX SUPER CINEMAT F:2.6 



CAl . NO. 


Covers at 
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EQUIV. FOCUS 


Price in 
Barrel 


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MM. 


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%x1 


1% 


35 


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S36.00 


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75 


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47.00 



ILEX PARAGON CINEMAT F:35 



CAT. NO. 


Covers at 
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EQUIV. FOCUS 


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Focusing Mt. 


1 


%xl 


2 


50 


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J26.O0 


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ILEX PARAGON ANASTIGMAT F:4 S 


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Focusing Mt. 


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l'/4 


!2 $25.50 *26.00 






ILEX OPTICAL COMPANY 

Manufacturers of 
High Grade Photographic Lenses and Shutters, Pro- 
jection Lenses, Condensers and Designers of all types of 
Special Optical Equipments. 

Rochester, New York 



„ 



HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Sociehj of Cinematographers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Homer A. Scott President 

Victor Milner First Vice-President 

Daniel B. Clark Second Vice-President 

L. Guy Wilky Third Vice-President 

Bert Glennon Treasurer 

John W. Boyle Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Bert Glennon Gilbert Warrenton Daniel B. Clark 

Victor Milner George Schneiderman Charles J. Van Enger 

John W. Boyle Homer A. Scott Norbert F. Brodin 

H. Lyman Broening L. Guy Wilky Paul P. Perry 

Henry Sharp Fred W. Jackman Alfred Gilks 

Abel. David — with Warner Brothers. Zanders, Sam — 

Arnold. John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Dockwood. J. R. — ■ 

Lundin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropolis 
Barnes. George S. — Samuel Goldwyn. United Studios. tan Studios. 

Beckway, Wm. — Lyons, Reginald — with Buck Jones, Fox Studio. 
Benolt, Georges — with Metropolitan Studios. 

Boyle, John W. — with First National Productions, United Marshall, Wm. — 

Studios. McCoid, T. D. — with Firrt National. United Studios. 

Brodin, Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions, First National. McGill, Barney — 

United Studios. MacLean. Kenneth G. — with Warner Bros. 

Broening, H. Lyman — Meehan, George — 

Brotherton, Joseph — Milner. Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan, Ira H. — with Marion Davies. Cosmopolitan. Metro- 
Olark. Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studio. Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Clarke, Chas. G. — with George Melford. Metropolitan Studios. 

Cowling, Herford T. — 29 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. Norton, Stephen S. — F. B. O. Studios. 
Cotner, Frank M. — with Goodwill Picture Corp. 

Crockett, Ernest — with Mack Sennett Studios. Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio 

Cronjager, Henry — with Famous Players-Lasky. New York Perrv. Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky 

City. Perry. Paul P. — with Universal. 

Polito. Sol — with Harry Carey, Hunt Stromberg Productions. 
Dean, Faxon M. — 

£ oran ' f ° be ^ n y-— , , , Ries, Park J.— 

uored. jonn uiga, Latvia. R Len H with Alexander Film Co., Englewood, Denver. 

DuPont, Max B. — Colo 

DuPar, E. B.— with Warner Bros. Rose Jackson j._ wi th Universal. 

Dubray, Joseph A.— Rosher. Charles— with "Ufa," Berlin. 

Edeson, Arthur— with Roland West, United Studios. Schneiderman, George— with Fox Studio. 

Evans, Perry— Scott Home r A.— 

Fildew Wm. Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Fischbeek, Harry A.— with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players sharp, Henry— with Metro-Goldwyn -Mayer Studios 

Lasky, New York City. Short, Don- 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, F. B. O. Studios. Smith, Steve, Jr. 

Steene, E. Burton — 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Gilks, Alfred — with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar, John — with Universal. 
Glennon, Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Good, Frank B. — with Fox Studios. Tolhurst, Louis H. — "Secrets of Life." Microscopic Pictures. 
Gray, King D. — Principal Pictures Corporation. 

Griffin. Walter L. — Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 

Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Haller, Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. Van B ureI1| N e( j 

Helmerl, Alois G.— Van Enger! Charles— with First .National. New York City. 

Van Trees. James C. — with Metropolitan Studios 
Jackman, Floyd — Fred W. Jackman Prods. 

Jackman. Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. . 

Jennings. J. D.-with Metropolitan Studios. Warrenton. G.lbert-with Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — 
Koenekamp. Hans F.— with Larry Semon. Whitman Philip H.— with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario 

Kull, Edward— with Universal. Dept. 

Kurrle, Robert — with Edwin Carewe, United Studios. Wilky. L. Guy — 

Edison. Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb. Arthur C. — Attorney. 






Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

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October lc , 

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*"• a. «• , 

i3ea '- Jfr. fi„ 



... y ° a,1 "*ai!ia„ h do *n 



time 



«j ln Seen-. or Qualit fot " 

s 'reet" "., tfy tfc . 

have x ' -kittle ;" r ee best , 

that on ee f 3fc »t» lt 7» iiooaey" plct «r e3 . „ Th 

° n the 'a,,", '"cheuf, •„•»»„ "Scr« pa J h « «•>,„ 

■ J0n ' t Mai. 

10 blow. i£ tJiinlca of ," the y Al 

aad 



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sincerely. 



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April, 1926 




American 



Cinematographer 

Published by the American Society of Cinematographer* , Inc. 





This Month: 



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Culture and the Cinematographer 

By T. DARCY CORRIGAN, M. A., LL.D. (Dublin), 

Ph. D., Litt.D. (Madrid) . 

Do Motion Pictures Injure the Eyes ? 

By HERBERT S. MARSHUTZ, A. B., D.O^ ; 



PUBLISHED IN HOLLYWOOD CALIFORNIA 



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The Exceedingly Fine 
Grain of the Negative 

combined with its high speed, great 
latitude and many gradations, makes 
this the ideal stock for every conceiv- 
able use, and shows on the screen a 
result which has always been the 
desire of the cinematographer and 
the producer. 



^? 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Alter, Inc. 

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Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VII 



APRIL, 1926 



No. 1 



American 
Cinematographer 

Fostkk Goss. Editor and Business Manager 

Contents : 



Page 

Amateur Cinematography 4 

Questions of Amateurs Answered — 

By Victor Milner, A. S. C 5 

Dialogue on Projection — 

Between Joseph Steele and Riehard Barthelmess 6 

Do Motion Pictures Injure the Eyes — 

By Herbert S. Marshutz, A. B., D. 7 

History Makers in World of Cinematography 8 

Culture and the Cinematographer — 

By T. D'Arcy Corrigan, M. A., LL.D. {Dublin); Ph. 
D., Litt. D. (Madrid) 9 

The Editor's Lens 10 

In Camerafornia 1 2 

Releases - 1 + 

Projection (Continued) 24 

A. S. C Roster. 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

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(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society oj 'Cinematographer s, Inc. ) 



LL. 



Foil i 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



April, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 

•<5p r^p ^(V, 



(J (Questions on amateur cinema- 
tography will be gladly an- 
swered in this department. In- 
quirers should sign all queries 



with correct name and address. 
Only legitimate questions will 
be considered. None which 



tend to jeopardize general mo- 
tion picture production by di- 
vulging trade secrets will re- 
ceive attention.) 



( The following story was written 
by the Editor of the AMERICAN 
(AX EM A TOGRAPHER especial- 
ly for the studio section of the EX- 
HIBITORS HERALD, and gives 
another interesting angle on the use 
of the amateur cinema camera.) 

With numerous well-made 
amateur motion picture cam- 
eras and projectors being 
marketed throughout the 
Oountry, it is predicted by 
those who have closely ob- 
served the trend of cinema- 
tography that the average mo- 
tion picture, as displayed by 
the exhibitor, will be looked 
to as a matter of student's in- 
terest by the general run of 
theater patrons. 

Wide Distribution 

It is believed that the ama- 
teur's indulgence in cinema- 
tography bids fair to become 
as widespread as "kodaking," 
and, with this possibility in 
the offing, cinematography, as 
practiced by professional ex- 
perts, will be naturally sought 
out for "pointers" by the nov- 
ices. At the present time, the 
distribution of the amateur 
motion picture outfits has 
reached even the department 
stores and the neighborhood 
music shjops so that the lay- 
man's participation in motion 
photography is distinctly re- 
moved from the plane of spec- 
ulation. The angle that 
should interest foresighted ex- 
hibitors is to make sure that 
the prints, as shown by them, 
approach as near as possible a 
presentation that is perfect. 



Interested in Cinematography 

The public will be more in- 
terested in cinematography 
than ever before. This situa- 
tion has been coming about 
for many seasons past, as is in- 
dicated by correspondence 
that has reached the Amer- 
ican Society of Cinemato- 
graphers from every part of 
the earth. Perhaps a good 
photographic presentation has 
meant m/ore to the patron than 
many exhibitors have real- 
ized. Certainly cinemato- 
graphy will be a factor more 
definite than ever before. 
Pictures photographed by 
recognized cinematographers 
carry, with few exceptions, 
pictorial merit in the nega- 
tive, and it should behoove 
the exhibitor to insist that 
this merit, through g'ood 
prints and otherwise, is 
brought out to the maximum 
when the film is exhibited on 
his screen. Good photogra- 
phy, properly projected, is 
destined to be demanded by 
even the most lax theater au- 
dience. 



Cowling Carries 

Eyemo to India 

Herford Tynes Cowling, 
A. S. C, included an Eyemo 
in his equipment when he de- 
parted for his rapid-fire jour- 
ney to Kashmir, India, to film 
the coronation of Sir Hari 
Singh. 

Cowling stated that the co- 
operation accorded him by 
the Bell and Howell com- 
pany, manufacturers of the 



Eyemo, was an important fac- 
tor in the success of his hur- 
ried departure, made neces- 
sary by the short notice which 
launched him on his dash 
around the world. 

Must Prove Self 
The fact that the A. S. C. 
member made this type of 
camera a part of his photo- 
graphic paraphernalia is re- 
garded as significant, inas- 
much as the exigencies, which 
are entailed in Cowling's 
work in going to the most re- 
mote parts of the globe, call 
for cinematographic equip- 
ment that must have proved 
its reliability before ever he 
can court the risk of taking it 
with him to rely on undei 
most adverse conditions, such 
as he unfailingly encounters. 

Eyemo Used on 

Melford Feature 

When "Whispering Smith," 
a Metropolitan production 
directed by George Melford, 
reaches the screen, it is sche- 
duled to contain scenes photo- 
graphed by a standard, porta- 
ble motion picture camera of 
the "amateur" variety. 
Studio Use 

Charles G. Clarke, A. S. C, 
chief cinematpgrapher for 
Melford on the Metropolitan 
picture, employed the Eyemo 
in conjunction with his regu- 
lar Bell and Howell appara- 
tus. The A. S. C. member 
filmed John Bowers and other ■ 
players in the cast with his 
new camera, and reports that 
his results were most com- 
mendable. 



April, 1926 



AMERICAN C I N E M AT O G R APH ER 



Fivp 



A. S. C. member 
Answers Amateurs 



Uictor Milner, A. S. C. 



Representative Queries 
Reviewed by Noted Pro- 
fessional Cinematographer 



■71 NUMBER of inquiries have been referred to the writer concerning Bell and How- 
J-\ ell's "Filmo" outfit which uses the 16mm. type of reversible film. These queries 
*"^ seem to be of a general nature, as is indicated in the fact that they have been less for- 
mally put to the writer, when, on several occasions, he has been consulted by those who know 
that he is a cinematographer by profession for bits of detailed information concerning new 
"amateur" motion picture outfits. 



Before going into the na- 
ture of these questions, it 
might be well to observe that 
the writer has encountered a 
number of amateur equip- 
ment owners who seem to 
stand in awe of their instru- 
ments. For some reason or 
other, they do not seem to 
realize that it is possible for 
the amateur actually to take 
motion pictures on such a sim- 
plified scale. They are prone 
to make an easy task a hard 
one. There is no use for ex- 
cessive "fussing" or awkward- 
ness over these cameras and 
projectors of reliable manu- 
facture, for they are simplic- 
ity itself. However, there are 
some problems which neces- 
sarily must arise, but, by go- 
ing to the right source, they 
should be solved with com- 
paratively little difficulty. 

There are appended here- 
with, therefore, a number of 
representative questions, and 
the answers thereto : 



"How can I get a close-up 



w i 



th 



7)1 \ 



FU 



m o : 



This seems to be a favorite 
form of query. The amateur 
naturally wants to emulate 
the interesting features in pro- 
fessional cinem atography. 
The close-up is one of these, 
and, fortunately enough, it is 
quite within the range of these 
new cinematographic crea- 
tions. 

Standard equipment on the 
Filmo carries a one-inch lens 




mounted in a universal mount. 
This will give a sharp image 
from a distance of six feet on. 
For those who are better 
acquainted with lenses, the 
camera may be equipped with 
a focusing mount. This 
makes focusing possible at a 
distance of two and one-half 
feet. 

"Is the camera really day- 
light loading? 

The illusion seems to be 
present among some that, in 
order to load their small cam- 
eras, it is really necessary, as 
an added precautionary meas- 
ure, to retire to the darkest of 
darkrooms and there to labor- 
ously load the instrument. 
This is all quite unnecessary. 

(Continued on Page 23) 



Mix Being 'Shot' 

By Small Camera 

Tom Mix's hazardous en- 
counters in motion pictures 
will appear more graphically 
than ever to audiences, as the 
result of a new cinemato- 
graphic auxiliary methods 
instituted by Dan Clark, A. 
S. C, chief cinematographer 
on the Mix features for Fox. 

Difficult Places 

Clark is using an Eyemo to 
get to difficult places, from 
which heretofore it was im- 
possible to photograph the 
Fox star with regulation 
equipment. 

Gets Close to Danger 

Clark states that he is now 
able to shoot his star in the 
closest and most dangerous 
quarters. Where formerly 
action seen over the edge of a 
cliff, and the like, was impos- 
sible -or taken only with the 
greatest difficulty, it is now 
within the realm of accom- 
plishment for the A. S. C. 
member. 

Since much of the action in 
Mix features are taken in pre- 
carious straits, Clark regards 
the new type of camera as a 
boon to his calling. 



r 



Six 



AMERICAN C 1 in E M AT OG R A PHER 



April, 1926 



[ 



PROJECTION * Conducted by Earl J. Denison 



Dialoque on 
Projection 

(Richard Barthelmess long 
has been known to his associates 
as an ardent admirer of good 
projection. Cognizant of this 
fact, the American Cinema- 
tograph er, as soon as Barthel- 
mess arrived in Hollywood to 
make "Ransom's Folly" which 
Sidney Olcott is directing, re- • 
quested Joseph Steele, publicity 
director for Barthelmess, to re- 
cord his star's views on the /nat- 
ter of projection. Herewith, 
then, Steele presents, in a most 
entertaining way, highlights of 
Barthelmess' convictions about 
projection. — Editor's Note.) 

Mr. Steele: 

The American Cinemato- 
ghapher has asked me to get 
a story from you on projec- 
tion ; do you happen to know 
anything about it? 

Mr. Barthelmess : 

I happen to know that pro- 
jection is to the completed 
picture what cutting is to the 
picture during production. 

Mr. Steele: 

Please elucidate, Mr. Bar- 
thelmess. 

Mr. Barthelmess : 

Very well. The cutter, as 
you know, is the gentleman of 
the shears who can insert a 
piece of film showing the 
Roman galleons into the mid- 
dle of an American western, 
and thereby transform it into 
a travelogue. Similarly, the 
projectionist, if he is not com- 
petent, may ruin what might 
have been a perfect entertain- 
ment. 

Mr. Steele: 

Quite right. Do you mind 
expatiating still further. 



Between Joseph Steele 

and 
Richard Barthelmess 




Mr. Barthelmess : 

Of course, and gladly. 
Many component parts of this 
thing we call "projection" 
may go wrong; there is the 
screen itself, the illumination, 
and others with which I am 
not technically familiar. 

Mr. Steele: 

Please be good enough to 
cite a specific instance of the 
terrible destruction that the 
demon projection is capable 
of. , 

Mr. Barthelmess : 

Let me see — yes, I have it! 
I have one that should serve 
amply for the purpose of il- 
lustration. Last September 
when we were shooting a lo- 
cation in fashionable South- 
ampton down on Long Island, 
we arranged with the local 
Cinema Emporium to run 



Famous Star Emphasizes 
Value of Perfect Projec- 
tion to Finished Picture 

our "rushes." The antique 
institution was set in order 
and a whole week's work was 
projected before what was 
probably the most terror- 
stricken audience in the his- 
tory of this infant industry. 
I turned to Mr. J. Boyce 
Smith, our general manager. 
He was pale and it is highly 
probable that my own com- 
plexion matched his. "Great 
Gamaliel!" he exclaimed. 
"We will have to shoot that 
stuff all over again!" 

Mr. Steele: 

Yes, yes — go on. 

Mr. Barthelmess: 

Well, I cogitated over the 
impending catastrophe. And 
after due deliberation I sug- 
gested that we take the 
"rushes" to New York and 
run them in our own projec- 
tion room. We did so, and I 
assure you that the difference 
in the appearance of the pic- 
tures was the difference be- 
tween a daguerrotype and the 
modern photographer's art. 

Mr. Steele: 

Do you think, then, that 
given any picture the modern 
projection equipment will 
present it to advantage? 

Mr. Barthelmess : 

I think nothing of the kind. 
After all, the projector mere- 
ly reflects what it sees, and if 
the camera has recorded a 
blur on the celluloid that blur 
will appear in all its glory. I 
dare say that the ratio of pep 
feet projection is in propor- 
tion to the quality of pho- 
tography in the picture. I 

(Continued on Puge 24) 



April. 1926 



A M ERIC AN C INEM A T OGRAPHER 



Seven 



DO MotiOTl Pictures Bxj Herbert S. Marshutz, 

Injure the Eijes ? A B D ° 



The effect of motion pic- 
tures upon eyes has been mis- 
understood for years. 

The first impressions on the 
subject date back to a time 
when fewer people attended 
pictures, and to a period 
when motion picture projec- 
tion was not at all like it is 
today. 

At the present time several 
millions of people of all ages 
visit motion picture houses 
every day. Ninety per cent 
of them will suffer no incon- 
venience to their eyes. But 
there is nevertheless an un- 
dercurrent of belief firmly 
imbedded in the public mind 
in the United States and wher- 
ever pictures are shown, that 
movies hurt the eyes. Now 
why is this the case? 

In preparing this material, 
we have analyzed the condi- 
tions under which the human 
eve functions in a motion pic- 
ture theater. Every condi- 
tion that is somewhat unusual, 
and any circumstance under 
which the eye must work dif- 
ferently than in any other vis- 
ual effort, are a hundred times 
less objectionable than 15 
or 20 years ago. During 
that early period, there were 
many flaws both in picture 
making and picture showing. 
Today they are either greatly 
lessened or omitted entirely. 

"Dark-Adaptation" 

Necessary 

Now what are the unusual 
conditions under which the 
eye must function in a picture 
house? There are quite a 
few. First of all, there is a 
great reduction in the amount 
of light. Even the brightest 



and whitest scenes are dim in 
contrast with daylight illum- 
ination. And the theater is 
still darker. Consequently, 
the eye is working in reduced 
light. Even though the eye 
is observing detail the pupil 
is larger than would be the 
case in an ordinary room or 
office. Between the screen 
and the corners of the audi- 
torium, is a decided contrast 
of lighting. Another unusual 
feature in spite of the impres- 
sion of flowing motion, the 
picture on the screen is, of 
course, a series of rapidly 
changing scenes. Then again, 
there is no depth — the screen 
is a flat surface. And the eye 
is seeing a world without its 
accustomed perspective. 
What one sees is not an image 
of any object but the image of 
an image. It is not in natural 
colors as a rule, but in mon- 
otonous tones of black and 
white. 



Abnormal Functioning 

All these point to the unde- 
niable fact that the eye must 
function under abnormal con- 
ditions while viewing a pho- 
toplay. But we must not be 
too harsh. Most eyes should 
have no difficulty. The old 
viewpoint that motion pic- 
tures are bad for the eyes is 
based on conditions of many 
years ago. At the present 
time, the abnormal conditions 
present in the showing of a 
photoplay are for the most 
part present in the legitimate 
theater, at the lantern lecture, 
at the opera and even in some 
of o u r badly illuminated 
homes and offices. Except 
for the ntotion and the quick 
changes of shading on the 



Prominent Optometrist 
States that Eyes Found 
to Be Source of Trouble 

screen, motion pictures and 
the theaters have much in 
common when it comes to the 
eyes. 

Hoiv to Rest Eyes 

The average photoplay 
lasts almost two hours, during 
which time the audience usu- 
ally has the opportunity to 
rest the eyes by listening to 
music or viewing a vaudeville 
act. Such rest periods are 
very valuable and by all 
means should be taken advan- 
tage of. Trying to read pro- 
grams in the usually dim light 
between acts is just as apt to 
bring on visual fatigue as 
watching the picture too 
steadily. For years I have 
made a practice of looking 
around the theatre, studying 
the decorative effects, noting 
the ornamentations -any- 
thing to get the eyes on differ- 
ent light and at different an- 
gles. This has proven very 
restful. Nothing will tire 
eyes more than looking too 
steadily at one point or at one 
kind of object. Even gazing 
for just a minute at one color, 
one letter, produces what we 
know as retinal fatigue. This 
is involved in most discom- 
forts experienced from pro- 
longed use of the eyes at the- 
aters, or any steady observa- 
tion at any distance, near or 
far. 



An Improved Situation 

Since the nickelodeon of 
long ago, so much improve- 
ment has been made in the 
showing of pictures that no 
one who has investigated the 
subject today can come to the 
conclusion that the movies 

(Continuecl Q1 I'aee % l ) 



Eight 



AMERICAN CI NEM AT OGR APHER 



April, 1926 



History Makers in IDorld of Cirtematoqraphij 



M a n y Achievements Made 
by Sextet of Noted A. S. C. 
Camera C e 1 e b r i t i e s. 



% 



Artists Responsible / o r 
Pictorial Masterpieces 
in the Cine m a W o r 1 d. 




Ernest Palmer, A. S. C, who 
has imbued the Fox production, 
"Yellow Fingers," with rare cine- 
matographic at m os p here. 




Norbert Brodin, A. S. (J., who 

is now filming Frank Lloyd's "The 
If ise Guy." His work in "The 
Sea Hawk is still remembered. 




Ernest Haller, A. S. C, who 
has put Michael Arlen's thoughts 
in cinematographic form in "The 
Dancer from Paris." 




George Barnes, A. S. C., who is 
carrying on with the quality of 
-work he manifested in "The Dark 
Angel." 



Bert Glennon, A. S. C, who is 

the photographic mentor on the 
current Paramount features star- 
ring Pol a Negri. 




Her ford Tynes Cowling, A. S. 
G, who is scoring a great personal 
"scoop" in filming Sir Hari Singh's 
coronation. 






April, 1926 



AMERICAN C I N E M AT O G R A PHER 



Nine 



Culture and the 
Cinematoqrapher 



13q T. D'Arcxj Corriqan 
m. A., LL. D. (Dublin); 
Ph.D., Litt.D.( Madrid). 



The Retort Courteous to 
Prominent Actor's Obser- 
vations on Cinematographers 



(By all tenets of education as 
well as culture, T . D'Arcy Cor- 

rigan is eminently fitted to write 
the accompanying article. Mr. 
Corrigan received his primary 
education in Ireland and Eng- 
land under the Jesuit Fathers, 
and later with the Basilian 
Fathers in France. He subse- 
quently attended lectures at the 
celebrated Sor bonne, Paris. His 
father receiving a naval ap- 
pointment to Malta, young 
Corrigan was sent to the I ' ni- 
versity of Madrid, where he 
took his degree of doctorate of 
philisophy and letters. In Spain 
he was lay secretary to the late 
Cardinal Cascajarez. Return- 
ing to Ireland he entered Trin- 
ity College, Dublin, to study 
law , and in due course was 
called to the Irish bar. ..How- 
ever, the lure of literature and 
stage drew him to London. He 




'/'. D'Arcy Corrigan 



soon drifted to the stage, where , 
in a notable career over a period 
of 18 years, he became knoivn 



as one of the foremost Irish 
character actors in Great Brit- 
ain. During this time, he found 
occasion for dilatory writing, 
and contributed as a critic to 
various publications including 
the "Dublin Review" and the 
"Irish Monthly." During the 
war he was official translator of 
documents for the Admiralty at 
II hitehall. During the second 
rebellion in Ireland, he was 
staff-lieutenant under General 
Michael Collins. On coming 
to this country, he held the 
chair of English at the Univer- 
rity of Buffalo. Because of his 
classical knowledge and his 
familiarity with the romance 
languages, his services were 
soon in demand by such pub- 
lishers as Funk and If 'agnails, 
the Encyclopedia Americana 
and the Lincoln Library. Mr. 
Corrigan is at present in Holly- 
wood, where he is transferring 
his acumen as an actor to the 
screen. — Editor's Note.) 



". . . Blow', blow, thou winter wind 
Thou art not so unkind 
As benefits forgot" . . . King Lear. 
Shakespeare. 



The attention of the pres- 
ent writer has been drawn to 
two articles which have re- 
cently appeared in the Film 
Mercury and the American 
Cinematographer respective- 
ly. Both articles deal with 
certain remarks more or- less 
derogatory 6o various sections 
of the motion picture indus- 
try and made by Mr. Milton 
Sills on the occasion of a 
luncheon given by the New 
York National Board of Re- 
view. These remarks are 
said to have caused consider- 
able indignation, especially 
among the cameramen, to 
whom Mr. Sills seems to have 
dealt "the most unkindest cut 
of all 11 by accusing them of 
lack of culture and an entire 



ignorance of the physics of 
light. 

Debt is Great 

It is to be regretted that 
Mr. Sills should have lent 
himself to such airy vapor- 
ings wanting so much in veri- 
similitude and yet able to ir- 
ritate the susceptibilities of a 
body of capable and worthy 
technicians to whom Mr. 
Sills like other eminent art- 
ists in his profession owes so 
much in his screen career. 

It may, however, be said 
in extenuation of Mr. Sills' 
aspersions that he was no 
doubt called upon to speak 
impromptu and for the in- 
spiration of what rhetoricians 
tell us is one of the most diffi- 
cult forms of oratory — an af- 
ter dinner speech - - had to 
rely in these days of prohibi- 
tion on no stronger stimulant 



than a tumbler of iced water. 
Hence he was unable to reach 
to the verities, for as the an- 
cients tell us "not in water, 
but in wine, is truth to be 
found" — in vino Veritas, they 
insisted. His words then, are 
not to be taken too seriously. 
Horace, to show the evanes- 
cent nature of the verses of 
certain self-styled poets, was 
wont to refer to the latter as 
mere water drinkers — "aquae 
potjoribus." 

What is Culture? 

But seriously, in what does 
this culture consist, the lack 
of which in the cameraman, 
Mr. Sills deplores? Briefly, 
it may be said that just as art 
and science as well as moral- 
ity go to form the substance 
of religion — that is, religion 
apart from supernatural- 
ism — so culture in its highest 

(Continued on Papp if) 



Ten AM ERIC AN CINBM ATOORAPHER April, 192G 



The EDITORS 9 LENS > « focused by foster goss 



"Not Credited" 

C| An inspection of the list of "Releases," as published in the Ameri- 
can Ginematographer this month, reveals the refreshing fact that 
not a single production carries the line, "Not Credited. 1 ' 

^ This circumstance speaks a world of progress. When the "Re- 
leases" idea was originated several years ago as an exclusive feat- 
ure of this publication, the "Not Credited" legend practically 
dominated. The reason was simply that the producers were not 
crediting the cinematographer on the pictures which they made. 
Through the efforts of this magazine and of the American Society 
of Cinematographers, the fallacy of the former procedure was 
urged upon those responsible, with the result that the practice of 
ignoring the cinematographers was slowly but surely put in the 
discard. 

<fl For this, then, we may salute the producers! 

•J But the situation is as yet unsolved. All the co-operation of the 
producers is but for naught if, after the picture reaches the the- 
atre, the credit titles are eliminated and the cinematographer is 
not recognized in the program, house organ or otherwise. This 
method, as has been pointed out on numerous occasions previ- 
ously, is indulged in too often by the managers of important the- 
atres. It is to be hoped that they will show the same sign of prog- 
ress that the producers have! 



A Bugaboo Blasted 

<| The hoary complaint that motion pictures injure the eyes seems 
to be very decisively spiked in the article which, written by Dr. 
Herbert S. Marshutz, appears in other columns of this issue. It 



April, 1926 



AMERICAN C I N E M AT OOR APHBR 



Eleven 



is more than welcome that the results of the research, which is 
mentioned in Dr. Marshutz' article, come from outside the in- 
dustry. Responsible theatres long have been endeavoring to les- 
sen any suggestion of eyestrain, so that the facts, as revealed by Dr. 
Marshutz, that, if there is strain in the cinema house, it is the 
eyes that are at fault blast the final vestige of the old complaint. 
If a percentage of the public still needs to be educated on this 
point, no more time should be wasted in so doing. Dr. Marshutz, 
in radio talks, similar to his article, over KFWB, Warner Broth- 
ers, in Hollywood, demonstrates one intelligent way of going 
about the matter. 



"Dannij " Passes 

•J With the passing of Joseph Dannenberg — "Danny" — editor of 
the Film Daily, the motion picture industry loses an identity that 
will never be replaced. Peculiarly enough, much of the eulogy 
that attended Danny's sudden departure, dwelt on the lovable and 
the square-shooting personality of the man -- however, Danny 
was not only a true gentleman of the highest breeding, but he 
was a worker whose efforts very definitely bettered the profession 
which he so meritoriously graced for the decade preceding his 
death. Danny was a success as a newspaperman; he was a suc- 
cess in the trade paper field before he changed to film journalism; 
he was a success as the guiding editorial genius of the Film Daily. 
Danny produced — he built, constructed and never destroyed. 

<J In looking backward, it is with gratification that we remember 
that the leading feature in the A. S. C. Annual last October, when 
various critics picked the productions with the best cinematogra- 
phy for the past year, was Danny's. His prompt attention and co- 
operation in that instance were indicative of the ever-efficient and 
likeable man that was Danny. 



Twelve 



AMERICAN C INE M AT O GR APHER 



April, 1926 




J. D. Jennings, A. S. C, has returned to 

Hollywood from a lengthy location trip, four 

weeks of which were spent in Kernville and 

two and one-half weeks of which were passed 

in Santa Ynez. Jennings is filming the latest 

Buster Keaton feature, "Battling Butler," 

which Keaton himself is directing. The cast 

includes Sally O'Neill, Snitz Edwards, Tom 

Wilson, Francis MacDonald and Mary 

O'Brien. 

* * * * 

E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, has finished shoot- 
ing the latest Rin-Tin-Tin feature, "The 
Hero of the Big Snows." Alice Calhoun and 
Don Alvarado headed the cast. Herman C. 
Raymaker directed. Du Par is now filming 
the Warner Bros, special production, "The 
Better Ole", which, starring Syd Chaplin, is 
being directed by Chuck Reisner. The cast 
numbers Doris Hill and Tom Kennedy. 



Harold Wenstrom, A. S. C, has been ap- 
pointed chief cinematographer on the latest 
Corinne Griffith production, "Into Her King- 
dom." Svend Gade is directing. 



John Arnold, A. S. C, has completed the 
photographing of "Love's Blindness," a 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer production based on 
an Elinor Glyn story. John Francis Dillon 

directed. 

* *- * * 

Walter Griffin, A. S. C, is filming a 
David Hartford production, "Jack in the 
Pulpit," starring Cullen Landis. 



Hans Koenekamp, A. S. C, is hard at 
work on the comedy cinematography in 
"Spuds," Larry Semon's latest comedy fea- 
ture. Dorothy Dwan is leading lady. 



Barney McGill, A. S. C, is shooting the 
Fox comedy, "Rah, Rah, Heidelberg," one of 
the Richard Harding Davis, Van Bibber 
series. Earle Fox is starred. 



William Marshall, A. S. C, is filming the 
Paramount production, "Wet Paint," starring 
Raymond Griffith. 

* * * * 

Bert Glennon, A. S. C, is photographing 
"Good and Naughty," the latest Paramount 
production, starring Pola Negri. Mai St. 
Clair is directing. 

* * * * 

Floyd Jackman, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing the Mabel Nbrmand comedies being pro- 
duced at the Hal Roach studios. 

* * * * 

Fred W. Jackman, A. S. C, has returned 
from a flying business trip to New York City. 
"The Devil Horse," the latest Fred W. Jack- 
man production, starring Rex, is ready for 
general release. 

* * * * 

Norbert Brodin, A. S. C, is filming Frank 
Lloyd's latest production, "The Wise Guy." 

* * * * 

John W. Boyle, A. S. C, is photographing 
"Miss Nobody," a First National production, 
starring Anna Q. Nilsson. 

Sol Polito, A. S. C, is shooting "Satan 
Town," starring Harry Carey and directed by 
Edward Mortimer. 

* * * * 

Gilbert Warrenton, A. S. C, has returned 
from an extensive location trip to the big snow 
country, where he filmed wintery sequences 
for "Prisoners of the Storm," a Universal 
production, starring House Peters, and di- 
rected by Lynn Reynolds. Warrenton's ex- 
periences on the current production were the 
antithesis of those on the previous feature 
filmed by him. This was Emory Johnson's 
"The Non-Stop Flight," in which many 
scenes were shot in the hottest parts of the 
desert regions. 

* * * * 

T. D. McCord, A. S. C, is being lauded 
for his cinematography in First National's 
"Irene," starring Colleen Moore. 



April. 1926 



AMERICAN CIN E M AT O GR APHER 



Thirteen 




Herbert E. Bradley 

says — 

^ mi will probably be interested to know that 
I carried one of your Universal Cameras with 
Turret Front, on my expedition around the 
world in 1924 and 1925. We took 10,000 feet 
of film from America with which to take pic- 
tures in Africa, and picked up 5,000 feet addi- 
tional in Bombay for work in India, Sumatra, 
Java and Indo-China. 

In Africa where we were the first expedition through the cannibal country west of Lake Edward, 
the camera was carried on the heads of porters for a period of about four months. 

Out of the 15,000 feet of film, we had less than 400 feet of poor film which 1 considered remarkable 
record, in view of the fact that we had no special photographer, and the pictures were taken by Professor 
Scott of the University of Chicago and myself. Mr. Scott had never had any experience, and my own 
had been very limited. The camera gave us entire sa isfaction and we were well pleased with its work. 
It stood up well under hard usage, rough work and e /erj sort of weather. 

A UNIVERSAL STOOD UP ON THIS JOB — WHY NOT ON YOURS? 
LET US SEND YOU OUR MAY CATALOGUE 

UNIVERSAL CAMERA CO. 

355 WEST ONTARIO STREET, CHICAGO 



Culture and the 

Cmematoqrapher 



t con i inued from Pa 



sense may be regarded as the 
essence of this same natural 
religion, its fruit being the 
higher or spiritual life. This 
spiritual life known as cul- 
ture embraces the three-fold 
devotion to Beauty, Goodness 
and Truth which in reality 
are but some of the various 
names denoting the essence of 
the Supreme Deity. From 
this consideration we are led 
to the true meaning of the 
term, "Civilization," which 
expresses the same three-fold 
religion shown on a larger 
scale in the characters, insti- 
tutions and customs of na- 
tions. 



Where this or some such 
similar view of religion is 
lost sight of as it is frequent 
in many of the higher secular 
institutions of learning, edu- 
cation or university training, 
call it what you will, spells 
merely a prodigious intellec- 
tual activity accompanied by 
moral decay. Such decay is 
evidenced in the abnormali- 
ties that we find in the art, lit- 
erature and drama of today, 
which by the way we are 
asked to regard as emanations 
of culture, whereas in reality 
our admiration is being chal- 
lenged in order that we shall 
fall into ecstasy at beholding 
a paste pearl in a pig's snout. 

The Philosopher's Angle 

Mr. Sills' chief faux pas 
would seem to the writer to 



be in confounding culture 
with education in using what 
the philosophers call the 
"'post hoc ergo propter hoc" 
style of argument. In other 
words, he insinuates that cul- 
ture exists by reason of a col- 
lege or university training 
whereas it may and does exist 
in spite of it. Culture, not in- 
deed in its fulness as the 
writer has endeav'ored to por- 
tray it above, but in its simple 
or what may be termed in its 
embryonic state, is an innate 
quality. 

Where Culture Abides 

It may be present in the 
soul of the peasant as well as 
in that of the prince or of the 
college student and can be de- 

Continued on Page IT) 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



April, 1926 



RELE 

February 15, 1926, 


:ases 

to March 22, 1926 


TITLE 


PHOTOGRAPHED BY 


The Grand Duchess and the Waiter 


Lee Garmes 


Partners Again 


Arthur Edeson, member A. S. C. 


Three Faces East 


Peverall Marley 


Stella Maris 


Milton Moore 


Don't 


Max Fabian 


Driftin' Through 


Sol Polito, member A. S. C. 


The Pinch Hitter 


Jules Cronjager 


Moana 


Robert Flaherty 


The Far Cry 


John W. Boyle, member A. S. C. 


Hearts and Fists 


Not Credited 


Dancing Mothers 


J. Roy Hunt 


Mare Nostrum 


John F. Seitz, member A. S. C. 


Fifth Avenue 


James C. Van Trees, member A.S.C. 


The Traffic Cop 


Gilbert Warrenton, member A. S. C. 


The Auction Block 


John Arnold, member A. S. C. 


Irene 


T. D. McCord, member A. S. C. 


La Boheme 


Henri Sartov 


Let's Get Married 


Edward Cronjager 


The Cohens and the Kellys 


Charles Stumar, member A. S. C. 


The Torrent 


William Daniels 


Oh ! What a Nurse 


John Mescall 


The Girl from Montmartre 


R. J. Bergquist 


The Johnstown Flood 


Geo. Schneiderman, member A.S.C. 


Watch Your Wife 


Arthur L. Todd 


The Blue Streak 


Jack Stevens and Frank Evans 


The Transcontinental Limited 


Steve Smith, Jr., member A. S. C. 


The Dixie Merchant 


Frank B. Good, member A. S. C. 


Fascinating Youth 


Leo Tovar 


The Cave Man 


David Abel, member A. S.. C. 


Under Western Skies 


Virgil Miller 


In Borrowed Plumes 


Edward Paul 


Sea Horses 


James Howe 


White Mice 


Not Credited 


Broken Hearts 


Frank Zukor 


The Border Sheriff 


Harry Mason and Wm. Nobles 


Miss Brewster's Millions 


H. Kinley Martin 


The Set-Up 


Eddie Linden 


The King of the Turf 


Jules Cronjager 


The Black Pirate 


Henry Sharp, member A. S. C. 


The Untamed Lady 


George Webber 


The Love Toy 


John Mescall 


My Own Pal 


Daniel B. Clark, member A. S. C. 


The Bat 


Arthur Edeson, member A. S. C. 


The Night Patrol 


Chas. Long and Jack Stevens 


The Broadway Boob 


Marcel LePicard 


The Only Way 


Claude McDonnell 


Two Can Play 


Andre Barlatier 


The Road to Glory 


Jos. August 


The Bar-C Mystery 


Jos. Brotherton, member A. S. C. 






April, 1926 AMERICAN C I N E M A T O G R A P H E R Fifteen 

Tone for Tone 

For correct rendering of colors in 
black and white use Eastman Panchro- 
matic Negative. 

No matter how brilliant the hues 
of set or landscape, they show in the 
negative, tone for tone, in their cor- 
rect relationship in monochrome. 

Eastman Panchromatic Negative 
does full justice to the director's art 
and cinematographer's skill. 

Write for the booklet "Eastman Panchromatic Neg- 
ative Film for Motion Pictures." Properties, uses, 
handling, development of the film are described. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CI NE M AT O GR A PHER 



April, 1926 



Kinograms Cinematographer 

Honored by the Explorers Club 

One of the greatest honors ever paid a 
news reel cinematographer has been be- 
stowed upon Gene Lamb, staff operator in 
the Orient for Kinograms, by The Explorers 
Club of America, which has made him a full 
member of that distinguished organization. 
Associate members with Lamb number 
among them Amundsen, MacMillan, Captain 
Bartlett, who was with Peary on his trip of 
discovery to the pole, and a host of others. 

After a two-year expedition into Northern 
Tibet, Lamb, who is a native of Washington, 
D. C, came to America for a short visit. He 
was invited to lecture before the club and so 
enthusiastic were the members of his audience 
over his remarkable achievements that he was 
.told an application for membership would 
probably be favorably acted upon. Lamb 
thereupon make formal application on Janu- 
ary 19 and on March 1 1, last, he was notified 
that he had been elected a fully qualified 
member. 

The full importance of this lies in the fact 
that in order to become a member of The Ex- 
plorers Club the applicant must prove to the 
satisfaction of the electoral committee that his 
explorations have been of value to humanity 
and science. For instance one - clause in the 
rules expressly states that the applicant must 
show that he has "contributed to the geograph- 
ical knowledge of the world." He must also 
be a recognized author and lecturer. 



U. S. Lines Film of Rescue to 

Be Shown Throughout Nation 

The Keith-Albee Theaters have booked 
for shpwing all over the United States, "His- 
tory in the Making," a 1,600-ft. picture treat- 
ing with the rescue of the British freighter, 
S. S. Antinoe, by Captain George Fried of the 
United States liner President Roosevelt. 

This picture, compiled by Leonard Mit- 
chell of the United States Lines, in collabora- 
tion with International Newsreel, was origi- 
nally used in connection with the official en- 
tertainment of Captain Fried by the City of 
New York. It was shown at the Hippodrome 
on the occasion of the entertainment of Cap- 
tain Fried and his crew, and again at the ben- 
efit performance of that theater. 



ILEX 

CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

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And Possesses Marvelous Illuminating Power. 
For General Ail-Around Work The F:3.5 
Or F:4.5 Is Preferable, Owing 'To The 
Greater Depth Of Focus. 



DEFINITION- 

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COHERING POWER- 

Even At Their Largest Aperture They 
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Listed Below. 

ILEX SUPER CINEMAT F:2.6 



CAT. NO. 


Covers at 
Full Aperture 


EQUIV. FOCUS 


Price in 
Barrel 


Price in 
Focusing Mt. 


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132.00 


436.00 


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39.00 


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75 


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ILEX PARAGON CINEMAT F:j.$ 



CAT. NO. 


Covers at 
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ILEX PARAGON ANASTIGMAT F:4.5 



ILEX OPTICAL COMPANY 

Manufacturers of 
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Rochester, New York 






CAT. NO. 


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32 


$23.50 


*26.00 






April, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



(Continued from Page, 13) 

veloped in any atmosphere 
that may be congenial to its 
growth but not antagonistic. 
Hence we speak of "Nature's 
gentlemen" such as the writer 
many golden years ago had 
the privilege of meeting in a 
secluded Benedictine monas- 
tery in Brittany, in the per- 
sons of a group of young peas- 
ant novices whose gentleness 
of bearing, courtesy and 
charm of manner would have 
abashed any assembly of a 
royal court. At best educa- 
tion or university training is 
but the Ceylon diver who 
brings to the surface the pearl 
of great price. It must be at 
the bottom of the ocean be- 
fore he can emerge with it. 
If it be not there the diving 
of the diver is in vain. 

The writer knows certain 
university men who hold their 
college degrees and concom- 
itantly their knife and fork 
as though they were emulat- 
ing the example of a jazz ex- 
pert on the kettle-drum. One 
of these gentlemen indeed is 
possessed of a sang-froid so 
egregiously daring that in cer- 
tain hygienic exigencies he 
discards the use of a handker- 
chief in public in order to ex- 
hibit preferably a boastful 
dexterity of forefinger and 
thumb. And seriously what 
has Mr. Milton Sills to say 
anent the culture of the two 
sexual maniacs, Loeb and 
Leopold, for whom counsel 
on their behalf put in as one 
of the strongest pleas the 
super-education of these two 
young murderers. 

In fine, from what has been 



written it may easily be seen 
that culture may be found in 
the soul of the cameraman 
despite the lack of a univer- 
sity training. This is proved 
by the excellence of the ma- 
jority of pictures made in the 
studios of this country, 85 per 
cent of which are sought for 
in Europe alone. The ambi- 
tion of the youth who enters 
on his duties as humble assist- 
ant on the set is to handle 
some day the camera. This 
ambition postulates hidden 
culture which through an ar- 
duous novitiate of years of 
drudgery is imperceptibly 
brought out and nurtured and 
trained. This is accomp- 
lished by the close observa- 
tion and the acute question- 
ing of the whys and where- 
fores of his own miscellane- 
ous duties as well as by the 
watching and enquiring into 
the meticulous modes and 
methods of his chief. 

University of the Practical 

Simultaneously n o t with- 
standing Mr. Sills' assertion 
the camera neophyte receives 
a thorough and expert train- 
ing in the physics of light in 
the university called Experi- 
ence whose fees — years of pa- 
tient labor — are the highest. 
This practical training in this 
special branch of physics can- 
not be surpassed if at all 
equalled in the chemistry lec- 
ture halls or laboratories 
which Mr. Sills seemingly 
has in mind. 

Several months ago the 
writer had the privilege and 
pleasure of a conversation 



with Mr. James Cruze on 
this very subject. They were 
speaking of the comparative 
successes of American and 
European pictures. Mr. 
Cruze, during the course of 
this interview magnanimous- 
ly paid tribute to the excel- 
lence that is to be found in 
many European pictures but 
he added that European di- 
rectors are unfortunately han- 
dicapped owing to the dearth 
of expert mechanical and 
technical men whom we have 
in such vast numbers here in 
our American studios. 

Isolated Personal Instances 

Mr. Sills possibly may have 
been urged to his statements 
by the remembrance of one or 
two incidental failures on the 
part of cameramen to do him 
full justice. But even so it is 
bad logic to argue from the 
particular to the general, and 
so condemn the many for the 
faults of a few. He will but 
prove himself once more the 
true artist that he is by show- 
ing the courage of humility 
that will enable him to make 
the amende honorable by pro- 
claiming that hard words ut- 
tered on the spur of the mo- 
ment were rather a slip of 
that unruly member, the 
tongue, than any malice 
aforethought springing from 
the heart. 



SUBSCRIBE 

to the 

American 
Cinematoqraqher 



Kighteen 



AMERICAN CINEM AT OGR APHER 






April, 1926 



Arrange Distribution for 

Ashcraft Automatic Arc 

Contracts have been signed by Hurry D. 
Brown, Hollywood electrical engineer, and 
Clarence Ashcraft, inventor, giving the for- 
mer the world rights to the handling and dis- 
tribution of the Ashcraft automatic arc. This 
device, revolutionary in motion picture light- 
ing equipment, is used in high intensity spot- 
lights and sun-arcs. It is manufactured under 
General Electric as well as Ashcraft patents. 

Following the consummation of this deal, 
the Metropolitan and Cecil De Mille Studios 
purchased $25,000 worth of 80 ampere spots 
and sun-arcs, which sale was followed by 
large orders to Fox and Universal running 
into the many thousands, it is said. 

Brown plans to make Hollywood the dis- 
tributing point for this important cinema- 
making product. He will immediately estab- 
lish agencies in New York and Europe. First 
National Pictures are already using these 
lamps both here and in New York. 

Gilks to Be Cinematographer 

on Paramount's "Old Ironsides" 



Alfred Gilks, A. S. C, has been ap- 
pointed chief cinematographer on the Para- 
mount production of "Old Ironsides," which 
will be produced under the direction of James 
Cruze. It is understood that Karl Brown, 
who has been chief cinematographer on 
Cruze successes for the past several years in- 
cluding "The Covered Wagon," is to enter 
the directorial fold at the Famous Players- 
Lasky studios. 

Gilks has been connected with the Para- 
mount studios for the past several years. He 
has filmed numerous important productions, 
among which was "North of 36." 

W. W. Kerrigan Heads New 

Hollywood Costuming Firm 

Announcement was made last month of 
the incorporation of United Costumers, Inc. 
The new firm will be located at 6248 Santa 
Monica Boulevard, Hollywood, and will 
manufacture costumes for motion picture pro- 
ductions. 

The directors of this new Hollywood in- 
dustry are W. W. Kerrigan, N. E. Walker, N. 
A. R. Spencer, Dan Greenberg, and H. S. 
McCaughy. The personnel of the various 
departments includes Mary A. Foote, ladies' 



GOERZ 

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April, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Nineteen 



designer and cutter; William Myers, uniform 
cutter and draftsman; Gertrude Streitberger, 
ladies' historical and period costumes; N. A. 
R. Spencer, uniforms and men's costumes; 
Elsie Koch and Louise Howard, wigs, hair 
goods, make-up; Johnnie Walker, hat fac- 
tory, properties, and equipment; M. DeBre- 
vern, research and art department; and W. 
W. Kerrigan, business manager. 

The United Costumers have already fur- 
nished costumes for "The Sea Beast" pro- 
logue at the Figueroa Theatre, Los Angeles, 
and Paramount's production of "Beau Geste," 
which is being directed by Herbert Brenon. 

Change Name and Ownership of 
L. A. Motion Picture Company 

The L. A. Utility Manufacturing Com- 
pany has taken over the plant of the L. A. 
Motion Picture Company which was oper- 
ated for many years in Los Angeles by H. 
Paulis. 

The new organization will occupy the 
same premises as its predecessor at 215-217- 
219 E. Washington street, Los Angeles. This 
location comprises the factory and salesroom 
of the firm. 

A. J. Sagon, who is in charge of the new 
company, announces that the line of motion 
picture equipment will be continued as here- 
tofore, with special attention to precision and 
general machine Work. 

Creco Research Department 

to Be F orm ed by Sylvester 

To promote a better understanding and 
co-operation between the cinematographer 
and the studio lighting equipment manufac- 
turer, Bert Sylvester, president of Creco, Inc., 
Hollywood, will establish shortly a research 
department, in which experiments will be 
made concerning visual and actinic values of 
high intensity arcs, carbons, various diffusing 
mediums, colored glass and relative stock 
speeds. 

Peter Mole, Jr., consulting engineer for 
Creco and formerly affiliated with the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, will supervise the 
work of the new department. 

Suggestions from members of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers pertaining 
to the problems at hand, from a photographic 
and lighting standpoint, will be sincerely ap- 
preciated, Creco officials announce. It has 
been proposed that the results of the experi- 
ments be compiled in bulletin or book form. 



When better pictures are 

made, "Coops" will help 

make them! 

THANKS to Cooper Hewitt light, 
studios no longer spend their time 
worrying whether daylight's bright 
enough. They concentrate on making 
better pictures. For they know they can 
get exactly the light they want — at all 
times. 

And Cooper Hewitt service keeps ever 
on the job, ready to meet new require- 
ments. Any knotty lighting problem? 
Get in touch with "Mike" Shannon to- 
day; he's the man to set things aright. 



COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office — 7207 Santa Monica Blvd. 
KEESE ENGINEERING CO., John T."Mike" Shannon, Mgr. 
126 © C. H. E. Co., 1926 



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Twenty 



AMERICAN C INEM AT OG R APH ER 



April, 1926 



Catalogues Present Varied 

Data on Two Standard Cameras 



Two complete and handsome types of cat- 
alogues on two standard makes of motion pic- 
ture cameras have been received during the 
past month at the offices of the American 
Cinematographer. 

One comes from the Universal Camera 
Company, Chicago, and contains interesting 
information relative to the use of the Uni- 
versal in this and in foreign climes. 

The other comes from the Motion Picture 
Apparatus Company, New York City, and 
presents historical matter concerning the 
Debrie camera, for which the latter company 
is agent in the United States and in Canada. 



Bell and Howell to Establish 

Branch in London, England 



J. H. McNabb, president of the Bell and 
Howell Company, accompanied by Mrs. Mc- 
Nabb, has left for New Yourk enroute to Lon- 
don ion an extended business trip. 

McNabb, who is considered an authority 
in the manufacture and use of motion picture 
producing and processing equipment, will 
spend a day or two in New York at the branch 
office of his company, visiting with the pro- 
fessional film producers using Bell and How- 
ell equipment located in that city, after which 
he and Mrs. McNabb will embark for Lon- 
don, England, where a new branch office is to 
be established. 

"The rapid growth of our foreign busi- 
ness," stated McNabb shortly before leaving, 
"has made this move necessary to enable us to 
extend a closer service t)o our European users. 
Personal service is the foundation on which 
our business has been built and we feel that 
only by the establishing of a foreign branch 
office can we properly serve our increasingly 
large number of users in England and other 
countries." 

Upon leaving London the McNabbs will 
proceed to Paris. Their itinerary includes 
Berlin and other points in Europe. They in- 
tend to return to Chicago some time in May. 



Charles Van Enger, A. S. C, is in New 
York City for the filming of his first produc- 
tion on his new First National contract. 




<y0j4M^t^^/ 



Th Bausch & Lomb Ultra 
Rapid Anastigmat is an 
f:2. 7. lens. This not only is 
its rated speed- — it is the 
speed at which it actually 
prforms. 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. 

Neiv York San Francisco Washington Chicago 
Boston Rochester. N. Y. Condon 



CRECO 



The New Iris Combination may be had 
with 4-in. Iris or Sunshade 

FRED HOEFNER 
Cinema and Experimental Work 

5319 Santa Monica Blvd. (rear) 
GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Cal. 






HARRY D. 


BROWN 


Cinema Studios 


Supply Corp. 


1438 Beachwood Drive 

Brown- Ash craft 

Studio Umps 


HOIIy 0513 

HOIIy 0514 

(urbons, and Other 



April. 1926 



AMERICAN CINBM AT OGR APHBR 



Twenty-orK 



36 Crestwood Avenue, 






Buffalo, New 


York. 






American Cinematographer, 








Hollywood, California. 








Gen tic men : 








( pon receiving my last copy 


of your magazine 


. i 


note you are still running my 


ad" on th 


■ Bell and 


Howell equipment I offered lot 


• Side. 






The camera outfit was sold 


three wee 


ks ago, 


so 


you can see the advertisement 


is useless 


. May 


I 


state that I received queries 


from all 


over t 


he 


country and some foreign queries as ivell ! I his 


shows the tremendous advert 


ising power of i 


he 


A merican Cinematographer. 








Yours very 


truly. 






(Signed) 


FRANK 


KING. 





E. Burton Steene 

Freelance 

Akeley Camera 
Specialist 


HEmpstead 
4 16 1 


Care of American Society of 
Cinematographerg 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 
Hollywood, Calif. 


GRanite 
4274 









E. Burton Steene, A. S. C, has been away 
on location for the filming of Akeley work on 
the latest George Melford production for 
Metropolitan. 



AMKKICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bde., 

<".:!:'. I Hollywood Blvd.. Hollywood. Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dol'ars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with the Issue of 



1!>2 



Name 



Address 



State 



(Note: Camera Craft will be sent for a slight addi- 
tional sum. Consult the clubbing offer.) 



FOR RENT! 

MITCHELL and BELL & HOWELL 

CAMERAS 

F 2. 3. - F. 2. 7. - F. 3. 5. Lenses 
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Phone Glendale 3361-W Glendale, California 



Young man, experienced in still and 
motion picture photography, desires posi- 
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Phone MUtual 6658 

Address: E. ZERON, 501 1/ 2 W. First St. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



TREMONT 

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Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



Critic Resents Thunder Theft; 

Produces True Film Manuscript 

Dear Editor: There's someone who is taking the 
edge off my critically keen knife. I am an apologetic 
authority in this business because I admit it. Therefore, 
I call your attention to an attempt to steal my thunder 
in column three, page 14. in the February fifth issue of 
FILM MERCl RY . Here is the authentic version 
of this particular one of my masterpieces. Compare them, 
and decide for yourself which is true blue: 

Some of our bootleggers do not seem to be complete 
without false beards, so a little technique on the subject 
may be intriguing in an issue of some remote future date. 



April, 1926 



Since I am not a bootlegger I am criticized for writ- 
ing on the subject of alcoholography. This is not a pat- 
ent medicine journal, and for this astounding reason I 
cannot give you blueprints or recipes to illustrate the 
abject matter. The object of Filmograph is to efficiently 
cater to all trunks of our baggage room. If Harry Burns 
should ever ask me, (which is not unlikely), "What's 
Trite With the Movies?" my answer would be, "Lack of 
pyrotechnical education, beer and platitudes." 



While on the subject of alcoholography, take the 
case of Peter Dawson, who it is alleged, lost Universal 
recognition because it did not alcoholograph well, yet on 
"The Boulevard" it alcoholographed splendidly. The 
answer was in properly triting. This brings me to the 
subject of intoxication, which we seem to know so little 
about. ( Inasmuch as I also know so little about this, I 
will study up on it and will treat you to an amazing dis- 
sertation on it soon.) 



Do any of the brethren know what has become of the 
"Intoxicating Entrepreneurs" of the P. S. P.? (Poor 
Sick Fish.) 



look a few shots of Gordon Jinn the other day. 
\iike Jerkins handed them, and (gracious!) they were 
delightful. 



Notta Nickel, I. \V. W.: 

This should be a banana year, alcoholographically, as 
we have started out like two cents. 

SNUB NOSA 



CLUBBING OFFEB 



Subscribed for separately. Camera Craft 
and the American Cinematographer will cost 
a total of $4.50 oer year. As a special clubbing 
offer, both maqazines may be had at a total 
price of $3.40 per year. 



American Cinematographer 

1219 20 21 22 Guaranty Blda. 
Hollywood. Calif. 




yiM'lMlMMMi^l'MiOil MIMIMMIM I M E 



NO CAITIERA can be better than its 
lens. There is a life-time of satisfaction 
and pride for the oiuner of a Carl Zeiss 
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world's finest photography. Among 
prominent users of Zeiss Tessa rs are the 
U. S. Army Air Service, The Rational 
Qeoqraphical Society, The American 
Museum of natural History, Famous 
Players and a legion of others. The 
Tessar f4.5 is standard equipment on 
the finest imported cameras. For greater 
rapidity there is the Tessar f3. 5 and the 
Tessar f 2. 7 has recently been introduced. 
For rapid distance -photography the 
'Tele-Tessar and for photo-engrauing the 
Tprocbromatic Tessars enjoy an enviable 
popularity. 

IDhich catalogue may me send you? 

'Zeiss Photo Lenses' 
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A NEW LENS 

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A portrait lens In short focal lengths 

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A trial will be satisfying 

ASTRO-GESELLSCHAFT, mbh., Berlin 

FOR SALE BY 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. - - Los Angeles, Calif. 



April, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-three 



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Announcing a new price, now 

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Complete tripods, including Bell & Howell 

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$200 Another Special : Pathe Field Model Camera, 4 Lenses $100 



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SCHEIBE'S PHOTO-FILTER SPECIALTIES 

Are now popular from coast to coast, and in 
some foreign countries. 

If my many varieties do not always fill the bill, 
tell me your wants and I will make them on special 
order. 

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1636 Lemoyne St. DUnkirk 4975 Los Angeles, Cal. 



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Amateur 
Cinematoqrapluj 

(Continued from Page 5) 

On the 16 mm. Him, there is 
a trailer of opaque paper six 
feet long. This supplies the 
needed protection, and the 
camera owner need worry no 
further. 

"I icant my pictures as big 
as I can (jet them. What is 
the largest picture I can get?" 

The foregoing has been 
asked the writer quite consist- 
ently by a number of Filmo 
owners. It is the natural de- 
sire to want the pictures as 
large as possible. However, 
the size of the projected pic- 
ture is a matter of relativity, 
and the owner or the prospec- 
tive owner of an amateur out- 



fit need not hesitate in his use 
or purchase of the same be- 
cause of the lack of projection 
space in his home. The min- 
imum size picture may be en- 
joyed just as thoroughly as 
that of maximum size, once 
the family audience is accus- 
tomed to the difference 
Thus, under ordinary condi- 
tions, where a throw of 40 feet 
is convenient, a clear picture, 
six by eight, is possible with 
a two-inch lens. 

In conclusion, for those 
who are using the reversible 
tvpe of film, it might be well 
to suggest that this film should 
be sent to the company labor- 
atories as soon as it has been 
exposed as lack of prompt- 
ness in this respect often en- 
genders excessive handling 



before it is finally sent, with 
the result that unpleasant 
scratches may have been ac- 
cumulated, through no fault 
of the laboratory itself. 



A. S. C. members are 
seldom available; but 
when they are, informa- 
tion concerning their 
cine m atograp hie 
achievements may be ob- 
tained from the 

American Society of 

ClXEMATOGRAPHERS 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty 
Bldg., Hollywood. Calif. 



Twenty-four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



April, 1926 



PROJECTION * * « (Continued) 



Dialoque on 

Projection 

(Continued from Page tl) 

might even say that the future 
of projection depends largely 
upon developments in motion 
picture protography. The 
projector has been developed 
to a pfoint approaching per- 
fection. As a matter of fact, 
1 cannot, at this moment think 
of anything that might be 
done additionally in the latter 
connection; except, perhaps, 
to induce the smaller theaters 
to install the style and quality 
of equipment in use in our 
finer theaters. 

In conclusion, I might sum 
everything up by saying that 
the matter of good projection 
is one of the most important 
factors in the entire scheme of 
motion pictures. The pro- 
ducing company may spend 
thousands of dollars on a 
given production, the work of 
all concerned in the filming 
of the picture may apprbach 
a masterpiece, but if the pro- 
jection fails, the picture itself 
can hardly help failing. After 
all, the projectionist with his 
projection equipment is large- 
ly the master of our photo- 
graphic 'destinies. 



Do Ttlotion Pictures 

Injure the Eues ? 

( < 'nut in ued on Page 7 ) 

harm the eyes in any way. / 
believe that if pictures bother 
the eyes, it's the eyes, not the 
pictures. Those persons who 
sit very far down in front are 
apt to feel quite some eye- 
strain — due to the increased 
brilliancy of the screen at 



this point, the undesirable an- 
gle at which the head must be 
held, and the close position 
itself. If movies do give you 
uncomfortable eye sensations, 
by no means sit closer than 
half-way down. It is better 
to wait for a good seat than to 
take a bad one. If you can't 
see clearly or comfortably 
three-fourths of the way back, 
it is quite likely that it is not 
the picture at all and your 
eyes should be examined. 

Where Fault Lies 

Today the owners of pic- 
ture theaters are doing a great 
deal to make the eyes of their 
audiences more comfortable. 
To begin with, better films 
are being made — better and 
more gentle lighting effects, 
less harsh contrasts, fewer 
glaring white surfaces. Then, 
theaters are not the terrible 
black holes they used to be. 
Faint house-lights are on con- 
tinually — the theater is partly 
illuminated. There are spe- 
cial acts in various colors. We 
have "non-flickering" projec- 
tion, and film without flaws 
and scratches. All these are 
factors that have led investi- 
gators to the same conclusion. 
And this is the conclusion — 
if the movies hurt your eyes, 
nine chances out of ten, it's 
your eyes, not the movies. 

Those eyes which never 
have rest except when in 
sleep, are the eyes that suffer 
from any unusual work. Pos- 
sibly a long day's drive, pos- 



sibly even reading or other 
close application of the eyes, 
possibly the theater or a pic- 
ture show bring discomfort or 
headaches — such eyes are do- 
ing more than their normal 
work. For them, unfortun- 
ately, the act of seeing distant 
objects is labor — a steady task 
—instead of relaxation, un- 
less the owner of such eyes is 
wise enough to get optometric 
relief through glasses. 

Picture Not at Fault 
We are glad to note that in 
accordance with our own 
views on the subject, such or- 
ganizations as the Eyesight 
Council of America, the Brit- 
ish Committee on Eyestrain 
in Cinemas, The New York 
City Department of Health, 
Optometrists and Opthalmol- 
ogists, illuminating engineers 
and optical scientists through- 
out the world are agreed that 
even though present-day pic- 
ture theatres cause the eye to 
function under unusual con- 
ditions, such conditions are 
seldom at fault if the eyes 
cannot view a half-dozen 
reels of film without incon- 
venience or bad after effect. 
The concentration neces- 
sary in the comparatively dim 
light is the underlying cause 
of discomfort in motion pic- 
ture houses. But such con- 
centration should not affect a 
normal pair of eyes to any 
considerable extent n o r 
should it affect eyes that are 
functioning normally with 
the aid of glasses. 



April, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M AT O G RAPHE R 



Twenty-five 



Better Projection 

Pays 



International Projector Corporation 



90 Gold Street, New York, N. Y. 



SIMPLEX 
Motion 



POWER'S ACME 

Picture Projectors 



Persons whose eyes suffer 
at the movies owe it to them- 
selves to do everything pos- 
sible to prevent such an un- 
desirable aftermath to an eve- 
ning's entertainment. Com- 
plete relief is nearly always 
within their reach with the 
proper /optical help. We 
■ who meet the lens-wearing 
multitude rarely hear a com- 
plaint that motion pictures 
are bothersome. 

It is certainly to be hoped 



that the bettered conditions in 
our finer picture theatres will 
continue to improve, and that 
the smaller theatres and the 
small houses in country towns 
will not fail to take advantage 
of every improvement and in- 
novation to make the eve- 
ning's pleasure less strenuous 
on the public eye. 

There are still millions of 
men and women who stay 
away and keep their children 
away from movie theaters. 
These people are either har- 
boring old ideas about the 



harmful effect of pictures or 
else they are suffering from 
unnecessary eyestrain without 
knowing it. It should not be 
a very difficult task to re-edu- 
cate them upon the subject. 
By endeavoring to tell these 
men and women the truth 
about eyes and the movies and 
at the same time continuing 
the good work in improving 
visual conditions in the mo- 
tion picture theatre is one of 
the best ways we can think of 
to insure bigger and happier 
audiences. 



Cfl Perfect projection should be practical projection — and vice versa. 
Read about practical projection and kindred subjects in the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer. 



*i- 



Twenty six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



April, 1926 



Facts on Eiffel Tower Film 

Incident Given by Hatrick 



Through the skill of an International "Newsreel cin- 
ematographer, pictures were obtained in Paris of Leon 
Callot's ill-starred attempt to fly through the Eiffel 
Tower, the feat having resulted in the death of the in- 
trepid aviator. The complications, which subsequently 
developed through the withholding of the negative, are 
clarified, insofar as the American company is concerned, 
by the statement issued by Edgar B. Hatrick, general man- 
ager of the International Newsreel Corporation. Hat- 
rick's statement follows: 

"The motion pictures of Lieut. Callot's flight 
through the Eiffel Tower were shipped to us by our 
French agents via the purser of the S. S. La France. 
When the France was at sea the newspapers published 
reports that the film was to be seized by the Captain on 
orders of, presumably, the French Government. 

"When the France docked the International News- 
reel Corporation made formal demand for the film. This 
was met with a denial by French Line officials that the 
film was on board the ship. A representative of the Inter- 
national Newsreel, however, had already examined the 
ship's manifest and confirmed thereon the fact that the 
film was aboard the France. 

"The writ of replevin resulted. The International 
Newsreel Corporation does not know that the French 
Government wishes to suppress the film for sentimental or 
any other reasons. The International Newsreel Corpora- 
tion has received no request from the French Government 
to suppress the film. It only knows that the captain of a 
French steamship has seized motion picture film which is 
the property of the International Newsreel. It proposes 
to recover its property. 

"If the film, on being recovered by the International, 
should prove to be objectionable, and therefore unfit to 
show to the American public, it will not be released. If 
the French Government wishes the film suppressed for 
sentimental reasons, the International Newsreel will give 
the utmost consideration to any such request, but up to 
the present time the International Newsreel has not heard 
from the French Government. 

"The International Newsreel is in the position of 
objecting to the high-handed methods of the French 
steamship captain — the unwarranted seizure of private 
property. It has asked the United States Court for aid in 
the recovery of its own property." 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinetnatographer 

may be had on a special one year's club- 
bing subscription at a very substantial 
saving. Separately, the two publica- 
tions cost a total of $4.50 per year. By 
virtue of the clubbing offer, both may 
be had for $3.40. 



Follow the progress 

of Amateur 

Cinematography 



through the 
columns of 



The 

American 
Cinetnatographer 






HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Homer A. Scott President 

Victor Milner First Vice-President 

Daniel B. Clark Second Vice-President 

L. Guy Wilky Third Vice-President 

Bert Glennon Treasurer 

John W. Boyle Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Bert Glennon Gilbert Warrenton Daniel B. Clark 

Victor Milner George Schneiderman Charles J. Van Enger 

John W. Boyle Homer A. Scott Norbert F. Brodin 

H. Lyman Broening L. Guy Wilky Paul P. Perry 

Henry Sharp Fred W. Jackman Alfred Gilks 

Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. Landers, Sam — 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Lockwood, J. R. — ■ 

l.undin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropoli- 

Barnes, George S. — Samuel Goldwyn, United Studios. tan Studios. 

Beckway, Wm. — Lyons. Reginald — with Buck Jones, Fox Studio. 

Uenoit, Georges- with Metropolitan Productions, Metropoli- 
tan Studios. Marshall, Wm.— with Famous Players Lasky. 

Boyle, John W. — with First National Productions. United McCoid, T. D. — with First National. United Studios. 

Studios. McGill, Barney — with Fox studies 

Brodin, Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions. First National. MacLean. Kenneth G. — with Warner Bros. 

United Studios. Meehan, George- -with Columbia Pictures. 

Broening. H. Lyman — .Milner. Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Brotherton. Joseph — Morgan. Ira H. — with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan, Metro- 

Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Olark, Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studio. 

Clarke. Chas. G. — with George Melford. Metropolitan Studios. Norton, Stephen S. — F. B. O. Studios. 

Cowling. Herford T. — 29 So. La Salle St.. Chicago. 111. 

Cotner, Frank M. — Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio 

Crockett. Ernest — with Mack Sennett Studios. Perry, Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky 

Cronjager. Henry — with Famous Players-Lasky, New York Perry, Paul P. — with Universal. 

Cit y- Polito. Sol — with Harry Carey, Hunt Stromberg Productions. 

Dean. Faxon M. — 

Doran, Robert V. — Ries, Park J. — 

Dored. John — Riga. Latvia. linos. I. en H. — with Alexander Film Co., Englewood, Denver. 

DuPont, Max B. — Colo. 

DuPar. E. B. — with Warner Bros. Rose, Jackson J. — with Universal. 

Dubray. Joseph A. — ■ Rusher. Charles — with "Ufa," Berlin. 

Edeson. Arthur — with Roland West. United Studios. Schneiderman. George — with Fox Studio. 

Evans. Perry — ■ Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

£ JZ , "Vr~ . -.v. ™ to r- «.>, c- r>, Sharp. Henry— with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. 

Fischbeck. Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players short Don 

Lasky. New York City. Smith, Steve, Jr.— 

Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, F. B. O. Studios. Steene E Burton 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwvn-Maver Studios. Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Gilks. Alfred— with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar. John— with Universal. 

Glennon. Bert — with Famous Players-Laskv. m 

G , Fiank B Tolhurst. Louis H. — "Secrets of Life." Microscopic Pictures, 

Gray King D — Principal Pictures Corporation. 

c.rit'ii'n Walter L— with David Hartford Productions. Totheroh, Rollie H.— with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 

Guissart, Rene— Paris, France. Turner, J. Robert— with Fox Studios. 

Haller. Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. Van Buren, Ned — ■ 

Helmerl, Alois G. — v an Enger, Charles — with First National, New York city. 

Van Trees. James C. — with Metropolitan Studios 
Jackman, Floyd — Fred W. Jackman Prods. 
Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. „. , .... ... ,. . 

Jennings. J. D— with Metropolitan Studios. Warren on. Gilbert— with Universal. 

tVenstrom, Harold- -with Corinne Griffith Productions 
Koenekamp. Hans F.— with Larry Semon. Whitman Philip H.— with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario 

Kull, Edward — with Universal. Uept. 

Kurrle, Robert — with Edwin Carewe, United Studios. Wilky. L. Guy — 

Edison. Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb. Arthur C. — Attorney. 

Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 



Hollywood News Print 



Vol. VII, No. 2 
25 Cents A Copy 



May, 1926 



U. S. Postage 

2c. Paid 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Permit No. 941 




American 



Cinematographer 

Published by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 





In this Issue 



A.S.C. Elects Officers 

Projection — By earl j. denison 

Amateur Cinematography 

Len H. Roos, A.S.C. with 
Australian Productions 



PUBLISHED IN HOLLYWOOD CALIFORNIA 



CS^^^y^y^^y^ 




The Exceedingly Fine 
Grain of the Negative 

combined with its high speed, great 
latitude and many gradations, makes 
this the ideal stock for every conceiv- 
able use, and shows on the screen a 
result which has always been the 
desire of the cinematographer and 
the producer. 



c^p 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Alter, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 
1056 North Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 6669 

Hollywood , Calif. 



Vol. VII 



MAY, 1926 



No. Z 



American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss. Editor and Business Manager 



Contents : 

Page 

A. S. C. Officers for 1926-27 Are Elected _. 4 

Len H. Roos to Make Australian Features _ 6 

PROJECTION — Conducted by Earl J. Denison 

German Continuous Projector Reviewed 7 

The Editor's Corner 8 

Amateur Cinematography — 

Improvements on Cine Kodak and Kodascope — 

By Thurlow Weed Barnes 10 

Amateur Camera Makes Intimate Shots Possible — 

By Chas. L. Clarke, A. S. C... : 11 

In Camerafornia 12 

A. S. C. Member Dedicates New Office Building — 

By Joe Blair 24 

Releases 26 

A. S. C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by TRY. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3. 50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents 

Advertising rates on application. 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographer s, Inc. ) 



Pour 



AMERICAN C IN E M AT O G R APHER 



May, 1926 



A. S. C. Officers for 
1926h27 Are Elected 



°$ 



Daniel B. Clark, A. S. C, Is 
Chosen President. Board of 
Governors Is Also Selected 




Frank B. Good, 

Second I ice-President. 



Daniel B. Clark, 
President. 



L. Guy Wilky, 

First Vice-President. 



°$ 



At the annual election of the American 
Society of Cinematogrphers, Daniel B. 
Clark was chosen president of the A. S. C. 
for the coming year. 

Clark's fellow officers, selected at the 
same time for 1926-27, are as follows: 

L. Guy Wilky, first vice president; Frank 
B. Good, second vice president; Ira H. Mor- 
gan, third vice president; George Schneider- 
man, treasurer, and Charles G. Clarke, sec- 
retary. 

Board of Governors 

In addition to the officers, the Board of 
Governors elected for the same period of 
office numbers Victor Milner, John Arnold, 
Alfred Gilks, Homer A. Scott, King G. 
Gray, E. Burton Steene, Reginald Lyons, H. 
Lyman Broening and Fred W. Jackman. 

Active in A. S. C. 
Dan Clark, the new president, is chief 
cinematographer for Tom Mix in Fox pro- 
ductions. He has been active in the affairs 
of the A. S. C. since he was invited to mem- 
bership several years ago. During the ad- 
ministration just closed, he held the office of 
second vice president, in addition to being 
axeguiarjnember of the Board of Governors. 



For Tom Mix 

Clark has photographed all of Tom Mix' 
productions of recent years. These include 
"Up and Going," "For Big Stakes," "The 
Fighting Streak," "Romance Land," "Just 
Tony," "Do or Dare," "An Arabian Knight," 
"Watch My Smoke," "Three Jumps Ahead,'' 
"Modern Monte Cristo," "Journey of 
Death," "Tempered Steel," "The Heart 
Buster," "The Last of the Duanes," "Oh, 
You Tony," "The Deadwood Coach," "Dick 
Turpin," "Riders of the Purple Sage," "The 
Rainbow Trail," "The Lucky Horseshoe," 
"The Everlasting Whisper," "The Best Bad 
Man," "The Yankee Senor," and "My Own 
Pal." 

First Vice President 

L. Guy Wilky, chosen to fill the position 
of first vice president, has been identified 
prominently with the activities of the A. S. 
C. since its inception, having been a charter 
member of the Society. Wilky began his 
career as a cinematographer in the Lubin 
days, later joining American at Santa Bar- 
bara, after which he went with the late 
Thomas H. Ince at the old Inceville studios. 
During the latter connection, Wilky photo- 









May, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOftRAPHER 



Five 






[ra H. Morgan, 

Third Vice-President. 



Charles G. Clarke, 
Secretary. 



Geo. Schneiderman, 

Treasurer. 



graphed Bessie Barriscale for one year, 
Louise Glaum for one year, while he filled 
an equal period doing general productions 
under the Ince banner, most of which were 
with Enid Bennett. Wilky filmed J. Warren- 
Kerrigan in two of that actor's outstanding 
successes of a decade ago — "The Turn of a 
Card" and "A Man's Man." Wilky subse- 
quently connected with Famous Players- 
Lasky, for whom he photographed more than 
twenty-five William de Mille productions, 
in which the most notable of the Paramount 
stars were featured. These productions in- 
clude "Midsummer Madness," "The Lost 
Romance," "What Every Woman Knows," 
"The Prince Chap," "Conrad in Quest of 
His Youth," "Clarence," "Grumpy," "The 
Bedroom Window," "The Fast Set," 
"Locked Doors," "Men and Women," 
"Lost — A Wife," "New Brooms" and "The 
Splendid Crime." During the year just 
closed, Wilky was third vice president of the 
A. S. C. 

Good's Record 

Frank B. Good, who will fill the office of 
second vice president, is likewise a veteran in 
the affairs of the A. S. C, as well as in the 
field of cinematography as a whole. Good 
has held various official posts with the So- 
ciety, of which he has been a member since 
the year of its organization. Good was a 
cinematographer under the D. W. Griffith 



reign at the old Fine Arts studios in Holly- 
wood, and, since that pioneer date, has been 
an outstanding figure in the annals of motion 
photography. He is best known for his cine- 
matography in Jackie Coogan productions, 
of which he has been chief cinematographer 
since Jackie leaped into international fame as 
a star in his own right. These Coogan pro- 
ductions number "A Boy of Flanders," "Lit- 
tle Robinson Crusoe," "The Rag Man" and 
"Old Clothes." During the interregnum be- 
tween Coogan productions, Good has been 
freelancing, having photographed Frank 
Borzage's Fox production, "The Dixie Mer- 
chant" and other features. 

Morgan with Davies 
Ira H. Morgan, third vice president, is 
best known as chief cinematographer for 
Marion Davies, whom he is photographing 
at the present time at the Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer studios. Morgan has filmed Miss 
Davies in "Beauty's Worth," "Janice Mere- 
dith," "When Knighthood Was in Flower," 
"Lights of Old Broadway," "Beverly of 
Graustark" and other big productions. 

J r en surer 
George Schneiderman, who will preside 
over the exchequer of the A. S. C, has been 
a cinematographer with the William Fox 
studios since their beginning in the East. He 
has filmed innumerable Fox features, the out- 

(Continued on Page 24) 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



May, 1926 



Len H. Roos to Illake 
Australian Features 



*$ 



A. S. C. Member Returns to 
Antipodes on Pioneer Pro- 
gram of Film Production 





























"fcfcfc^ ^^^^m i * t 












V 1 




1 












1^. ^ 








-■ 
■ 

Sydney It-Sit^ 










When Roos left Sydney last autumn, promi- 


wBm - P 


■ ■ iw 










nent people interested in the film industry pre- T tj r> a c 
. , i ■ ■., , . i , , LEN ti. KOOS, A. b. 
seated him with an autographed kangaroo 


c. 


(kanga-roos) skin, with a boomerang mounted 

thereon. "Come back," they invited, and the °Q^ 

boomerang symbolized the same — and now ^^ 






Roos is "coming back." 





Len H. Roos, A. S. C, has been in Los 
Angeles and Hollywood for several days con- 
ducting preparations for an extensive motion 
picture production program in Australia 
where he and Norman Dawn, director, will 
be the active heads of a producing organiza- 
tion which will make feature photoplays, de- 
signed both for the market in America and in 
the Antipodes. 

Roos came to Hollywood by automobile 
from Denver where he has been chief cine- 
matographer and director for the Alexander 
Film Corp. He will proceed from Los An- 
geles to Vancouver, whence he and his com- 
pany will sail early in May on the R. M. S. 
"Aorangi" for Sydney. 

Australian Support 

Roos' forthcoming trip is the outgrowth 
of his extensive sojourn in Australia last year 
for Fox Varieties. He found an intense in- 
terest in potential film production on the 
other side of the equator with the result that 



the production program, which he has just 
brought about, will be supported heavily by 
Australian capital. 

To date, it is said that no Australian pro- 
duction has ever reached the American 
screen. The pictures which the Roos organ- 
ization will make are planned to fill this void, 
with the subject matter being laid not only in 
Australia but in the South Seas generally. 

The A. S. C. member will be chief cine- 
matographer on the features. Dawn, who is 
well known as a director in Hollywood, will 
be the director. The matter of cast and 
stories will be decided on in Australia. It is 
quite likely that prominent American names 
may be numbered among the players. 






Faxon Dean, A. S. C, is back in Holly- 
wood after a desert location trip to execute 
panchromatic scenes for the Metro-Goldwyn- 
Maver studios. 






May, 1926 AMERICAN 


(J1INKMATOGRAPHER 


Seven 




PROJECTION 


4 Conducted by Earl J. 


Denison 



Qerman Continuous 

Projector Reviewed 



£ 



Report Given on Details of 
New Type of Foreign Projec- 
tor; Practicability Considered 





FlGURIi 2 

a. Positive Carbon of the arc-lamp. 

b. Negative Carbon of the arc-lamp, 
r. Parabolic mirror. 

d. Condenser lens. 

f. Combined Lens-system to project the Front- 
window {the bundle of light-rays coming 
through it) on the film-path. 
g [ Mirror-sector which swings in the point />, 
and whereby the bundle of light-rays coming 
from the front-window are made to wander 
corresponding to the movement of the film. 
g- Mirror-sector which swings in the point p, 
and whereby the movement of the film is com- 
pensated. 

h . Pris m . 

i. Bent film. 

k. Sprocket-wheel {which controls the move- 
ment of the film). 

I. Projection-objective, 
m. Tele-objective to give the right enlargement 
of the original picture. 

n. Projection-mirror, which could be turned 
round for projection of dia-positives. 



Recently the writer had the pleasure of 
seeing a demonstration of the Mechau Con- 
tinuous Projector which, described in this 
article, is manufactured in Germany. 

While I do not think that his machine is 
adaptable for American use, in its present 
type of construction, I do think it signalizes 
wonderful possibilities, as there are a num- 
ber of clever little devices incorporated in the 
projector. For instance, the fire shutter is 
operated by mercury, is. absolutely positive in 
its action and is also extremely simple. The 
accompanying charts plainly show the action 
of the light rays through the projector and 
present an interesting study in optics. 




Figure 1 

Circular film path with bas the middle-point. 

Objective to project the film on the projection 

screen. 

Reflecting mirror, turning round the Lavii d. 

Fixed projection-mirror. 

Projection screen. 

Axis, round which the 8 inn cms < more in 

the path of the light rays. 



o. Axis round which t h e Projection-mirror 
could be turned. 

p. Ball-bearings. 

q. Rotation axis round which the sector-mirrors 
perform a circular-motion . 

r. Folding-mirror folded out for lantern-slide- 
projection, 
t. Reflecting mirror. 

u. Lens for concentrating the light rays on the 
lantern slide. 

v. Lantern-slide. 

iv. Lantern projection lens. 



Creation Reviewed 

Therefore, I believe that the readers, 
from a mechanical and engineering view- 
point, would be interested in a review of the 
projector. 

The fundamental idea of the "optical 
compensation arrangement' 1 is illustrated in 
the accompanying charts and is described bv 
the manufacturers as follows: 

"If a frame happens to be in the position 
/ and the mirror c in the position 1\ its 
projection appears on the screen in the point 
f. If this frame now moves downward in the 
position 2, then its projection on the screen 
would have wandered from the original 



(Continued on Pag-e 18) 



Eight 



AMERICAN C I NB M AT OGR APHBR 



May, 1926 



The EDITORS' LENS 



» * 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



Laboratory Consolidation 



•J The American industrial tendency toward consolidation is mani- 
festing itself more than ever in the realm of motion pictures. The 
most notable example of the past couple years, so far as the lay 
mind is concerned, was the combination of the resources of Metro, 
Goldwyn and Mayer under one banner, behind which Loew's, 
Inc., is a guiding power. 

(§ Recently, and more inconspicuously because the trade primarily 
was affected, the International Projector Corporation was brought 
into being, marshalling the assets of Power's, Simplex and Acme. 

CJf Prior to the projector merger, an amalgamation, announced as 
involving more than $6,000,000, welded together, in the laboratory 
field, under the name of Consolidated Film Industries, Inc., the 
destinies of the Craftsmen Film Laboratories, the Erbograph 
company, Republic Laboratories and Commercial Traders Cin- 
ema Corporation in the East, and, in Hollywood, the Standard 
Film Laboratories. 

<fl This formed a laboratory organization which was believed to be 
of maximum proportions. Surprising, then, was the news during 
the past month that Consolidated had acquired interests in their 
nearest competitors — the laboratories headed by Watterson R. 
Rothacker in Chicago and in Hollywood. There is the usual 
speculation current as to whether the trend toward combination is 
for the good or detriment of all concerned. 



May, 1926 



AMERICAN CINBM ATO GR APHER 



Nine 



CJ Speaking editorially, MERRITT CRAWFORD, publisher of Motion 
Pictures Today, strikes the heart of the present frame of mind, as 
follows : 

r "It is not in mere bigness, alone, however, nor in the possibility of superior 
efficiency in operation which such a merger of important printing and developing 
interests may have in competition with the smaller laboratory groups, that we 
see ultimate danger to the industry as a whole. 

" "It is rather because of the fact that every producing or distributing company 
with but few exceptions, is inevitably (such is the curious system of financing in 
this business) not only in debt for film to the laboratory which manufactures its 
prints and holds its negatives, and beholden to it for credit at times, but is also 
largely dependent upon the laboratory for the large cash advances necessary to 
carry its production and distribution overhead. 

" "Herein, as we see it, lies the real danger to the industry and it needs no great 
wisdom to foresee the possibilities for downright injury, burdensome dictation 
and preferential price-fixing which might result to the vast disadvantage of the 
majority, were a single laboratory group to become so powerful as to eliminate 
all genuine competition. 

" "Right now, it seems to us, is the best time to consider this matter from all angles 
— six months from now it may he too late." 

C| Competition is necessary to stimulate trade, the orthodox political 
economists tell us. Consolidation cuts down overhead and elimin- 
ates duplication, their more modern brethren reply. There can 
be little doubt as to the economic desirability of a combination 
which tends toward the elimination of needless competitive waste 
and substitutes therefor, under legitimate regulation and honest 
control, enlarged facilities for research and general progress. We 
hope that the latter is what today's laboratory situation presages. 
Certainly there is no reason why the expanded efforts should not 
bring such usefulness to the industry as a whole. Meanwhile, let 
us also hope that what Mr. Crawford terms as "genuine competi- 
tion 1 ' may not be stamped out. 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



May, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 



^ 



«i? 



«&> 



(I (Questions on amateur cinema- 
tography will be gladly an- 
swered in this department. In- 
quirers should sign all queries 



with correct name and address. 
Only legitimate questions will 
be considered. None which 



tend to jeopardize general mo- 
tion picture production by di- 
vulging trade secrets zvill re- 
ceive attention.) 



Improvements on Cine*- 



B;j Eastman Brings Out New 

cThurlou? IDeed Wrinkles on Amateur Cinc- 
Kodclk and KodaSCOpe Barnes matographic Paraphernalia 



Recent announcement of latest improve- 
ments in new amateur motion picture equip- 
ment by the Eastman Kodak Company bids 
fair to do much toward bringing this growing, 
fascinating pastime of homemade and home- 
shown movies into universal use. Ever since 
the first Cine-Kodak and Kodascope were 
announced in June, 1923, amateur cinematog- 
raphy has been growing by leaps and bounds. 
The New Eastman products just announced 
forecast a further popularization of amateur 
motion picture taking. 

When the average beginner realizes that 
better pictures as a rule can be secured with 
an amateur motion picture camera than with 
a still camera, and that movies are made just 
as easily as snapshots, it will not be long before 
everyone will be anxious to be his own cine- 
matographer and projectionist. 

New Equipment 
The new equipment now completes a well 
rounded out line of Eastman amateur movie 
outfits which will meet every requirement 
and every purse. These include the Cine- 
Kodak Model B with either an f. 6.5 or an f. 
3.5 lens, a new projector, the Kodascope, 
Model C, and the Model A Cine-Kodak with 
interchangeable lenses; the fast f. 1.9 and the 
f .4.5 (3 T/ 8-inch) lens for telephoto effects. 

To really appreciate these outfits, a brief 
description of each should be considered. 

One of the simplest and most efficient 
amateur movie cameras is the Cine-Kodak B 
with an f. 6.5 lens, which the Eastman Com- 
pany announced last fall. 

Improvement 

Realizing that this model would have a 
wider range of usefulness if the lens speed 
were increased, the company's experts decided 
to fit it with an f. ^S Kodak Anastigmat lens 
which is three and one-half times as fast as 
the f. 6.5 lens, although, of course, the original 
f, 6.5 equipment is still available. Thus ama- 



teur cinematographers can now secure results 
with this f. 3.5 model under lighting condi- 
tions that heretofore would have precluded 
picture taking. The Model B with an f. 6.5 
lens will be fitted with the new f. 3.5 lens 
for a reasonable consideration, the company 
retaining the former lens. 

Sight Finder Added 

Another improvement has been added to 
the Cine-Kodak B in the shape of a sight 
finder which is mounted on the top of the 
camera and enables the operator to see what 
is being photographed by holding the camera 
at eye level, a position well adapted for judi- 
ciously following moving objects — polo 
players, yacht races, etc. The camera can 
also be held at waist level and the regular 
finder used, just as in taking snapshots. 

As with the f. 6.5 lens, the Cine-Kodak B 
with the f. 3.5 lens is of the fixed focus type. 
In size, weight and mechanical features, the 
model with either lens is exactly the same, the 
only difference between the two is in the 
matter of lens speed and the fact that on the 
f. 3.5 camera an ingenious device assures sharp 
close-ups with the larger diaphragm open- 
ings. 

The f. 3.5 lens is permanently fixed in posi- 
tion and is properly in focus for all pictures 
that are eight feet or more away. For close- 
ups a mere turn of a milled head at the top of 
the camera swings an extra lens (portrait at- 
tachment) in front of the regular lens. In- 
stantly the camera is then ready for making 
pictures from four to eight feet from the sub- 
ject. 

Danger Signal Feature 

A clever danger signal cautions one 
against using the wrong lens for the desired 
view. As the portrait attachment swings into 
position a red screen is automatically thrown 
in front of the regular reflecting finder lens 
and a centering device assures that the attach- 

i Continued on Page lfi) 






May, 192<j 



AMERICAN C I N E M AT G R A PH E R 



Eleven 



Amateur Camera makes Intimate Shots Possible 



Professional Cinematography 
Aided by Small Portable 
Outfits, Experience Shows 



By 

Charles Q. Clarke 

A.S.C. 



Portability Lends Self 
to Close Range Shooting 
in Chases and the Like 



BASICALLY a camera is an instrument 
appears within a certain angle before it. 
each observer in the audience the view h 
pied by the camera. 

The greater part of our observing or 
"seeing" is done while the body is still, so 
the most of the scenes taken for a motion pic- 
ture are made from a stationary and rigid 
tripod, when the scene should convey to the 
observer that, figuratively, he was not in mo- 
tion while that scene was enacted. 

Moving Shots 
For those scenes made from the view- 
point of a person traveling, the cameras are 
mounted on traveling vehicles of different 
forms. The average professional motion pic- 
ture camera weighs about 70 pounds, so ex- 
treme portability was impossible until the 
advent recently of the "Eymo" Camera and 
others of its type. Many startling effects 
may be obtained by placing the camera 
(therefore, the observer) on rapidly moving 
objects, or from unusual view-points, such as 



that records photographically the scene that 

The finished picture on the screen shows to 

e would see if he were on the same spot occu- 

from a pit under an onrush of stampeding 
cattle, etc. Heretofore the size and weight 
of the camera had limited the making of 
these effective shots. 

Horseback 
In one of my recent pictures the action 
called for a gun fight between two persons 
while riding horses — one was riding away 
from the other, firing back at him the while. 
His eyes, while centered on the rider behind 
him, recorded the ground, brush, etc., rush- 
ing away from him, and also the up and 
down movements of the galloping horse. To 
show the audience the things that happened 
before the man's eyes, I rode a horse at a 
gallop while operating a portable camera 
centered on the rider behind who repeated 
his actions for me as he had done in the estab- 
lishing Shot. (Continued on Page 19) 




• * m 

* foil ^ : ^iSn& 


^«4B£I* 


P*i-JLilSrt; 







Illustrating latest model of the Eastman 
Cine-Kodak, Model B, with the new f. 3-5 lens 
which has been added to the equipment. 



Showing the new Eastman Kodascope. Illu- 
mination and power for motor drive supplied 
from ordinary electric light socket. 



1 ourtee n 



AMERICAN CINE M AT OGR APHER 



May, 1926 



S-p-e-e-d- 



BELL <S 




Standard Automatic 
Professional Camera 

for Field and Stunt Use 

Eyemo is the light, portable camera being used on busy locations to 
get the difficult "stunt" shots. Weighs but seven pounds, and 
delivers thoroughly professional results under all conditions. Hold 
Eyemo in the hand while operating. Sight it from the eye, adjusting 
diaphragm and focusing dials which are visible through finder tube. 
Then simply press a trigger and what you see in the finder you get 
in the film. 

Eyemo is entirely automatic, operated by a spring motor. Uses 100- 
foot rolls standard negative prepared for daylight loading. Or has 
maximum capacity of 120 feet, dark-room load. 

// rilt f o r Lite r a tare 

A descriptive folder describing and illus- 
trating the Eyemo camera in detail will 
be mailed you on request. Address 
Chicago office. 

On display at New York and 
Hollyiuood Branches 

Manufacturers of 9 5% 



Tuo of the many Bell &h 
Cameras, used to film I 
production "BEN HUR 



MTABLISHID 
>»07 




BRANCHES 
NEW YORK HOLLY OC 

aao w. 4tno st. <> j« jahii i id 



of the Professional Motion I 






May, 192G 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOQR APHER 



Fifteen 



flexibility -Precision 

ie most exacting scenes! 

HOWELL CAMERAS 




li// Standard Professional 
1 "tectacular and gigantic 
mseen in the photo above. 



|0tiEiU< 




ft 



isos LARCHMONT AVE. 
CHICAGO. 



B&?H 

Professional 
Standard 
Camera 

I 'seil almost exclusively in 
feature productions because 
of its dependability, flexibil- 
ity and superior performance. 
The Hell & Howell Camera 
keeps pace with all the re- 
quirements of the Motion 
Picture Industry. 



EMBODIES— 

Basically patented Pilot Register Movement 

Interchangeable Detail Parts 

I niversal Finder 

Interchangeable Ultra Speed Movement 

Variable Speed Motor Control 

On Display at New York 
and Hollywood Branches 



u e Cameras and Equipment 



Use the World Over 



Sixteen 



AMHRICAN C I NE M AT OG R APHER 



May, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 



M'ontiniiPil from Page 10) 



ment has been properly plated — just far 
enough, and not too far. Thus there is no 
chance for the operator to err, for by the color 
shown in the reflecting finder he knows 
exactly whether the lenses are hooked up for 
a general view (eight feet or beyond) or for 
a close-up. 

With this f. 3.5 lens the Model B Cine- 
Kodak has a greater versatility. Average sub- 
jects and scenes can be secured on very dull, 
cloudy days and early morning or late after- 
noon presents no difficulty in obtaining sat- 
isfactory pictures. 

One of the essential features of the Cine- 
Kodak B, aside from its remarkable ability to 
take pictures equal to those made by profes- 
sional cameras, is its extreme ease of porta- 
bility, a spring motor drive being used. 

The camera is well balanced when held in 
the hand, weighs but five pounds when loaded 
and is no larger than a box of fifty cigars. It 
can be readily carried like any other Kodak 
and put into operation as quick as one can 
frame the shot and press the release. 

Standard Speed 

The simplicity of its operation is also note- 
worthy as it is as easy to manipulate as any 
Kodak. There is no way that anyone can 
tinker with the rate at which each frame or 
picture is exposed. This is set at the factory 
at sixteen frames a second, which amount of 
exposure has been established for many years 
as a standard which will sufficiently arrest 
motion and which when projected will depict 
normal action on the screen. 

The maximum loading capacity of the 
Cine-Kodak B is 100 feet of safety 16 mm. 
film which will allow continued action for a 
little more than four minutes. The exposure 
lever can be locked in taking position so that 
the operator himself can be included in any 
scene, in which case, of course, the camera 
has to rest on some firm support. 

Hoiv Motor Works 
Back of the exposure lever is a winding 
crank. By turning this a few times the spring 
is tightened and ready for release, nor is there 
any danger of overwinding; the construction 
of the spring mechanism being such that this 
danger is eliminated. One winding will per- 
mit exposing about twenty feet of film. When 
the spring begins to run down there is no dan- 




WHETHER for in- 
terior or outdoor 
shots, Zeiss Lens equip- 
ment on your camera 
insures results. No 
matter how thorough 
your methods, how 
good your lighting or 
how elaborate your 
settings, the final re- 
sult will be better — 
whenever and where- 
ever Zeiss Lenses are 
employed. 



CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

153 West Zjrd St. 
New York 
[Formerly H. M. Bennett} 



A NEW LENS 

"That has made good" 

Large aperture F:2.3. To a large extent responsi- 
ble for the Bas-relief, or solid appearance of the 
subject on the screen. 

Oood definition over the entire field, yet not harsh 
or wiry. 

A portrait lens In short focal lengths 

40mm, SOmm, 75min, with full dosing diaphragm. 

Price is reasonable 

40mm $50.00 

ROmrn SO.OU 

75mm 55.00 

A trial will be satisfying- 

ASTRO-GESELLSCHAFT, mbh., Berlin 

FOR SALE BY 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. - - Los Angeles, Calif. 






May, 1926 



A M ERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



Seventeen 



ger of the motor coasting, or of the film run- 
ning through the gate at other than constant 
speed. An ingenious device prevents this. 
When a scene in the making is completed, the 
release lexer springs back into position, stop- 
ping the camera instantly, and the stop is al 
ways made with the shutter closed. 

Footage Indicated 
A footage indicator on the top of the Cine- 
Kodak tells how many feet of unexposed film 
are left in the camera. In front, near the re- 
cessed lens, is an exposure guide showing 
which stop to use under various light condi- 
tions. 

Threading is a simple process as the pull- 
down claws in the gate automatically adjust 
themselves in the film perforations. A lock- 
ing lever holds the film in place after it has 
been threaded through the curved gate. The 
spring mechanism will not function except 
when this lever is properly pushed in place. 
The curved gate is an interesting feature of 
this camera which holds the film securely and 
accurately in the focal plane and is construct- 
ed in such a manner as to eliminate the dan- 
ger of film scratches. 

Also studs in the door prevent closing 
the camera if the sprocket clamps have not 
been shut when loading. 

New Kodascope 
No movie equipment is complete without 
a projector, and the new motor driven Koda- 
scope C is expected to be a great factor in pop- 
ularizing home movies. 

To Friends' Homes 
This new Kodascope is a marvel for com- 
pactness, weighs a little more than nine 
pounds and is so simple to operate that prac- 
tically nothing can get out of order. It is de- 
signed as companion equipment for the Cine- 
Kodak B. When the projector is idle, the 
reel arms can be folded and the removable 
lens barrel placed on a clip on the base, mak- 
ing the carrying dimensions only 8x5^x7 
inches. This ease of portability makes it a 
simple matter for the outfit to be taken to 
the home of friends for a real home movie 
evening. 

This convenient size is further enhanced 
by a carrying case, durably built of metal and 
covered with imitation leather. 

Adjustable Focus 
The projector can be operated on any elec- 
tric light socket and once threaded needs no 



attention until the picture is through. The 
machine will take 400 feet of Cine-Kodak 
Film, which will run for about sixteen min- 
utes. The focus is adjusted by turning the 
lens in its socket. 

Reflected Light 
One of the features of the projector and a 
means whereby compactness has been secured 
is that the light used for projection is reflect- 
ed. The lamp house is on the side of the ma- 
chine and not in the rear, as is usually the rule 
in all projectors. The light first goes through 
a revolving shutter and is then thrown on a 
mirror where it is reflected at a right angle 
to pass through the film. Whenever "still" 
pictures are desired a convenient lever disen- 
gages the motor belt from the mechanism, 
thereby automatically releasing a safety shut- 
ter or perforated disk in front of the light rays 
to protect the motionless film. 

Alazda Bulb 
The 100 watt electric bulb supplied with 
Kodascope C is also a new departure in 
Mazda design. It is so manufactured that the 
filaments are always correctly aligned in re- 
spect to the optical axis of the projector. In 
non-technical language this simply means 
that when a new bulb is placed in the lamp 
socket no complicated or bothering filament 
aligning of focal adjustments need be made. 

Threading is easy in every sense. The 
Model C requires only one sprocket nor does 
the operator need to engage the film in the 
pull-down claws. The film is held in the 
gate by spring tension so that the teeth of the 
pull-down mechanism automatically enter the 
perforations. "Framing" (lowering or rais- 
ing the picture area to fit the gate aperture 
for correct screen alignment) is controlled by 
a lever. 

Pictures with the projector will fill a 30x 
40 inch screen at a distance of eighteen feet, 
a projection which is well suited to the aver- 
age home. Like the new Cine-Kodak B it is 
made for the many to enjoy home movies. 

Kodascope Library 
This enjoyment is not limited to the per- 
sonal homemade movies. From Kodascope 
Libraries, Inc., which now has branches in 
the principal cities of the country professional 
photoplays can be obtained; likewise trav- 
elogues, comedies, dramas, educational pic- 
tures or animated cartoons, and many of the 
well-known screen stars can offer entertain- 

(Contlnued on Page 20) 



E «hteen 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



May, 1926 



PROJECTION 



(Continued from Page 



point /. In the event that during the time 
that the film has moved from point / to 2, the 
mirror c maintains its former position J x . If 
the mirror, however, turns and takes up the 
new position 2, then the projection on the 
screen also remains stationary in the point f 
and the film movement is thus optically com- 
pensated. The same is true, if the frame and 
the mirror take up the respective positions 
3 and .?'. At this moment at the point / ap- 
pears the following picture whose movement 
will be compensated in the very same way. 
For this purpose the mirror c has another 
rotatory motion round the axis h, besides the 
above mentioned swinging motion and leaves 
the bundle of light rays behind as soon as it 
has come in the position of 3\ A second mir- 
ror follows it and takes the position /', which 
was originally occcupied by the first mirror 
and goes the same way, that is first occupying 
the position /' like its predecessor and ending 
in position 3 1 . Hereby is the movement of the 
second frame compensated. This goes on till 
8 sector mirrors have made a full circular 
motion round the axis //. A suitable wheel- 
work between the axis // and the film sprocket 
wheel k (see Fig. 2) works in such a way 
that a complete correspondence exists be- 
tween the movement of the film and the com- 
pensating arrangement. 

"Because the mirrors follow each other 
without any gap, it happens that with every 
change of picture, for a time, parts of two 
sector mirrors, are at the same time in the 
bundle of light rays. The one mirror is com- 
pensating the movement of one frame 
whereas the second mirror has already begun 
the compensation of the following frame and 
so it happens that with every transition of a 
picture on the projection screen, the projec- 
tion of two frames which follow each other 
occurs at the same time. The process goes, 
forward in such a manner that during every 
change of picture the mirror which is leav- 
ing the field gets less and less light and the 
mirror which is just entering the field gets 
more and more light so that the illumination 
of both the pictures which cover each other 
on the screen is continuously changing. 
Their total illumination however remains 
the same. One projected picture is thus re- 
placed by the next following without the dark 
interval and the change of pictures corre- 



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May, 1926 



AMERICAN C I N E M AT OG R A P HE R 



Nineteen 



sponds perfectly to the process as it takes 
place in the human eye or as it could be some- 
times observed in a slower manner during 
the change of scenes (visions of dreams) in 
many films. 

"In order that the gain of light which oc- 
curs by the absence of the shutter in this new 
projector is not lost again, it is necessary that 
the bundle of light rays should also move 
along with the film. A strongly lighted and 
rectangular front window (see Fig. 2) throws 
its concentrated light-rays on each film pic- 
ture by a system of lenses and the bundle of 
rays in front of the film is led over the same 
sector-mirrors which bring about the optical 
compensation on the side of the film. These 
mirrors which catch the bundle of rays and 
reflect them on the film perform a swinging 
motion and thereby enable the lighted pic- 
ture of the front-window on the film to move 
forward along with each single film picture. 
Each sector mirror disappears on the lower 
side and makes its appearance again on the 
other side." 

It will be noted that no shutter is used on 
the projector, this, of course, being a radical 
departure from established procedure. It is 
stated that the principal parts of the instru- 
ment are interchangeable, and are, in addi- 
tion, enclosed. The interior mechanism is 
lubricated bv a central lubrication method. 



Amateur Camera Itlakes 

Intimate Shots Possible 

(Continued from page 1 1) 

This is only one of the unusual view- 
points that these new cameras make possible 
because of their portability. 

As another example, suppose the action 
called for a scene of a parachute jump from 
an aeroplane. The audience could be given 
the thrill, and could feel the sensation of 
whizzing objects that passed as the jump was 
being made if the jumper operated one of 
these automatic, portable cameras. 

Let the mind ramble for a moment and 
one will vizualize scores of uses for a camera 
of this type. 

Just as the gyroscopic panoramic and 
tilting tripod head, of which the Akeley was 
first to be extensively used has become so 
widely used that nowadays scenarios specify 
"Akeley shot," I believe that the broader 
field of novel shots that the small, portable, 
automatic camera opens up will cause a 
marked influence in the technique of produc- 
tion in the future. 



"The best" doesn't always 
mean a change! 

ONE reason why the silent drama has 
forged ahead by leaps and bounds has 
been its hammer-and-tongs insistence on 
"the best." Mediocre and almost-as-good 
are taboo. 

Often this has meant constant change. 
But not always! In the important ques- 
tion of lighting, "the Coops" have long 
been the light to use — old timers and 
newcomers alike all know. 

And when new problems come up, 
they're easily settled by Cooper Hewitt. 
Just get in touch with "Mike" Shannon! 

Wire, write or phone! 



"\ 



COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office — 7207 Santa Monica Blvd. 

KEESE ENGINEERING CO., JohnTV'Mike" Shannon, Mgr. 

I24©C. H. E. Co., 1926 



BRUSSELS 



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ROME 



MADRID 



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RENE 
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Atmospheric Shots in Any 
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duclwn. 



OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENT IN 
EUROPE FOR: 

American Society oj 
Cinematographers ; 
Frank D. Williams 



118 Avenue des Champs- Elysees 

PARIS 

Cable Address: 

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BUDAPEST 



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OATRO 



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ALGIERS 



ETC. 



ETC. 



Ifctfi 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCxRAPHER 



May, 1926 



(Continued from Pagp 17) 

ment before one's fireside. To meet this new 
demand the company has planned still further 
extensions in this service. Already there are 
more than four hundred subjects from which 
library subscribers may choose. 

Specialized Usage 

As complete as this movie equipment is 
for amateur use, there are still those who will 
not be entirely satisfied. These will want 
special lenses for a more specialized type of 
cinematography. 

Thus the serious worker, the advanced 
amateur, the surgeon, the scientist, the natur- 
alist and others will appreciate Cine-Kodak 
A with the f. 1.9 lens equipment, and the in- 
terchangeable long focus f. 4.5 (3}i inch) 
lens for telephoto effects. This f. 1.9 lens is • 
three times as fast as the f .3.5 lens with which 
this model was originally equipped, so that 
the Cine-Kodak A can now be pressed into 
service a lot of times and in a number of 
places where ordinarily pictures cannot be 
secured. With a subject close to a good win- 
dow and bright light outside, it will even 
make interiors. With this faster lens the 
cranking can also be speeded up so that inter- 
esting slow motion pictures can be made even 
when the light is poor. 

For Surgeons 

Many surgeons and obstetricians are ex- 
pected to desire this equipment for securing 
records of operations for teaching purposes 
in hospitals. 

Another innovation for the advance ama- 
teur cinematographer is a separate lens for 
telephoto effects for the Cine-Kodak A, 
which is interchangeable with the f. 1.9 lens. 
The f. 1.9 lens can be removed and in its 
place can be substituted the 78 mm. {?>% 
inch) f. 4.5 lens with which the image is three 
times as large as the image made with the reg- 
ular lens. It is designed to secure a good sized 
image of subjects a considerable distance 
away, as, for instance, football players and 
baseball players from the side-lines, wild ani- 
mal pictures, or in fact anything that cannot 
be approached for images of satisfying size. 

By developing this new equipment the 
Eastman Kodak Company has shown great 
progress in furthering this fascinating pastime 
in the past year. Just as an army of ama- 
teur photographers arose more than three 
decades ago after the "Kodak" was developed, 
the legions of home movie enthusiasts have 
already begun to form. 



E. Burton Steene 

Freelance 

Akeley Camera 
Specialist 



HEmpstead 
4 16 1 



Care of American Society of 
Cinematographerg 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 
Hollywood, Calif. 



GRanite 
4274 



FOR RENT! 

MITCHELL and BELL & HOWELL 

CAMERAS 

F 2. 3. - F. 2. 7. - F. 3. 5. Lenses 
40-50-75 M. M. 

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J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 North Orange St. 
Phone Glendale 3361-W Glendale, California 



CRECO 



The New Iris Combination may be had 
with 4-in. Iris or Sunshade 

FRED HOEFNER 
Cinema and Experimental Work 

5319 Santa Monica Blvd. (rear) 
GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Cal. 



SUBSCRIBE FOR THE 

American Cinematoqrapher 



HARRY D. BROWN 

Cinema Studios Supply Corp. 



1438 Beachwood Drive 

Brown- Ashoraft 
Studio Lamps 



HOIIy 0513 

HOIIy 0514 

Carbons, and Other 



May, 1926 



AMERICAN C I NE M AT OG R A PHER 



Twentyon" 



Article by A. S. C. Member 

Appears in April " American" 

Again proving his proficiency as a writer 
as well as a cinematographer, Herford Tynes 
Cowling, A. S. C, steps forth in the April 
number of The American Magazine as the 
author of ''Bringing the Ends of the Earth 
to Your Movie House." 

The article presents interesting points in 
Cowling's experiences as a cinematographer 
in all parts of the globe, and is liberally illus- 
trated with rare "stills" taken by the A. S. C. 
member himself under the wildest and most 
primitive conditions. 

Cowling's career as a big-league writer 
includes a number of similar articles, one 
having appeared just recently in the Asia 
magazine. He returned last month from 
India where he filmed the coronation of Sir 
Hari Singh, having made the trip from 
Bombay to New York, in the record time of 
19 days. A "flash" carries the information 
that he made 20,000 feet of the coronation. 



Carl Zeiss, Inc., Succeeds 

Harold M. Bennett in New York 



The photographic establishment of 
Harold M. Bennett was transferred on April 
1st to Carl Zeiss, Inc., which assumes all the 
assets and liabilities of the Bennett organiza- 
tion. 

The same staff will be kept at the head- 
quarters as heretofore maintained by Bennett 
at 153 West 23rd Street, New York City. 
Under the new name, the policy of the firm 
will be continued as previously, there being 
no change contemplated particularly insofar 
as the dealer customers are concerned. 

Carl Zeiss, Inc., will be the sole distribut- 
ing agents in the United States for Carl Zeiss, 
Jena; lea A. G., Dresden; R. Winkel, G. m. 
b. H., Goettingen, and Georg Wolf, G. m. 
b. H., Berlin. 



Sol Polito, A. S. C, is cinematographer 
on "Senor Dare-Devil," which Al Rogell is 
directing. Polito has the same staff he has 
had on several recent Chas. R. Rogers pro- 
ductions, viz., Wm. A. Sickner as second, and 
Elwood Bridell as assistant and "still" 
photographer. "Senor Dare-Devil" stars 
Ken Maynard with Dorothy Devore and a 
feature cast, and is for First National release. 



Announcing a new price, now 

made possible by $4%4% 

increasing inter- ^^^^ 

est in this Re- 

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We 

also make 

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as well as RADAR THe- 

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a complete line of high-grade 
cameras and looses for the still stu- 
dio. Write for our complete catalogue. 



.UNDLACH-MANHATTAN OPTICAL CO. 

J)00 Clinton So., Rochester, N. Y. 



Special Sale 
T R I PO D S 

and All Other Motion Picture Equipment. 

Complete tripods, including Bell & Howell 

or Pa the types, $1)5. 

A. J. Sagon 

L. A. UTILITY MFG. COMPANY 

(Formerly L. A. Motion Picture Company) 

21S East Washington Street I,os Anjreles 

WEstmoie 3485 

SJOO— Another Special : Pathe Field Model Camera, 4 Magazines- $200 



SCHEIBE'S PHOTO-FILTER SPECIALTIES 

Are now popular from coast to coast, and in 
some foreign countries. 

If my many varieties do not always fill the bill, 
tell me your wants and I will make them on special 
order. 

Always at your service. 

GEO. H. SCHEIBE 

1636 Lemoyne St. DUnkirk 4975 Los Angeles, Cal. 



FOR. RENT 



BELL - HOWELL 

AND 

AKELEY CAMERAS 

With or Without Cameramen 



SEIDEN CAMERA EXCHANGE 

729 Seventh Ave. N.Y.C. 

Bryant 395 1 



Bargains in 

CAMERAS and PROJECTORS 

Discontinuing Our Entire 35 mm. Stock at Less 

Than Half Value 
1 Universal Camera, new, with dissolve... $250 
1 Universal Camera, shelf-worn, new, without 

dissolve $150 

(Both have B and L lenses, F 3.5) 

$40 Camera Case $20 

$125 Tripod and Case $60 

$300 Peerless Projectors, finest for studio cutting 
and editing $100 

The Pathescope Co. of America, Inc. 

3 5 West 4Xnd Street New York, N. Y, 



Wire us 

for any 

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Prices 
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Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CI N EM AT OG R A PHER 



May. 1926 



Frank B. Good, A. S. C, Films 

Special Film on Mexican Soil 

Frank B. Good, A. S. C, has returned to 
Hollywood from Mexico and Lower Cali- 
fornia, where he photographed a special film 
which was given a place in the governmental 
archives of Abelardo L. Rodriguez, governor 
of Baja, California. Good worked in con- 
junction with Col. Alexandre) Pelligren, per- 
sonal aide to Gov. Rodriguez, and with M. 
H. Newman of Hollywood. 

By special permission from the govern- 
ment, Good filmed the governor's magnifi- 
cent summer palace as well as the schools, 
hospitals, and the hardware and fishing in- 
dustries in various Mexican towns, including 
Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada. The A. S. 
C. member covered the entire assignment 
without the aid of artificial lights and ob- 
tained excellent results which he attributes 
in no small degree to the Du Pont-Pathe 
super-speed stock which he reports he used 
exclusively. 



MacLean Joins Sennett 

As Chief Cinematographer 

Kenneth G. MacLean, A. S. C, has been 
appointed chief cinematographer at the 
Mack Sennett studios where he held a similar 
position a decade ago. MacLean's new posi- 
tion will call for not only cinematographic 
work, but will entail directorial activity in 
the matter of chase scenes and the like. 

Since his original connection with Sen- 
nett, MacLean has been recognized as a spe- 
cialist on cinematographic matters, having 
performed such duties on "The Sea Beast," 
"Ben Hur 11 and on "The Thief of Bagdad," 
on which he worked in co-operation with 
Arthur Edeson and Philip H. Whitman, both 
A. S. C. members. 



CLUBBING OFFER 

Subscribed for separately, Camera Craft 
and the American Cinematographer will cost 
a total of $4.50 oer year. As a special clubbing 
offer, both maqazines may be had at a total 
price of $3.40 per year. 

American CinematoqrapHer 

1219 20 2122 Guaranty Bldfl. 
Hollywood. Calif. 



ILEX 

CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

LENSES 

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Ilex Super Cinemat F:2.6 
Ilex Paragon Cinemat F:3.5 
Ilex Paragon Cinemat F:4.5 






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For General Ail-Around Work The F:3.5 
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Greater Depth Of Focus. 



DEFINITION- 

The Definition Is 
Snappy and Brilliant. 



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COVERING POWER 

Even At Their Largest Aperture They 
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ILEX SUPER CINEMAT F:S.6 



CAT. NO. 


Covers at 
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EQUIV. FOCUS 


Price in 
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39.00 


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ILEX PARAGON CINEMAT F:V5 



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ILEX PARAGON ANASTIGMAT F:4.5 



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ILEX OPTICAL COMPANY 

Manufacturers of 
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jection Lenses, Condensers and Designers of all types of 
Special Optical Equipments. 

Rochester, New York 



May, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR A PHER 



Twenty-three 



(Continued from Page >>) 

standing of which recently was ''The Iron 
Horse." Among the Fox productions which 
Schneiderman has photographed lately are 
"The Roughneck," "Kentucky Pride," 
"Thank You," "The Golden Strain" and 
"The Johnstown Flood." 

Secretary 

Charles G. Clarke, the secretary, is chief 
cinematographer for George Melford, with 
whom he has photographed "Salomy Jane," 
"The Light that Failed," "Flaming Bar- 
riers," "A Dawn of Tomorrow," "Tiger 
Love," "The Top of the World," "Friendly 
Enemies," "Without Mercy," "Simon the 
Jester," "Rocking Moon" and "Whispering 
Smith." 

Retiring Officers 

With the exception of Clark and Wilky, 
the list of the retiring A. S. C. officers, who 
served during the closing year, numbers 
Homer A. Scott, president; Victor Milner, 
first vice president; Bert Glennon, treasurer, 
and John W. Boyle, secretary. 



•^ 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinematographer 

may be had on a special one year's club- 
bing subscription at a very substantial 
saving. Separately, the two publica- 
tions cost a total of $4.50 per year. By 
virtue of the clubbing offer, both may 
be had for $3.40. 



WANTED: 


Akeley Camera 


Ou 


tfit. 


State 


price 


and 


equipment. 
LEN H. ROOS 








c o A. 


S. C. 


, 1219-22 Guaranty 


Building 






Hollywood. 









<The 

Tleu? Home 

Is Reaclq 

NOW LOCATED IN OUR 
BUILDING % CORNER of 
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Office Space available 
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Same High Standard 
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the General Public 

BELL & HOWELL 

Slow Motion 

Akeley, Still and Graflex 

Cameras for Rent 

Call GRanite 1185 

For Service in 
Developing, Printing, 
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Twenty four 



AMERICAN C INE M AT OGR APHER 



May, 1926 



A.S.C. Member Dedicates Tleir> Office Building 



Park J. Ries, A. S. C, and 
Brothers Open Photographic 
Headquarters in Hollywood 



Bij Joe Blair 



Formal Opening of Establish- 
ment Made Civic Event. Many 
Celebrities Participate. 




rr ir 



!'iiiiii_^uirf; 



fl 



l 'iew of New Ries Building, Erected by Park J. Ries and Brothers 




One of the most brilliant openings Holly- 
wood has witnessed recently took place Sat- 
urday evening, May 1, when Park J. Ries, 
A. S. C. member, opened the massive doors of 
the Ries building to the public for the first 
time. 

Herbert Rawlinson, popular film star, 
officiated as the master of ceremonies and his 
pleasant personality and presentations won the 
admiration of the huge crowd which attended 
the affair. 

Among the film stars introduced were: 
Priscilla Dean, Alice Calhoun, Natalie King- 
ston, Duane Thompson, Hallam Cooley, 
Ynez Seabury, Helen Lynch, June Marlowe, 
Etta Lee, Hazel Keener, Gloria Grey, Ena 
Gregory and many others. 

Several impromptu acts of vaudeville 
artists, singers and dancers entertained the 
guests throughout the evening. Music by a 
well-known group of studio musicians fur- 
nished excellent renditions for those who 



cared to dance following the completion of 
the program. 

Harry Lucenay, owner of Pal, the won- 
der dog, gave an impromptu show which 
would have been a headliner on any Orpheum 
stage. 

Merchants and businessmen of the neigh- 
borhood decorated the unoccupied rooms of 
the building in merchandise displays: Among 
the firms represented were Be Hannessy Art 
Studio, Arthur G. Loye Shoe Store, Holly- 
wood Cap and Hat Company, Silver's Style 
Shop, William Stromberg Jewelry Store, 
Marsh Music Company and Brodsky's Fur 
Shop. 

The Ries Building, located at Western 
and Virginia avenues, was built by Ries 
Brothers, Park J., Paul and Ray Ries, three 
cinematographers. Four years ago, each of 
these boys were employed in the various 
studios. May 1, 1922, exactly four years ago, 
they all resigned their positions to establish 

(Continued on Page 25) 



May. 1926 



AMERICAN C INE M AT OGR APHER 



Twenty-five 




Aduertisinq Pou?er 

American Cinematographer, 
1219-22 Guaranty Bldg., 
Hollywood, Calif. 

(J en tie me u : 

The enclosed draft for $3.00 will renew my 
subscription to the American Cinematographer for 
another year, starting with the May issue. 

Will you kindly forward the enclosed letter to 
the Chester Bennett Laboratories? 

In closing, permit me to say that I enjoy the 
American Cinematographer very much, and have 
benefitted myself greatly through the advertising 
department, having ordered goods from several of 
your advertisers. The reading matter is unusually 
good. 

Thanking you for past favors, I am, 
Yours trulv, 



327 Butts Bldg., 
Wichita, Kansas. 



(Signed) M. B. FAIDLEY. 



Portraiture Department to 

Be Started by Ries Brothers 

The photographic activities of Ries 
Brothers will be augmented with the installa- 
tion of a portrait studio in the new Ries Build- 
ing, which was formally dedicated in Holly- 
wood on the night of May 1st. 

Special lighting apparatus has already 
been installed for the portrait work. In ad- 
dition, the studio has been especially designed 
for adaptibility for daylight illumination. 

Stills 

As herteofore, Ries Brothers will con- 
tinue production and commercial still work, 
for which they have outfitted a complete and 
modern still laboratory. 

Rentals 

They will also carry on with the rental 
of motion picture and still cameras, they hav- 
ing been pioneers in the rental business. 

High-Speed Work 

High-speed cinematographic work will 
be a part of their program, as has been the 
case in the past. Two Bell and Howell high 
speed outfits are a part of their equipment. 



(Continued from Page 2 4) 



themselves in business and the thousands that 
stopped by to congratulate them Saturday 
night were only a small portion of the friends 
of the industry who have watched their prog- 
ress and wish them well. 

A very brilliant electrical display was 
furnished by Otto K. Olesen, well-known 
Hollywood illuminating expert. Mr. Olesen 
was on the job every minute and his men al- 
ways had the lights in the right spot for the 
cinematographers "shooting" news reel film. 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty B:dg., 

6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with the Issue of 



192 

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(Note: Camera Craft will be sent for a slight addi- 
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Twenty-six 



AMERICA N CINEMATOGRAPHER 



May, 1926 



RELEASES 



March 22, 1926, to April 16, 1926 



TITLE 

Monte Carlo 

The New Klondike 

Chip of the Flying U 

The Seventh Bandit 

Yellow Fingers 

The Barrier 

Desert Gold 

The Dancer of Paris 

Pleasures of the Rich 

The Lady from Hell 

The Escape 

The New Champion 

For Heaven's Sake 

Kiki 

The Flaming Frontier 

Sandy 

Bride of the Storm 

The Crown of Lies 
The Nut-Cracker 
Red Dice 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY 

William Daniels 

Alvin Wyckoff 

Harry Neuman 

Sol Polito, member A. S. C. 

Ernest Palmer, member A. S. C. 

Ira Morgan, member A. S. C. 

C. Edgar Schoenbaum 

Ernest Haller, member A. S. C. 

Not credited 

Not credited 

Jack Young 

George Meehan, member A. S. C. 

Walter Lundin, member A. S. C. 

Oliver Marsh 

Virgil Miller 

R. J. Bergquist 

Nicholas Musuraca, member 

A. S. C. 
Bert Glennon, member A. S. C. 
Jack Mackenzie 
Lucien Andriot 



Secret Orders 


Roy Klaffki 


Wild Oats Lane 


David Kesson and Donald Keyes 


The Other Woman's Story 


Gilbert Warrenton, member 




A. S. C, and Allen Siegler 


Brooding Eyes 


Not credited 


The Wilderness Woman 


Ernest Haller, member A. S. C. 


The Night Cry 


E. B. DuPar, member A. S. C. 


Siberia 


Glen MacWilliams, member 




A. S. C. 


The Devil's Circus 


Ben Reynolds 


The Earth Woman 


Milton Moore 


That's My Baby 


Jack MacKenzie 


The Prince of Pilsen 


James C. Van Trees, member 




A. S. C. 


The Blind Goddess 


Alfred Gilks, members A. S. C. 



HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark ------------- President 

L. Guv Wilkv ---------- First Vice President 

Frank B. Good --------- Second Vice President 

Ira H. Morgan --------- Third Vice President 

GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN ----------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke ------------ Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Victor Milncr Frank B. Good King D. Grav 

Daniel B. Clark Alfred Gilks Fred W. Jackman 

George Schneiderman Charles G. Clarke Reginald E. Lyons 

L. Guy Wilky H. Lyman Broening E. Burton Steene 

John Arnold Homer A. Scott Ira H. Morgan 

Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. Landers, Sam — 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Lockwood. J. R. — 

_ _ „ ... _ -_, . T ,„, .. „. . „ . Lundin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropolis 

Barnes, George S. — with Rudolph ^lalentmo. Piokford- t__ o,„,n«„ 

_ . - Qi ■• . ia.noiLiu.ios. 

BairoanKs fctuuio. Lyons. Reginald— with Buck Jones. Fox Studio. 
Beckway. W m. — 

Benoit, Georges—with Metropolitan Productions. Metropoli- Marshalli W m.— with Famous Players-Lasky. 

tan Studios. McCol d, T. D. — with First National. United studios. 
Boyle. John W.— with First National Productions, United McGm Barnev _ with Fox studios 

Studios „,..... MacLean. Kenneth G. — with Warner Bros. 

Brodin, Norbert F.— Frank Lloyd Productions, First National, M acWilliams, Glen— with Fox Studio. 

United Studios. Meehan. George— with Columbia Pictures. 

Broening, H. Lyman Milner. Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Brotherton. Joseph — Morgan, Ira H. — with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan. Metro- 
Olark. Dan— with Tom Mix. Fox Studio. Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Clarke Chas. G. — with George Melford, Metropolitan Studios. . , 

Cowling. Herford T.— 29 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. Musuraca Nicholas— with Warner Brothers. 

Cotner. Frank M— Norton, Stephen S— F. B. O. Studios. 

Crockett, Ernest— ,. Palmer, Ernest S.— with Fox Studio 

Cronjager, Henry— with Famous Players-Lasky, New York Per| . y Harry— with Famous Players-Lasky 

City. Perry. Paul P. — with Universal. 

Dean. Faxon M. — Polito. Sol — with Chas. R. Rogers. First National. 
Doran, Robert V. — 

Dored. John— Riga, Latvia. £ les ' f arK J -— 

DuPont, Max B. Roos, Len H. — with Alexander Film Co., Englewood. Denver. 

DuPar. E. B. — with Warner Bros. t C ?'° t -.u „ 

,-. . ' T „„„„>, . Rose, Jackson J. — with Universal. 

Dubray, Joseph A. — „ , , . ., 

Rosher. Charles — with t ta. Berlin. 

son, Arthur — with First National. New York City. ... ^ x 

,, ,, Schneiderman. George — with Fox Studio. 

Evans. Perry- Scou Homer A _ 

FUdew, Wm. — Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Fischbeck. Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios 

Lasky. New York City. Short, Don- 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson. F. B. O. Studios. Smith, Steve, Jr. — 
Freid. Abe — with Fox Studio. Steene. E. Burton — 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Stumar, Charles — with Universal, New York i 

GUks. Alfred — with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar, John — with Universal. 

Glennon. Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. m^ii,,,™* t „„:„ -u ..o . „ T •,• ,. .,, „ 

i i.- • r,u n — Tolhurst, Louis H. — "Secrets of Life," Microscopic Pictures, 

Good. KaiiK J^ Principal Pictures Corporation. 

ciSaVt^-ParirFra^ ="*"* Pr ° dUCtU>nS - T^T'j.^^-^ ^JS?* ^^ M - 

gS^'STta^- ***** *"' ^^ *"" ^ ^ *" «™ CharTes-with First National. New York Citv. 

weimeri, Alois ^. Van T ,.,, ps j ame s C— with First National Productions, 
Jackman, Floyd — Fred W. Jackman Prods. United Studios. 

Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. „.,. . .,, ,. . 

Jennings J. D.-with Metropolitan studios. Varremon. GUbert-with Universal. 

5 • Wenstrom, Harold — with Corinne Griffith Productions. 

Koenekamp, Hans F. — with Larry Semon. Whitman, Philip H. — with Mack Sennett studios. Scenario 
Kull, Edward — with Universal. Dept. 

Kurrle. Robert — with Edwin Carewe, United Studios. Wilky, L, Guy — 

Edison, Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb, Arthur C. — Attorney. 

Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 




April 24, 1924. 



Mltohell Carera Company, 
Los Angeles, 
California. 

Gentlemen: 

My last two pictures, "Painted People" 
and "The Shooting of Dan MoGrew", were toth "shot" 
with a Mitchell camera. 

Photographically they received the highest 
praise. 

1 like the clever refinements of your 
camera. They certainly save time. The ease and 
quickness with which my oameraman, Mr. Bergqulst, 
sets up his Mltohell gives me many moments of joy. 

Thanks for being up-to-date. 

Slnoerely yours, 




Vol. VII, No. 3 
25 Cents A Copy 



June, 1926 



U. S. Postage 

2c. Paid 

Los Angeles, Calif, 
Permit No. 941 




American 




Cinematoqrapher 

Published by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 




This Month 

A Mid- Year Cinematographic 

Re view— By Daniel B. Clark, A. S. C 

Trick Photography Methods 

Summarized — By Carl Gregory 

Effect of Desensitizers in Devel- 
opment — By M. L. Dundon and 
J. I. Crabtree 



PUBLISHED IN HOLLYWOOD CALIFORNIA 



S^S^Xs^y^^^^ 



An exceptionally long 
line of gradations 
combined with fine grain, 
high speed and excellent 
color separation, makes 




Negative the better stock 



"Ask the men who use it" 



c^sp 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Alter, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 

1056 North Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 6669 

Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VII JUNE, 1926 No. 3 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss, Editor and General Manager 
C. K. Phillips, Special Representative 



Contents : 

Page 
L\ T Camerafornia 4 

The Editor's Lens 5 

Amateur Cinematography — 

"Amateur" Camera Is Carried to North Pole 

Tripod Head for Small Camera 6 

Cinematographer as Economy Unit in Production 7 

PROJECTION — Conducted by Earl J. Denison 

Projection — Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow — 

By Arthur H. Gray .' 8 

u Trick" Photography Methods Summarized — 

By Carl Louis Gregory 9 

Effects of Desensitizers in Development — 

By M. L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree 10 

A Mid- Year Cinematographic Review — 

By Daniel B. Clark, A. S. C :.. 12 

Projection — Continued 22 

Cameras Go Over the Top 24 

Classified Advertising 25 

A. S. C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $1. 50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographer s, Inc.) 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



June, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 



"Amateur" Camera is Carried to Tlorth Pole 



^9 

•J Byrd and Amundsen 
Expeditions Take Bell 
and Howell Product 
over Pole; Motion Pic- 
ture Records Made with 
Instrument. 

Another triumph for the 
"amateur" model of motion 
picture camera was scored 
when the "Eyemo" was car- 
ried to and over the North 
Pole by the expeditions 
headed respectively by Lt. 
Commander Richard Byrd 
and by Raold Amundsen on 
the dirigible, "Norge." 

Historical 

New spapers throughout 
the country carried dis- 
patches of motion pictures 
being taken of the North 
Pole on the occasion of the 
second time it was ever visited 
by a human being. The event 
is regarded as one of the most 
historical in the annals of the 
manufacture of motion pic- 
ture equipment. 

Similarly, the filming of 
the eruption of the Mauna 
Loa was done through the 
medium of the "Eyemo" 
which, it is stated, rendered 
possible International News- 
reel's "scoop" on this hap- 
pening. 

Expeditions 

The "Eyemo" type of cam- 
era has been widely adopted 
for use in various expeditions, 
including the Third Asiatic 
Expedition, the Bering Sea 
Expedition, the Speejax Ex- 
pedition, the Smithsonian- 
Chrysler Expedition to 
Africa, the Wilkins North 




Tripod Head for Small Camera 

(^ Fred Hoefher, of Hollywood, Perfects and Mar- 
kets Device Especially Adapted to Amateur Motion 
Picture and Still Cameras; Larger Model for Pro- 
fessional Cameras to Be Forthcoming. 



A new tripod head, 
adapted for the use of small 
amateur motion picture and 
still cameras, is announced in 
Hollywood by Fred Hoefner, 
precision mechanic, who is 
manufacturing the product 
under the patents of William 
Maulsby Thomas. 

Wide Range 
Hoefner's creation is called 
the "T r u e-ball Tripod 

Pole Expedition; and the 
African and Mongolian Ex- 
pedition of the American 
Museum of Natural History. 



Head." It is rotated on a 
true ball, and after being set 
up level can be tilted in a 90 
degree arc and can be rotated 
360 degrees. 

The device allows the cam- 
era to follow any object, at 
the same time remaining 
level. 

Larger Model 

It is said that this small 
model is to be supplemented 
by a larger one for profes- 
sional size motion picture 
cameras. The professional 
model will have an independ- 
ent tilt and pan. 



June, 192tJ 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Seven 



Cinematographer as Economy Unit in Production 



Responsible Camera Artist 
Saves Salary in Course of 
One Picture 

(The following interview with 
Daniel B. Clark, president of the 
American Society of Cinetnatograph- 
ers, ivas writ/en by the editor of this 
publication for the studio section of 
the Exhibitors Herald:) 



^ 



Great Economies Effected 
through Progress and Ef- 
ficiency of Camera Calling 



The cinematographer is in 
a keystone post in the matter 
of effecting economy in cost 
of motion picture production, 
according to Daniel B. Clark, 
president of the American 
Society of Cinematographers. 

Saves Salary 

"T h e cinematographer," 
Clark states, "ordinarily saves 
his salary many times during 
the course of the average pro- 
duction. This may appear to 
be a novel assertion; never- 
theless, it is true. 

Great Economy 

"In the matter of illumina- 
tion alone, careful regulation 
by him as to how much light 
is used on each set, thereby 
employing only the light act- 
ually needed and avoiding 
over-illumination, is a means 
of saving hundreds of dollars 
on a feature production. 

Promptitude 

"The company," Clark 
continued, "rarely has to wait 
for the cinematographer to be 



ready to shoot. He is 'set up,' 
with all his lights arranged in 
proper positions, and waiting 
for the call, 'Camera,' when 
the director and the company 
are ready for action. If it 
were otherwise, it would 
mean, especially on sets with 
a great many extra people, 
the piling up of heavy over- 
head, due to the loss of time — 
for, need it be said that noth- 
ing can be done until the 
camera is ready to photo- 
graph? The cinematograph- 
er's alacrity in such matters 
is the result of the maximum 
efficiency to which he has re- 
duced his work. Certainly a 
complete mastery of his sub- 
ject is required for him, in 
the hurry and bustle of the 
set, to give commands as to 
where this light or that light 
is to be placed, all of which 
must be done in a few mo- 
ment's time. What would 
have been the case if, in the 
beginning of the business, the 
procedure would have been 
established that a couple of 
hours or more would have 
been necessary for experi- 
menting with and checking 
each array of lights, to deter- 
mine its correctness? 

Production Cost Cut 

"And so it is in the run of 
cinematographic improve- 
ments generally. The cine- 



matographer has been quick 
to bring about or encourage 
such improvements, so that 
little corners, however imper- 
ceptible, are continually be- 
ing cut in production costs. 
A faster or a more adaptable 
lens is immediately adopted, 
a new effect in miniature is 
worked out and so on — and 
hundreds of dollars and, in 
some instances, even thou- 
sands of dollars are saved for 
the producer. Thus, the ex- 
pertness of the cinematog- 
rapher brought the glass shot 
from the realm of probability 
to the plane of fact — and 
what producer doesn't realize 
the savings effected by this 
form of economy. 

"These," the A. S. C. presi- 
dent concluded, "are but a 
few of the innumerable cases 
of cinematographic econo- 
mies. Some rarely if ever 
come to executive attention, 
while others, because of their 
magnitude, command respect 
— as, for instance, the case in 
which one member of the A. 
S. C, is saving, it is reported, 
his company the sum of $40,- 
000 by having eliminated, in 
a big production now being 
made, the necessity of count- 
less night shots — and previ- 
ously it had been thought 
that the nights of photo- 
graphing were an indispensi- 
ble evil in the making of this 
particular picture." 



•AIM 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



June, 192C 



Effect of Desensitixers in Deuelopment 



Part Two of Investigations 
on Photographic Devel- 
opers Is Released 



Bij m. L. Dundon 
and J. I. Crabtree 

Of the Eastman Research 
Laboratory. 



Paper Was Read at Spring 
Meeting of Society of Mo- 
tion Picture Engineers 



SERIES A- 



SERIES 3 MO EFFECT 

SERIES 2. 

SERIES 1 
SERIES 



SERIES 00 



Figure Tivo — Relative photographic effect of Wratten safelights on Pan- 
chromatic film. 



I. Introduction. 

The inspection of film during development is often 
desirable even though the time and temperature method 
can be used to produce negatives of a definite develop- 
ment contrast or gamma. Especially in the case of mo- 
tion picture film, where only one positive material is used 
for printing all scenes, the production of negatives of fixed 
density contrast is desirable. In order to obtain this re- 
sult the time of development must be varied according to 
the contrast of the original subject. Also, in ordinary 
photography, freedom of inspection during development 
may be of great assistance in obtaining the particular 
results desired. 

II. Methods of Securing Visibility During 
Development. 

The greatest possible visibility during development 
may be obtained by using an efficient safelight and by 
desensitizing the film. 

1. Suitable Choice of Safelight. 

In selecting an efficient safelight there are two fac- 
tors to consider, (a) the sensitivity of the eye to light of 
different colors and wavelength, and (b) the color sensi- 



tiveness of the emulsion used. Mees and Baker 1 have 
explained this matter clearly and defined safelight effi- 
ciency as the product of the vsiual intensity of the light 
transmitted multiplied by its safety for a given emulsion. 
The relation of these factors is represented graphically 
in Fig. I where curves showing the special sensitivity of 
the eye and the special sensitivity of typical photographic 
emulsions are plotted on the same scale of wavelengths 
as the transmission of the Wratten safelights. From the 
upper curve 2 showing the spectral sensitivity of the eye it 
is evident that of a given intensity of radiation, the 
human eye is much more sensitive to green or yellow than 
to red or blue light. In fact the average point of maxi- 
mum visibility for a large number of observers was 
at 560 mm. 

Ordinary photographic emulsions, on the other hand, 
are sensitive only to the blue and violet, but when made 
orthochromatic they are sensitive also to green, and when 
panchromatic the sensitivity includes the red and is ex- 

1. C. E. K. Mees and J. K. Baker, "A Measurement of the 
Efficiency of Dark Room Filters," Phot. Jour. 47, 267, (1907). 

2. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, •■Visibility of Radiant 
Energy," Sci. Paper, Bur. Standards, No. 475. 



June. 1926 



AMERICAN C I NE M AT OG R APHER 



Eleven 




4 00 ^JM 

Violet 
Spectral 
Sensitivity 
o^ Film 



500 fcOO 700u.(i 

Blue Green Yellow Orange Red 




TransmiHBd 

*•* „_ Ser 

SaFeligrrte 

3er00 



I ZOOOf ! 



06 2 

E 



Values enclosed m rectangles represent retatrve photographic 
effect onPanchroma+ic Film 



t 
?l-0 



Above: Figure One. Curves showing rela- 
tion between visual and photographic intensity of 
light transmitted by Wratten safelights. 




fc13 

S 



SPeCTRO-PHOTOMETRlC ABSORPTION GJRVE5 OF DE5EnSITIZER5 




CONCfcWR>TION in parts per million 

Figure Four 



Figure Three 



tended throughout the visible spectrum. The light trans- 
mitted by the Wratten Safelight Filters is represented in 
this diagram by blocks of which the extent of the base 
line corresponds to the wavelengths transmitted. The 
area, and the accompanying number, represent the relative 
photographic effectiveness of the light. This was meas- 
ured by the effect produced on a panchromatic film when 
exposed to the different safelights for the same time 
through a step tablet (See Fig. 2). On the right are 
given the values in foot candles for the illumination given 
by the safelights and measured at a distance of 1 foot 
(30 cm.) when used in a Wratten safelight lamp con- 
taining a 25 W. bulb. The measurements were made 
with a Macbeth illuminometer. From this diagram it is 
evident that the yellowish green safelight, Series 3, is 
the most efficient for panchromatic materials, while for 
emulsions which are not red sensitive the red safelights 
Series 1 or 2 are better because of the relative insensitivity 
of the film to the light which they transmit. The extent 
to which these relations are modified by the use of desen- 
sitizers in development will be indicated later. 

In Fig. 2 is shown the method by "which the relative 
photographic effect of the light transmitted by the differ- 
ent safelights was measured. A step tablet having a 
density range of 3.4 was placed over a sheet of Commer- 
cial Panchromatic Film. Narrow strips were then ex- 
posed to each of the different safelights for the same time 
and in the same manner, and the whole sheet developed. 



From the densities of the step tablet corresponding in each 
case to the first visible image, the relative exposures were 
calculated. 

The limits of safety in exposing Eastman Motion 
Picture Negative and Commercial Panchromatic Film 
to the various safelights is shown in Table I. The fog 
density produced with normal development by a ten sec- 
onds exposure to the safelight at a distance of one foot 
is given except where no effect was obtained in this time. 
In such cases the time required to produce a visible fog 
is recorded. Table t 

Comparative -Safety of Untreated Film to 

Wratten Safelights 

Exposure at 30 cm. (1 ft.) from 8" x 10" Wratten 

Safelight Lamp Containing 25 W. Bulb. 

Relative Fog Density Produced by 10 

seconds Exposure. 
Panchromatic Motion Picture Nega- 



Safelight. Film. 

Series 00 2.2 

2.0 

1 1.5 

2 1.5 

3 0.2 

4 1.0 
From Table I it is evident that sufficient light can- 
not be used with panchromatic film without desensitizing 

(Continued on Page IS) 



tive Film. 

1.9 

1.2 
Fog in 1 minute 
Fog in 2 minutes 
Fog in 15 seconds 

0.8 



Twelve 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHER 



June, 1926 



A lUid-'L|ear Cinematographic Reuieuj 



President of A. S. C. Writes 
on Important Advances Dur- 
ing Last Twelve Months 



Daniel B. Clarke 
A. S. C. 



Takes Stock of Progressive 
Steps since Last 'Directors' 
Number' of Film Daily 



(The following story was written by 
Daniel B. Clark, president of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, for the "Direc- 
tors' Number" of the Film Daily.) 

It is an unusual twelvemonth indeed that 
does not bring about an abundant measure of 
progress in the world of cinematography. 
Such progress is stimulated not only by the 
interest of the cinematographer himself in his 
work, but is substantially brought about by 
the wishes and demands of the director who is 
an exponent of things progressive in the field 
of motion photography. 

Director's Encouragement 
A director may want a new bit of treat- 
ment, either for a novel result or for the same 
result produced in a different fashion, and it 
remains for the cinematographer to fill the 
order. Thus have many improvements been 
introduced in cinematography. 

The year that has passed since the ap- 
pearance of the last "Directors' Number" of 
the Film Daily has contributed its share to- 
ward the general photographic advancement 
of the industry, records of the American Soci- 
ety of Cinematographers show. 

Small Cameras 

Unusual activity has been manifested in 
the matter of small motion picture cameras of 
the "amateur" variety. While these instru- 
ments have been designed primarily for the 
wide usage of the novice, they have found 
their way to the professional motion picture 
studios. Naturally, the small cameras which 
do not use the standard size of film are not so 
adaptable for professional use where the stan- 
dard negative is imperative. But a portable 
camera such as the "Eyemo," which is a de- 
velopment of the Bell and Howell company, 
has been widely adopted for use among recog- 
nized cinematographers. Where heretofore, 
on some precipitous location or in exceedingly 
close quarters, the director had to forego his 
desire for an intimate shot of the action be- 
cause of the size of the regular professional 
camera, the cinematographer now utilizes his 
small portable camera with results that are 
the joy of all concerned, 



A. S. C. Member's Invention 

Another development which is meeting 
with marked interest among cinematograph- 
ers is the invention of John W. Boyle, a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers. Mr. Boyle has created an adapter 
whereby a regular standard camera head may 
be mounted, in a vertical tandem position, 
atop a camera of the Akeley type, the two be- 
ing operated at the same time. The arrange- 
ment makes possible a "close-up" and "long- 
shot" of the same subject of action — a matter 
which has intrigued the film production imag- 
ination for some time. 

"Talking" Films 

Since the Edison days in motion pictures, 
"talking" films have commanded perennial 
attention. Aside from the continuation of ex- 
periments on the already acknowledged spe- 
cies of cinema in this line, the Triergon 
method was announced during the past year 
in this country, preceded, according to the 
statistics which were cited, by more or less 
exhaustive trial exhibitions in Germany. The 
most recent contribution to this subject is the 
activity of Warner Brothers. E. B. Du Par, a 
member of the A. S. C. and a cinematogra- 
pher on the staff of the Warner studios, is at 
present in the East working on the latter in- 
vention. 

The matter of embodying speed into the 
negative through fast lenses and film has met 
with steady advancement during the past year. 
Panchromatic film is more popular than ever, 
and an "infra-red" stock, treated by Techni- 
color, has been used for special purposes. The 
actual taking speed of motion pictures, how- 
ever, remains at a basis of sixty feet per min- 
ute, as re-affirmed by the American Society 
of Cinematographers and the Society of Mo- 
tion Picture Engineers. 

Color 

In the color division of cinematography, 
Technicolor remains in the van. "The Black 
Pirate" is generally heralded as the best that 
has been done by this method. There seems 
to be little question in Hollywood that a new 
vista was opened in this work by virtue of the 
lighting and other methods employed by 
Henry Sharp, who was chief cinematogra- 
pher on the Douglas Fairbanks production. 



-. 



■F" 



June, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Thirteen 
_ 1 



Blue, red, yellow, green 

In photographing brilliant cos- 
tumes, colorful sets, vivid landscapes 
Eastman Panchromatic Negative 
enables you to keep all colors — blue, 
red, yellow, green — in their correct 
relationship in black and white tones. 

For photographing such subjects 
Eastman Panchromatic Negative is 
essential; for everyday use in the 
studio and on location it is invaluable. 



Write tor the booklet "Eastman Panchromatic Neg- 
ative Film for Motion Pictures". Properties, uses, 
handling, development of the tilm are described. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHBR 



June, 1926 



EYEMO "SCOOPS" NOR 

Airship and Dirigible Both Equipped f 




Another" Scoop for E YE MO 

Hawaiian Volcanic Disaster Filmed 

All the world has read of the outbreak on April 10 of the Volcanic Eruption 
on the top of Mauna Loa in South Koa, and of the havoc it caused in the village 
of Hoopuloa which was completely destroyed by the molten lava flow. 

Following the eruption word was received that the entire disaster had been 
"shot" with two EYEMO Standard Automatic Cameras — the only motion pic- 
tures taken — and that the films were being shown by the International Newsreel 
Company on the public screens of the world. 

The filming of the Volcanic disaster was a tremendous scoop for the Interna- 
tional Newsreel Company — one of the biggest in the history of their business. 
EYEMO made this scoop possible. 

Still another "beat" for EYEMO was the filming of the ill fated "Antinoe" 
which was shot from the deck of the rescue ship President Roosevelt by an 
EYEMO Cinematographer. 

Many Famous Expeditions Equipped with EYEMO 

Below are some of the many famous expeditions now using the EYEMO Stand- 
ard Automatic C a trier a: 

The Third Asiatic Expedition Speejax Expedition 

Byrd Polar Expedition Bering Sea Expedition 

Amundsen-Ellsworth North Pole Expedition 

Smithsonian-Chrysler Expedition to Africa 
Wilkins North Pole Expedition — with Mr. Rossman 
United -States Dept. of Interior, Geological Survey (Alaskan) 
African and Mongolian Expedition of the American Museum of 
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AMERICAN CINEM ATOQR APHBR 



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When Lt. Com. Byrd, who guided the now famous airplane "Josephine Ford," 
left on his trip to circle the North Pole, he carried with him an EYEMO 
Standard Automatic Motion Picture Camera. He appreciated that a motion 
picture record was necessary to make the trip complete. 

And now comes the word that Amundsen of the Amundsen and Ellsworth Polar 
Expedition, who closely followed Byrd, took along tivo of these standard auto- 
matic cameras. Tremendous scoops for EYEMO! 

Chosen Because of Its Compactnes s 

Both of these famous expeditions knew the advantages of compactness in- a 
motion picture camera for the trip. So they chose EYEMO — the light weight, 
quick and ready standard film camera designed particularly for field and stunt 
use. Flexibility was another requirement. With EYEMO they had the photo- 
graphic flexibility of a professional Bell & Howell 'Studio Model. And the 
camera had to be dependable for such an important trip. EYEMO'S depend- 
ability, they considered, was established by the 19-year reputation for quality 
of the company building and backing it. 

As with Bell & Howell Professional 
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Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHBR 



June, 1926 



"Trick" Photography Methods 
Summarized 

(Continued from Page 9) 

spot li^ht photographed through a copper wire screen to 
give the shimmering rays which are shown in the con- 
ventional paintings representing this sacred history. The 
massive walls of Fort Schuyler furnished the walls of the 
City of Jerusalem and the Wise Men followed the Star 
on the backs of camels in the Bronx Zoo. Photographs 
of the pyramids were double exposed above a location on 
a sandy beach for the sojourn in Egypt and the pillared 
portico of a rich patent medicine manufacturers' home, 
served as the architecture of the Roman Court. 

Great Demand 

Nearly seven hundred prints from the original and 
two dupe negatives which had to* be made to supply the 
demand were sold and some of the prints are still listed 
by educational exchanges. Orders were still coming in 
when the negatives were destroyed in a disastrous studio 
fire. 

What Comedies Brought 

Since the days of these crude pictures trick photog- 
raph) has waned and then waxed strong again. For a 
long time it was the step child of the legitimate pro- 
ducers. The comedy producers, however, have always 
regarded it as one of their strongest allies. It is, in fact, 
mainly due to the patient research of serious workers on 
the slap-stick lots that the credit for the present perfec- 
tion of trick effects is largely due. 

Experts 
Far sighted producers have awakened to the money 
savings that may be affected by the use of trick photog- 
raphy and now all the larger companies retain the services 
of high salaried experts who are specialists in the busi- 
ness of artistic photographic trickery. 

Stringent Requirements 

Trick photography is a trick profession. It requires 
the arts of a trained magician with the added require- 
ment that the spectator shall not even suspect that he is 
being deluded. Magicians must be familiar with psy- 
chology, with intricate mechanics, with higher mathema- 
tics, with physics, with art, with myriads of complicated 
details that must be made to dovetail to the fraction of 
a second. The craft of the trick cinematographer is just 
as exacting and calls for an even wider application of 
special and practical knowledge. 

It is not my intention to give in this paper any de- 
tailed explanation of trick photography. The subject is 
far too broad to be covered, even in a large volume. 
Every piece of trick photography is a separate problem 
and, just as the combinations of the alphabet are prac- 
tically infinite, so are the various combinations that may 
be arranged in doing work of this character. 

Trick photography in cinematography is an analysis 
of motion in two or more directions. Simple cine analysis 
of motion is the series of frames or pictures the succes- 
sive units of which represent phases of action at intervals 
of one sixteenth of a second. Most cine tricks require 
that two or more of these analyses be synchronized on 
one film and at the same time matched or blended with 
one another so that the line of demacration between the 
two or more combinations be imperceptible to the eye 
even after the image is enlarged several thousand times 
on the theater screen. 

In cases where the recording or taking interval of 




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AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



the combined components is the customary sixteen per 
second in each case, then the combination is not such a 
complicated problem as the written explanation makes it 
appear to be. It is very intricate, however, when the 
component members of the combination have to be taken 
at different rates of speed. In "The Lost World" there 
were many scenes where the taking of the action of the 
prehistoric monsters required weeks and months of ex- 
posures made at comparatively long and irregular inter- 
vals. These stop motion exposures had to be synchron- 
ized and combined with the action of human characters 
whose movements, photographed at regular speed, oc- 
curred in a few seconds so that the composite result ap- 
peared to be simultaneous action. Not only was it neces- 
sary to synchronize the action but it was also necessary 
to reverse the apparent size of the objects so that the mon- 
sters, which were in reality miniature figures, seemed to 
be gigantic in comparison to the human actors. 

Results 

Trick photography thus does two tremendously im- 
portant things for the industry; it renders possible the 
use of scenes and effects hitherto impossible of presenta- 
tion and reduces enormously the cost of building elabor- 
ate sets. It also seems safe to prophesy that in the near 
future it will also eliminate the necessity for many ex- 
terior locations ; particularly those to distant points where 
time and transportation are a large factor in production 
expense. 

Let me outline roughly into a sort of general classi- 
fication the various methods by which the trick photog- 
rapher builds up his effects: 



Ba 



sis 



First, we have the basic standard of straight cine- 
matography which consists of a series of frames or pic- 
tures taken at the approximate speed of sixteen exposures 
per second. 

High Speed, Slow Motion 

Second, high speed or slow motion photography in 
which the taking rate is considerably increased. For the 
laws governing the taking of miniatures by high speed 
photography to stimulate action in the tempo of natural 
sized objects I refer you to the very excellent paper by 
J. A. Ball, entitled "Theory of Mechanical Miniatures 
in Cinematography," presented before the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers at Roscoe, New York, May, 
1924, and published in the Transactions of the Society. 

Varied Taking Speeds 
Third, time condensation or decreasing the taking 
speed to such an extent that movements which take place 
slowly and over so long a period of time as to be im- 
perceptible to the human eye are made to appear to occur 
in a few seconds. This method is commonly used for 
showing the growth of plants, the germination of seeds, 
the erection or demolition of structures, etc. Slow crank- 
ing at slightly diminished speed is used to increase the 
speed of actors movements for comedy effects and to speed 
up action in fights, races, and dramatic climaxes. 

Animated 
Fourth, trick crank or one picture turn. This is 
closely related to time condensation. The trick crank 
shaft is the one usually used for making time condensa- 
tion exposures. The name "trick crank" comes down 
from the early days of cinematography because the single 
exposure shaft was often employed in making many of 

(Continued on Page 20) 



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June, 1926 



DESENSITIZERS 



(Continued from Page 11) 



to inspect it satisfactorily during development, even 
though the sensitivity may be slightly decreased when wet 
with developer. Motion picture negative film, on the 
other hand can be inspected quite freely with a red light 
such as is given by the Series 1 safelight. 
2. Desensitizing. 

A. Purpose of a Desensitizer. 

A photographic desensitizer is a substance which has 
the property of greatly diminishing the sensitivity of a 
photographic emulsion toward light action. To be of 
practical use in development it must not affect a latent 
image already present nor interfere with its subsequent 
development. . . 

The most important reasons for using a desensitizer 
are: (a) to permit the inspection of panchromatic film 
during development, (b) to give much greater freedom 
in the use of safelights during the development of ordi- 
nary film, and (c) to prevent serial or oxidation fog. 

In a previous communication 3 it has been shown 
that the presence of a desensitizer in a concentration of 
1-500 000 or even 1-1,000,000 in a developer which has 
a tendency to produce aerial fog, is sufficient to prevent 
such fogging action. This is of considerable value in 
the machine development of motion picture film, and tor 
such use it has been found possible, by adding one part 
in a hundred thousand of phenosafranine, to use a dilute 
elon-hydroquinone developer with much less sulphite than 
would otherwise be necessary. 

It has been stated in the literature that in some 
cases a desensitizer also diminishes ordinary development 
or tank fog. This effect may be a decreased oxidation 
fog within the developer, but with certain developers tank 
fog is apparently diminished. This is discussed more 
fully in another section. 

In the present paper it is proposed to show the ex- 
tent to which the use of a typical desensitizer will per- 
mit greater safelight illumniation during development. 

B. Methods of Use. 

Densensitizing dyes are used either as a preliminary 
bath or in the developer itself. As a preliminary bath a 
concentration of 1-5000 or 1-10,000 is commonly used, 
and the film is dipped in the desensitizing solution for one 
or two minutes just previous to development. This 
operation must, of course, be carried out with proper 
safelights or in the dark. 

When used in the developer the concentration 
usuallv recommended is 1-25,000 or less and the film 
is left in the developer for one or two minutes before ex- 
posing it to a safelight stronger than usual. In most 
cases the same concentration of dye desensitizes much 
more powerfully in the developer than in a separate water 
solution.'' 

C. Considerations in Selecting a Desensitizer. 
Many dyes and other substances are known which 

greatly reduce the sensitivity of emulsions. However, in 

finding a substance suitable for practical use there are 

many factors involved, the most important of which will 
be considered briefly. 



3 Merle L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree, "Investigations on 
Photographic Developers, II, The Fogging Properties of Develop- 
Amer Phot. 18, 742. (1024), Rev. Franc. Phot. 5, 320, 

71, 701. 



1. Desensitizing Power. 

Desensitizing power is, of course, the first considera- 
tion. With desensitizers now known the speed of an' 
ordinary fast emulsion to white light can be reduced sev- 
eral hundred times, while the decrease in sensitivity of 
panchromatic emulsions to certain safelights may reach 
several thousand times. Different desensitizers vary con- 
siderably in their ability to decrease the relative color sen- 
sitivity of panchromatic materials, and this variation also 
depends on the particular dyes used to give color sensi- 
tiveness to the emulsion. 

2. Effect on the Latent Image. 

To be of practical use a desensitizer must not re- 
move to any extent a latent image already present on a 
film within a reasonable length of time. Most desensi- 
tizing dyes will destroy a latent image if the desensitized 
film is exposed to strong red light, and Carroll 6 has re- 
ported that pinakryptol green will destroy a latent light 
image even in the dark if allowed to stand several hours, 
before development. This fact has been confirmed in 
this investigation. 

3. Effect on Development. 

Desensitizing dyes generally decrease the induction 
period of certain developing agents such as hydroquinone 
and pyro and so may change the Watkins factor of a 
developer. Some desensitizers retard development. It is, 
of course, desirable that the addition of a desensitizer 
shall not affect the time of development nor change the 
shape of the characteristic curve of the developed image. 

4. Fogging Action. 

Some of the most powerful desensitizing substances 
known, such as methylene blue, have an independent 
fogging action which entirely prevents their use for this 
purpose. No appreciable fogging action can be tolerated, 
although certain commercial desensitizers have a slight 
tendency in this direction. 
J). Staining Action. 

•Some of the desensitizers in use stain not only the 
gelatin of the film and the trays in a very disagreeable 
manner, but also the fingers of the person who uses them. 
The stain is most persistent in the hardened gelatin on 
the back of a non-curling film. A desensitizer which 
does not stain gelatin or which washes out very easily is 
desirable. 

The color or absorption region of the stain produced 
is also of importance because if it does not transmit blue 
light the printing time of a stained negative may be 
affected. 

6. Color in Relation to Safelight. 

If desensitized films are to be inspected by trans- 
mitted light during development the color of the desensi- 
tizer with which a film is stained must be such that it does 
not absorb the light transmitted by the safelight. Other- 
wise the whole film will appear fogged or too dense to 
examine satisfactorily. For instance, phenosafranine ap- 
pears black in a green light and colorless in a red light. 

7. Solubility in a Developer. 

The concentration in which desensitizers can be 
added to a developer is often limited by the fact that they 
form an insoluble precipitate with certain developing 
agents, especially hydroquinone. In extreme cases a 
precipitate may form in an emulsion when it is put into 
a developer after a preliminary desensitizing bath. 



i. i 1 925), B. .1. Phot. 



ers 

(1924), Sci. Ind. Phot 

I 10 2 4). 

4. A. E. Amor, "The Prevention of Tank Fog." B 
72, 183, (1925). 



7 10. 



J. Phot. 



5. A. Huble. "Contributions to Development in Blight Light." 
Phot Rund. 02, 1 1 4. ( 1025). 

6. B. H Carroll. "Solarlzation and Photographic Reversal by 
Desensitizers," J. Phys. Chem. 29, 093, (1925). 



June, 192*; 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



S. Stability. 

Some desensitizers which are very effective as a pre- 
liminary hath are destroyed immediately by the sulphite, 
if added to a developer. The stability in a developer and 
the keeping property of the water solution when exposed 
to light and air are important factors. 

9. Speed of Action. 

Especially when a desensitizer is used in a developer 
the speed ofthe desensitization is important. Luppo- 
Cramer' has pointed out that while Rhoduline Red G is 
as strong a desensitizer as phenosafranine it takes twice 
as long to produce the same effect. This is probably due 
to a slower rate of diffusion through the gelatine. 

10. Availability and Cost. 

For general use it is obvious that a substance must 
be available at a reasonable price. 

III. Comparative Properties of Different 
Commercial Desensitizers 

1. Phenosafranine. 

The first important member of this series is phen- 
osafranine of which the desensitizing action was dis- 
covered by Luppo-Cramer and is described fully in his 
book on the Safranine Process.* 

Many of the safranine dyes have a similar desensitiz- 
ing action, but considering all its properties Luppo- 
Cramer considered phenosafranine to be the most gen- 
erally useful of those which he examined. Phenosafranine 
has a strong desensitizing action, does not give trouble 
from fog, and is a well known and easily obtainable sub- 
stance. It is perfectly transparent in a bright red light but 
has a dark appearance in a green light. It is less effective 
in desensitizing panchromatic materials such as Eastman 
Commercial Panchromatic Film than is pinakryptol 
green. When used with an ordinary plate such as East- 
man 40 it extends the spectral sensitivity through the 
green giving a maximum at 580 mm. Phenosafranine 
forms a precipitate in developers containing hydroquinone 
to about the same extent as does pinakryptol green but if 
added with care can be used in most elon-hydroquinone 
developers. In pyro developers it is distinctly less soluble 
than is pinakryptol green. 

The most serious objection to the use of phenosa- 
franine is the intense stain which it imparts to the film, 
trays, and hands. When a film is thoroughly fixed in an 
acid fixing bath most of the dye washes out quite readily. 
However, any residual stain left in a negative has no 
effect on its printing time as phenosafranine transmits the 
violet light to which positive emulsions are most sensitive. 
When used in small concentrations to prevent aerial fog 
its staining action is not appreciable. 

In Fig. 3 is shown the absorption spectrum of phen- 
osafranine, in relation to that of pinakryptol green and 
basic scarlet N. 

2. Pinasafrol. 

Pinasafrol is stated by Wall 1 ' to be safranine J IV 
or tetra methyl safranine. It is said to be a slightly 
stronger desensitizer^ ' "■ ] l than phenosafranine but 
was stated by Luppo-Cramer to be less desirable for prac- 

(Contlnued on Page 2 3) 



7. Luppo-Cramer. "Protective Dyes in Desensitizing " Phot 
Ind. p. 187, 1925. 

8. Luppo-Cramer, "Negative Development by Bright Light 
The Safranine Process" 2nd Edition, Leipzig, 1922. 

9. E. J. Wall, "History of Three Color Photography," Boston, 
1925, p. 300. This book also contains a very complete bibliography 
on desensitizing. 

10. Luppo-Cramer, "The Best Desensitizer," Phot. Ind 1925 
p. 1356. 



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AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



June, 192G 



1 1 !onl inued from Page I 7 ) 

the trick effects mentioned in the first paragraphs of this 

paper. 

Animated cartoons and diagrams are made by means 
of the trick crank and are, of course, trick photography. 
Nevertheless, in cine nomenclature animated diagrams 
and cartoons are a classification separate from that of 
trick photography and, while most of the devices used by 
the animated cartoonist are also used in trick photography, 
the subject is too large to be treated in this paper. To 
those interested in the subject I refer them to the very 
able volume by E. G. Lutz, entitled "Animated Car- 
toons," published by Scribners. 

The difference in time condensation and trick crank 
work is in the interval of the timing. In time condensa- 
tion the interval is predetermined by the length of time 
in which it is expedient to show the resulting film. In 
trick crank work the successive phases of movement are 
artificially produced between exposure intervals so that 
inanimate objects may appear to be endowed with auto- 
motive powers. The time of exposure interval is there- 
fore dependent on the time necessary to arrange the sub- 
jects into the successive phases of the simulated action. 

Every move of every joint and limb of the prehistoric 
animals in "The Lost World" had to be thought out 
beforehand and a calculation of the amount of movement 
which would occur in each succeeding phase of one six- 
teenth of a second if the model were an actual animal 
with the bulk of several elephants. 

Reverse Order 

Fifth, reverse camera, or the showing of the series pic- 
tures of a motion analysis in reverse order. The effects 
produced by this method are too well known to describe 
them. 

Mattes 

Sixth, simple devices or attachments used mainly to 
alter the size and shape of the screen opening. These 
consist of masks or mattes of opaque or translucent ma- 
terial which either vignette the edges of the picture or 
produce silhouetted openings to enhance the illusion of 
scenes which are supposed to be observed through an arch- 
way, a keyhole, a telescope, binoculars or other familiar 
orifice. Previous papers presented before the Society de- 
scribe these devices in detail. 

Stop Motion 

Seventh, stop camera and substitute which is one of 
the oldest and most familiar of trick devices. It was and 
is used mainly for magic appearances and disappearances. 
It consists in stopping the action and camera simultan- 
eously and placing or removing the objects which are to 
appear or disappear. 

Eighth, the fade and dissolve. This is similar to 
stop camera but is a gradual instead of an abrupt change. 
It is produced by diminishing the exposure to zero and 
then running the film back to the commencement of the 
reduced exposure and fading in or increasing the second 
exposure at the rate as the previous one was reduced, 
thus giving full exposure to objects which remained in 
the scene during the fade in and out, but gradually in- 
troducing or extinguishing the image undergoing the 
magical change. 

Multiple Exposure 

Ninth, double or multiple exposure. By this device 
dual roles can be played by a single actor. It consists of 
masking off a portion of the picture frame and making 
one exposure, then winding the film back to the beginning 



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AMERICAN CINEM AT OGR APHER 



Twenty-one 



and masking the first exposure while the second one is 

made on the remaining unexposed portion of the frame. 
The frame may be divided in this manner as many times 
as is necessary to produce the effects desired. I have made 
multiple exposures where the film was run through the 
camera twenty-six times. Dual roles, visions and ghostly- 
apparitions are produced by this method. Masks are not 
usually used for <jhost effects. The first exposure with- 
out the ghost is made in the normal manner and the 
ghost, dressed in light colored clothing, is exposed over 
the first record by posing the ghost actor against a black 
drop or shadow box. The details of the first exposure 
register through the shadows of the ghost outline and 
give it the shadowy or spiritual quality which ghosts are 
supposed to possess. The chief difficulties in double ex- 
posure work are in the synchronization of action and the 
matching or blending of the edges of the masked sections 
so that the line of demarcation is indistinguishable. 

Glass 

Tenth, glass work, which is a variety of simultaneous 
double exposure. The term "glass work" originated be- 
cause the first examples of this work were accomplished 
by painting portions of scenes on large sheets of plate 
glass. A piece of plate glass a little larger than the field 
of view of the lens at 10 or 12 feet from the camera is 
placed in a rigid frame parallel to the front of the camera. 
The field of action as viewed by the camera lens is left 
clear and no pointing is done on this portion of the glass. 
Any section of the remaining portion of the picture com- 
position, however, can be masked out and replaced by a 
painting, in accordance with the laws of perspective, of 
any kind of background or foreground that the produc- 
tion may require. With the use of this device it is neces- 
sary to build only such portions of a set as is required 
to form a background for the action while the remaining 
portion is supplied by the painting on the glass. 

The ordinary two-inch cine objective lens at dis- 
tances beyond ten feet is almost universal in focus; this 
brings the entire picture in focus and does not blur the 
painting even though it is close to the lens and the set 
it far away. 

By use of miniature models built to scale almost any 
number of different setups may be made, but extreme care 
must be used in lining up the model with the actual set 
which it completes. In the "Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
the picture shows a full size reproduction of the Cathedral 
of Notre Dame in Paris and yet the actual construction 
of the set was only to the top of the entrance doors, the 
upper portion being supplied with glass work and minia- 
ture models. 

Mirrors and Prisms 

Eleventh, simultaneous double exposure by means of 
mirrors and prisms. This is a reversal of the means by 
which two identical images are made with one lens in the 
color cameras. By this reversal two images may be super- 
imposed and photographed on the same frame simultane- 
ously and as the two images may be independently focused 
much smaller models and paintings may be utilized than 
in the glass work process. It is even possible to use a 
motion picture, previously taken, for the background of 
the new composite, so that actors in the studio may be 
shown amid the waving palms of a background photo- 
graphed in the Sahara desert. This method has lately 
been heralded as a wonderful German invention under 
the name of the Schuefftan process but is antedated by 



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AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



June, 192( 



several American users, among whom are David Horsely, 
J. Searle Daw lev and myself. 

Double Printing 
Twelfth, double printing, which consists of making 
a composite negative by duping from two or more spe- 
cially prepared positives and masking devices, or in mak- 
ing a special positive from two or more negatives and then 
duping the result. This corresponds in principle to multi- 
ple exposure in the camera. It is usually used to super- 
impose dark images on high lighted areas, a thing which 
is difficult to do in the camera. 

Traveling Platte 
Thirteenth, the traveling matte. By this process fig- 
ures in action may be superimposed against any back- 
ground without being necessary to build any sets at all. 
It requires very accurate mechanism to work it and is 
patented. It is sometimes called the Williams process 
from the name of the patentee, Frank Williams. It con- 
sists in photographing the action against a white back- 
ground. By over exposure and intensification a silhouette 
of the action forms a mask or traveling matte which is 
interposed between the printing light and the background 
negative while a print is made from it. This positive 
film is then run through the printing machine a second 
time in register with the action negative, thus printing 
in the details of the acting figures. From this double 
print a dupe negative is made for further printing. The 
silhouette print masks the places occupied by the action 
figures and the original action negative has a dense black 
ground w hich masks the background negative image when 
making the master positive. 

Projection Printing 

Fourteenth. Projection printing with separate posi- 
tive and negative control. In this process the printing 
is not done by contact as in the ordinary printing machine 
but by projecting the image from the negative onto the 
positive. The movement of the negative and positive 
films is controlled by separate mechanisms so that by 
manipulation of the controls any combination of the nega- 
tive action series can be recorded in consecutive order on 
the positive film. The action on the original negative 
can thus be stopped, accelerated, retarded or reversed on 
the positive and by multiple masking and printing sev- 
eral successive phases of action of the same moving figure 
may be shown on the screen simultaneously. Max 
Fleischer and Alvin Knechtal are exponents of this 
process. 

Other Method 

Fifteenth. Mechanical devices operated independ- 
ently and not connected mechanically with the operation 
of photography or printing have not been considered as 
coming within the province of this paper. They are too 
numerous to even attempt their listing. It should be 
said in this connection, however, that the trick photog- 
rapher leaves no stone unturned in seeking to produce the 
desired effect and any device which lends itself to his use 
is considered his legitimate ally. 



PROJECTION 



Continued from Page s) 



Camera Craft and 
American Cinematogr apher 

May be had on Clubbing offers — 
Consult them. 



mechanical aptitude, a high degree of techni- 
cal knowledge and a certain inherent talent 
for. projection, itself. A projectionist may 
have a high degree of mechanical skill, he 
may be an expert electrician, he may have the 
basic knowledge of physics necessary for the 
intelligent solution of his many current and 
recurrent technical problems, he may be fur- 
nished with the best projection equipment that 
money can purchase, the' conditions under 
which he is working may be perfect for ex- 
pert screen results and, yet, unless he pos- 
sesses a peculiar and intangible aptitude for 
the art of projection, itself, his results on the 
screen may be colorless and commonplace de- 
spite their theoretical perfection. 

Personality in Projection 

I have often challenged the statement 
that the personality of the projectionist cannot 
be built into his projection. It absolutely can 
be, providing he possesses the ability to do it. 
I do not mean to say that we can go into a 
theatre employing two shifts of projectionists 
and determine by casual observation of the 
screen which projectionist is on duty at the 
time. What I do mean is that if a projection- 
ist of ability and skill and with a natural ap- 
titude for the art is in charge of, or has super- 
vision over, the projection room and is en- 
dowed with the faculty for developing the 
latent talent in his subordinates, then he can 
just as definitely build his personality into 
the picture as the musical director can build 
his into the orchestra. 

Intelligence Necessary 

This illustrates the importance of the 
personal equation in the projection room, the 
value of which has seemingly been generally 
underestimated by all except the most astute 
managers. Expert projectionists and super- 
visors of projection can not be turned out by 
any rule of thumb, laboratory, class room nor 
yet alone by practical experience in the field, 
itself. Of course, the basis of the qualifica- 
tions for the expert projectionist is intelli- 
gence, and it is a sad commentary on things in 
general and projection in particular that con- 
ditions have been permitted to exist which 
have tended to greatly discourage the really 
intelligent man from entering this craft as a 
means of livelihood. Projection, in a short 



June, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-three 



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time, is most certainly going to require $10,- 
000 a year men, and where are we going to get 
them? 

Manufacturers Aid 

Projector and lens manufacturers are 
now in a position to supply the projectionist 
with equipment which will enable him to get 
the utmost out of the present two-dimension 
picture. More important, still, the exhibitor 
is beginning to realize the necessity for ex- 
pensive projection equipment and high grade 
lenses and is willing to buy them. A great step 
forward has been made by several exchanges 
in their method of checking the condition of 
their film, thus assuring that prints delivered 
to the projectionist are in proper condition 
for projection. The work of the Paramount 
exchanges along these lines has been espe- 
cially notable and deserves the hearty appre- 
ciation of the industry as a whole. The effects 
of this work will be far reaching. 

The Future 

These, and many other things, are indi- 
cations of the change that is taking place in 
the standard of projection as practiced in this 
country. The possibilities in this field are 



now attracting the favorable attention of the 
college trained man, and unless the average 
projectionist now employed in this work lays 
out for himself, and adheres to, an immediate 
and intensive course of study and application 
along technical lines, he will awake some day 
to discover that the whole structure of the 
craft has changed over night and that he is 
still living in the yesterday. 



(Continued from Page 19) 



tical use because it is not transparent in a red safelight. 
It has not been tested in this laboratory. 

3. Pinakryptol Green. 

Pinakryptol green has about the same general desen- 
sitizing power as phenosafranine but is more effective 
with panchromatic emulsions. It has no effect on the 
latent image when used immediately before, or during 
development, and does not affect the keeping properties 
of a developer. 

It has a slight but distinct fogging action, however, 
and if used for too long a time or in too high a concen- 
tration as a preliminary bath undesirable fog may be pro- 
duced. As ordinarily used this is not serious. The chief 
advantage of pinakryptol green is the fact that it does 
not tend to stain gelatin and so washes out of the emul- 
sions very easily. It is colorless in a yellowish green light 
and so can be used very advantageously to develop pan- 
chromatic films withthe Series 4 Wratten Safelight. The 



Twenty-four 



AMERICAN CINE M AT O GR APHER 



June. 1926 



Cameras Qo Ouer the Top 




Three cameras in tandem, so to speak, were used 
by E. B. Du Par, A. S. •'.. during the filming of the 
night battle scenes showing a section of the German 
and English front line trenches for the Warner Bros, 
production of "The Better 'Ole." starring Syd Chaplin 
and directed by Charles "Chuck" Reisner. on the Vita- 
graph lot in Hollywood. 

These cameras were mounted at intervals of about 
ten feet on the three stories of a forty foot parallel. 
Director Charles "Chuck" Reisner was on the top level 
equipped with a telephone connected with a Western 



Electric Public Address System of a dozen units scat- 
tered at strategic points over the five acres of 
trenches, barbed wire, and mud. 

Thirty sun-arcs, forty side arcs, and ten rotary- 
spots furnished the illumination. These were grouped 
around the field, four of the most powerful being 
placed on fifty and seventy-five foot parallels on 
either side of the camera. This equipment was pow- 
ered by four gas and one power generator. Four wind 
machines kept the field reasonably free of smoke from 
the explosions. 



tendency to form a precipitate with hydroquinone in 
alkaline solutions limits the concentration that can be 
added to a strong hydroquinone developer, but with ordi- 
nary elon-hydroquinone or pyro developers it can be used 
satisfactorily. 

Pinakryptol green is much more expensive than 
phenosafranine at the present time. Its composition has 
not been published although the general structure of the 
class of dyes to which it probably belongs was recently 
described by Homolka. ,J 
4. Pinakryptol Yellow. 

Pinakryptol yellow desensitizes more powerfully than 
pinakryptol green in the same concentration, and can be 
used much stronger because of its colorless, non-staining 
solution. Also it is much more active in destroying the 
color sensitivity of a panchromatic emulsion. When tested 
with Eastman Commercial panchromatic film and an elon- 
hydroquinone tank developer it was found to have no 
effect on the latent image or its subsequent development. 
It cannot be added to a developer, however, as it is de- 
stroyed by sulphite, and some other desensitizer must be 
used in the developer to prevent the film from regaining 
its sensitivity during development. A solution of pina- 
kryptol yellow is also said to be slowly decomposed by ex- 
posure to light.'". It differs from other common desen- 
sitizers in that it greatly retards the direct photochemical 



blackening of an emulsion such as developing paper. As a 
preliminary bath for desensitizing panchromatic film, it is 
the most effective of all the desensitizers considered in this 
investigation. 

5. Pinakryptol. 

Pinakryptol which was on the market before pina- 
kryptol green, consists, according to Luppo-Cramer, 1 4 of 
a mixture of pinakryptol yellow and pinakryptol green. 

6. Basic Scarlet N. 

Basic scarlet N was proposed as an effective desen- 
sitizer by the Laboratory of Pathe Cinema . 15 It is ap- 
parently a mixture of safranine and auramine. 1 ' 1 Hubl 17 
states that it is less effective in desensitizing panchro- 
matic emulsions than pinakryptol green and that its desen- 
sitizing power in a developer is no greater than in water 
solution. Tests in this laboratory have shown that it 
offers no advantage over phenosafranine in desensitizing 

11. Stammreich and Thuring, Zeit Wiss. Phot. 2K, 363, 
( 11)25). 

12. B. Honiolka, "New Desensitizing Dyes,'' Phot. Ind.. 1925, 
p. 347. 

13. A. Hubl, "Contribution to the "Knowledge of Desensitizers." 
Phot. Rund. 62, 71. (1925). 

1-1. Luppo-Cramer,. "The Origin o( Pinakryptol Green and 
Other Dyes." Phot. Ind. 1924, p. 1l!i4. 

15. Research Laboratory of Pathe Cinema. "New Desensi- 
tizers," Le Phot 11, 296, 1924. 

16. Lumiere and Seyewetz, "Constitution of Desensitizing 
A/.ine Dyes." B. .1 Phot. 72. 446, (1925). 

17. A. Hubl, "Basic Scarlet X as a Desensitizer," Phot. Ind.. 
1025, p. 4.X2. 



June. 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty -five 



. 



power, that it is no more soluble in hydroquinone or 

pyro developers, and that the persistency of the stain is 
about the same. As is indicated by its absorption spectra, 
Fig. 3, its stain has a greater tendency to retard printing 
than phenosafranine stain, but in the amount present in 
an ordinary fixed and washed negative such an effect is 
inappreciable. 

7. durantia. 

Aurantia has been recommended by Lumiere and 
Seyewetz ,s especially for use with Autochrome plates. 
Its desensitizing power is far less than that of phenosa- 
franine, it stains badly, and washes out slowly. Unlike 
most other desensitizers it can be added to a concentra- 
tion as much as 1-500 without precipitating and for this 
reason may have some use in special cases. 

8. Miscellaneous Dyes. 

A large number of dyes are known 15 *- in ' 20 which 
desensitize photographic emulsions but which are not 
practically useful because they produce some undesirable 
effect such as fog, stain, destruction of the latent image, 
or retardation of development. Notable among such sub- 
stances is methylene blue which is a more powerful de- 
sensitizer than pinakryptol green, but which fogs- 1 very 
badly. It has been stated 15 that methylene blue can be 
used in connection with another dye such as acoridine yel- 
low which retards the fogging action and still permits 
desensitizing. Other combinations suggested are rholu- 
line blue or rholuline violet with acridine yellow. The 
methylene blue-acridine yellow mixture was tested and 
found to desensitize well without serious fog when care- 
fully used. However, it has no advantage over other 
common desensitizers, as Luppo-Cramer 7 has also shown, 
and a mixture is certainly less desirable than a homogene- 
ous substance. 

Pinakryptol green was selected for studying the 
limits of safety in the use of a typical desensitizer because 
it appeared to be the most satisfactory in all respects of 
any desensitizer available at the time of this investigation. 

. IV. Methods Used for Testing Desensitizing 
Action 
1. Tablet Exposures. 

A step tablet was prepared which had 25 steps cov- 
ering a density range from 0.14 to 3.40. Over this were 
placed narrow strips of the dyed gelatin filters corre- 
sponding to the Wratten safelights Series 00, 0, 1,2, and 
3. The strip on which white light measurements were 
made was covered with a neutral density of 2.30 in order 
to bring the exposure within the same range as those 
through the safelight filters. 

Tests were made by soaking a strip of film in the 
solution to be tested, removing excess liquid by drawing 
it quickly across a piece of chamois stretched over a bot- 
tle, and exposing while wet through the tablet. Expos- 
ures were made in a cabinet lined with black cloth 50 cm. 
from a 200 W. tungsten lamp which had a candle power 
of 176 as used. Exposures for desensitized film were 5 
minutes and for untreated film 10 seconds. The strips 
were developed for 10 minutes in an elon-hydroquinone 
tank developer-- (NQ-80 tank), fixed, and washed. 

From the last visible step on each strip relative ex- 
posure values necessary to produce a visible density were 
calculated. Comparison with the value for untreated film 
showed the relative sensitiveness for each treatment. With 

one exposure through the tablet, values could be obtained 
for white light and for each of the safelights mentioned 



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above. By this method the measurements were made on 
an intensity scale instead of a time scale. The values 
obtained were subject to an error at least equal to the 
difference in exposure represented by one step on the tablet, 
which would be about 50 < /t • Considering the enormous 
range in sensitivity covered, a difference of 100% would 
not be serious, however, as this would only mean that a 
film might have, for example, either 0.1% or 0.2% of 
its original speed. For practical use a margin of safety 
much greater than this should be allowed. 

2. Direct Exposure to Safelights. 

In order to relate the results of the tablet exposure 
to practical darkroom conditions, the time required to fog 
desensitized film when exposed directly to the safelights 
was determined. Strips of film 10 cm. x 25 cm. (4"xl0") 
were dipped by stages into a desensitizing bath so that 
the different areas were in the solution 5, 3, 2, 1, and J/2 
minutes with an untreated portion left on the end. The 
strip was then wiped with a chamois, placed under the 
safelight to be tested, and an opaque slide moved across 
it in such a way that each of the above areas were exposed 



1 S. A. and L. Lumiere and A. Seyewetz. "Experiments on 
Desensitizers," B. J. Phot. 6S, 351 and 370. (1921). 

19. E. Stenger and Hans Stammreich, "Contribution to the 
Knowledge of Desensitizing Silver Bromide-Gelatin Emulsion." 
Zeit. wiss. Phot. 23, 11, (1924). 

20. J. G. F. Druce. "Notes on the Action of Desensitizers In 
Photographic Development." Science News. Nov. 1924. p. 2. 

21. .1. Eggert and J Reitstotter, "The Photographic Effect of 
Methylene Blue as an Adsorption Effect," Kolloid Zeit. 36, 298, 
(1925). 

22. J. I. Crabtree, 'The Development of Motion Picture Film 
by the Reel and Tank System," Trans. Soc. M. P. Eng. 16, 163, 
(1923). 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER 



June, 1926 



8, 4, 2, 1, and Yi minutes. The exposure was made at a 
distance of 30 cm. (1 ft.) from a Wratten Safelight 
lamp fitted with a 25 W. bulb. The values for the illum- 
ination in foot candles afforded by the different safelights 
under these conditions are given in Fig. 1. From these 
strips after development, the longest time of exposure 
which did not cause visible fog for each time of bathing 
could be determined. 

3. Exhaustion Tests. 

For the keeping and exhaustion tests solutions were 
kept in 2 liter glass battery jars which were deep and 
narrow and simulated the conditions in a large tank. 

V. The Use of Pinakryptol Green as a Pre- 
liminary Bath for Desensitizing Motion 
Picture Negative and Panchromatic Film 

/. Effect of Concentration and Time of Bathing on 

Desensitizing. 

Various authors 1!> have considered the relation be- 
tween concentration and desensitizing. As Hubl 13 ' 23 
has suggested, it appears that the amount of desensitizing 
substance which enters the film layer is the determining 
factor. Desensitizing is very nearly proportional to the 
concentration of the desensitizing solution, it increases 
with rise of temperature, and is diminished by anything 
which retards swelling such as previously hardening with 
alum . The temperature coefficient of desensitizing varies 
with the particular dye used. 

The desensitizing action of pinakryptol green was 
measured by the tablet method described above, for vari- 
ous concentrations and times of bathing. The results for 
panchromatic film are given in Fig. 4 in which desensitiz- 
ing is plotted against concentration of the dye. Desen- 
sitizing is stated numerically as the ratio of the original 
to the final speed. For these tests the time of the pre- 
liminary bath was 5 minutes. The results show that 
within the range studied desensitizing is directly propor- 
tional to the concentration. The curves for the different 
safelights have no relation to each other in the sense of 
absolute safety, but each represents the increased safety 
due to desensitizing for that particular light. 
(Continued Next Month) 



Special Representative Joins 

American Cinematographer Staff 

C. K. Phillips, well known in the motion 
picture trade paper advertising field in 
Hollywood, has joined the staff of the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer as special representa- 
tive. 

Before joining the staff of this publica- 
tion, Mr. Phillips worked as advertising rep- 
resentative on the Year Book, the Laemmle 
number and other special editions of the Film 
Daily, of which Harvey Gausman is west 
coast manager. 



Eastman Kodak Stores Open 

Los Angeles Kodak Building 

The Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., have re- 
moved to the new Kodak Building, at 643 
South Hill Street, Los Angeles. 

The new building is a Class-A structure, 
with 30,000 feet of floor space devoted to the 
photographic supply business. The retail 
salesroom and the professional sales depart- 
ment are located on the ground floor. The 
second floor is devoted to display rooms for 
professional photographic apparatus, special 
stock rooms, projecting room and the general 
offices. The third floor contains a finishing 
plant, a repair department, steel die emboss- 
ing department and a display room for used 
apparatus. The basement contains stock 
rooms, storage vaults, and the packing and 
shipping department. 



International Makes Gain 

on Earnings During 1925 

Earning for 1925 of the industries ac- 
quired by the International Projector Corp. 
were $756,666, against $605,519 in 1924, an 
increase of 25 per cent. The ratio of current 
assets to current liabilities exceeded six to one, 
net current assets on Dec. 31, 1925, being 
$1,299,578. The International Projector 
Corp. was formed last year to acquire the en- 
tire business and assets of Nicholas Power 
Company, Inc., the Precision Machine Co., 
Inc., both of New York, and the Acme M. P. 
Company, of Chicago. 



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HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark ------------- President 

L. Guv WlLKY ---------- First Vice President 

Frank B. Good --------- Second Vice President 

Ira H. MORGAN --------- Third Vice President 

George Schneidermax ----------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke ------------ Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Victor Milner 
Daniel B. Clark 
George Schneiderman 
L. Guy Wilky 
John Arnold 



Frank B. Good 
Alfred Gilks 
Charles G. Clarke 
H. Lyman Broening 
Homer A. Scott 



King D. Gray 
Fred W. Jackman 
Reginald E. Lyons 
E. Burton Steene 
Ira H. Morgan 



Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. 

Barnes. George S. — with Rudolph Valentin*, Pickford- 
Fairbanks Studio. 

Beckway. Wm. — 

Benoit, Georges — with Metropolitan Productions. Metropoli- 
tan Studios. 

Boyle. John W. — with First National Productions. United 
Studios. 

Brodln. Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions. First National. 
United Studios. 

Rroening, H. Lyman — 

Brotherton, Joseph — ■ 

Olark. Dan — with Tom Mix. Fox Studio. 

Clarke, Chas. G -with 'Red" Grange. Sam Wood directing 
F. B. O. Studios. 

Cowling. Herford T. — -".I So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Comer. Frank M. — 

Crocket I. Ernest — 

Cronjager. Henry — with Famous Players-Lasky, New York 
City. 

Dean. Faxon M. — 

Doran, Robert V. — 

Dored. John — Riga. Latvia. 

DuPont. Max B. — 

DuPar, E. B. — with Warner Bros., New York City. 

Dubray. Joseph A. — 

Edeson. Arthur — with First National, New York City. 

Evans. Perry — 

Flldew. Wm. — 

Fischbeck. Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players 

Lasky, New Y'ork City. 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, F. B. O. Studios. 
Pried, Abe — with Fox Studio. 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 
Gllks. Alfred — with Famous Players-Lasky. 
Glennon, Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 
Good, Frank B. — with Jackie Coogran Prod.. Metro-Goldwyn- 

Mayer Studios. 
Gray. King D. — 

Griffin, Walter L. — with David Hartford Productions. 
Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. 

Haller, Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. 
Helmerl, Alois G. — 

Jackman, Floyd — Fred W. Jackman Prods. 
Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. 
Jennings. J. D. — With Buster Keaton. 
Koenekamp, Hans F. — with Colleen Moore. Firsl National 

Productions. 
Kull, Edward — with Universal. 
Kurrle, Robert — with Edwin Carewe, United Studios. 

Edison. Thomas A.- 
Webb, Arthur 



Landers. Sam — 

Lockwood, J. R. — ■ 

Lundin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropoll- 



.yons 



tan Studios. 
Reginald — 



Marshall. Wm. — with Famous Players-Lasky. 
McCoid, T. D. — 

McGill, Barney — with Fox Studios. 
MacLean. Kenneth (",. — with Mack Sennett Studios. 
MacWilliams, Glen — with Fox Studio. 
Meehan. George — with Columbia Pictures. 
Milner. Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 
Morgan, Ira H. — with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan, Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 



Musuraca, Nicholas- 
Norton, Stephen S.- 



— with Warner Brothers. 
-F. B. O. Studios. 



Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio. 

Perry, Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky 

Perry. Paul P. — with Universal. 

Polilo. Sol — with ('has. R. Rogers. First National. 

Ries, Park J. — 

Roos, I, en H. — Sydney, Australia. 
Rose, Jackson J. — with Universal. 
Rosher. Charles — with "Ufa," Berlin. 

Schneiderman, George — with Fox Studio. 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Short, Don — 

Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Steene. E. Burton — 

Stumar, Charles — with Universal, New Y'ork City. 

Stumar, John — with Universal. 

To .'h.urst. Louis H. — producing microscopic pictures, for 

Pathe. 
Totheroh, Kollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 
Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Van Buren, Ned — 

Van Enger. Charles — with First National. New York Citv. 
Van Trees. James C. — with First National Productions, 
United Studios. 

Warronlon. Gilbert — with Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — with Corinne Griffith Productions. 

Whitman, Philip H. — with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario 

Dept. 
Wilky, L. Guy — 

-Honorary Member. 
C. — Attorney. 



Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

12 19-2 0-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 



Vol. VII, No. 4 
25 Cents A Copy 



July, 1926 




c^^^^^^^^A^^^^^^ 



American 
Cinemat o qrapher 

Published by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 





In This Issue: 

A.S.C. Establishes Experimental 
Library 

Projection — earlj? denison 

Amateur Cinematography 

Seen as World Peace Agent 

De Vry Places New Small 

Camera on Market 



PUBLISHED IN HOLLYWOOD CALIFORNIA 



An exceptionally long 
line of gradations 
combined -with Sine grain, 
high speed and excellent 
color separation, makes 




Negative the better stock 

"Ask the men who use it" 

oQsp 

Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Alter, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 

1056 North Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 6669 

Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VII JULY, 1926 No. 4 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss. Editor and General Manager 
C. K. Phillips, Special Representative 



Contents : 

Page 

The Editor's Lens __ 5 

Pictorial Gems of Scenes in the West __ 6 

Amateur Cinematography — 

Amateur Cinematography as World Peace Agent 

De Vry Places New Small Camera on the Market 7 

In Camerafornia 8 

PROJECTION — Conducted by Earl J . Denison 

Cause, Effect in Cleaning Motion Picture Film — 

By Trevor Faulkner 9 

A. S. C. Establishes Experiment Library 10 

Cooper Hewitt to Put Up New Building 10 

Effect of Desensitizers in Development (Concluded) — 

By M. L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree 1 1 

Glen MacWilliams Chosen for A. S. C IS 

Classified Advertising 25 

A. S. C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3. 50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CINEM AT OGR APHBR 



July, 1926 



Perfect 
Movies 



H 




Standard 
Width Film 



12 



The DeVry Movie Camera 

A Professional Camera at an Amateur Price 



NO TRIPOD 



NO CRANKING 



JUST PRESS THE BUTTON . 



/ 



F 3.5 anastigmat professional movie camera lens. 

Three view finders. 

100 feet full standard theatre size film. £ 

Powerful multiple spring motor. 

Daylight loading. 

Best procurable material and workmanship. 



ISO 



Dealers and Photographers — Attention! 

THE INTELLIGENT buying public in this field have been waiting for 
a quality STANDARD WIDTH CAMERA at a reasonable price. 
The DeVry Movie Camera at $150.00 is not excelled by any other 
movie camera in the market selling for under $600.00. National adver- 
tising and liberal terms to dealers — make this the dealer's opportunity. 
Made by the DeVry Corporation, manufacturers of the DeVry Portable 
Motion Picture Projector^^of- which more have been sold than of all 
other makes combined. 



The DeVry Corporation, m i a center street, Chicago 



jkA 



July, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Five 



The EDITOR'S LENS 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



important Plans 

/"^VFFICERS of the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers predict that their coming fiscal year 
will be the most successful in the history of the 
Society. 

* Daniel B. Clark, president of_the A. S. C. for 
1926-27, has outlined a program that stands out as 
the most ambitious to be undertaken since the cine- 
matographers' society was organized. 

" One of the major features in Clark's program, 
that of the A. S. C. standard cinematographic experi- 
mental library, is actively under way, with tests on 
numerous subjects already having been reduced to 
positive film. Other parts in the A. S. C. activities 
for 1926-27 are being perfected at the present time, 
and will be formally announced shortly. 

" As has been previously commented on, the idea 
of the standard cinematographic experimental li- 
brary presents the possibility of saving producers 
thousands of dollars, by eliminating needless eco- 
nomic waste and by bringing all standard practices 
in the field of motion photography to the plane of 
certainty. 

II Results of the various experiments by the A. S. C. 
members are exhibited at the open meetings of the 
Society where all members may digest the details of 
the finished film. Such exhibitions invariably bring 
forth an exchange of ideas among the members that 
is conducive to accentuating the possibilities of fur- 
ther cinematographic investigations. 

* Prints which record the experiments are kept in 
the newly installed library at the headquarters of 
the American Society of Cinematographers in the 
Guaranty Building, Hollywood, where the organiz- 
ation owns its own offices and assembly rooms which 
contain complete facilities for projection and pre- 
viewing. 



Editors and Exhibitors 



[j^XHIBITORS and executives who attended the 
-•—-'theatre owners convention in Los Angeles in 
June carried away with them, in the aggregate, a 
better idea of the magnitude of the strictly cinema- 
tographic phases in the art of making moving pic- 
tures. 

" They had, in their visits to the various studios, 
the opportunity to view the cinematographer in his 
rightful role as a real artist, and, practically, the hub 
about which all "shooting'' revolves. 

": This month there come to Southern California 
the representatives of the national editorial associ- 
ation. May the visiting editors likewise acquire a 
better understanding of the calling that is the cine- 
matographer's. Being men of perception and pene- 
tration, the scribes will soon judge for themselves 
the relative values in film production, and store such 
information for further use. 

1f The exhibitor and the editor, especially in small 
towns and rural communities, usually find much that 
is common in interest; and with both better ac- 
quainted with cinematography and cinematographers, 
the art of motion photography may well be entering 
a new era that will date from these two conventions 
held in the summer of 1926. 



TUatters of Qeoqraphij 

"VT7HAT'-S all these references, in the trade pa- 
pers, to Eli Whitney Collins, newly elected 
president of the exhibitors, as a "man from the Mid- 
dle West" or as a "Westerner"? 
If We had the idea that Collins hailed from Ar- 
kansas. As much as "Eli Whitney" relates to cot- 
ton ; as much as cotton suggests the south, that's how 
much we suspect that a man from Arkansas, if he 
must be classified sectionally, is a Southerner. 

' We wonder what they would say about it down 
in Arkansas? 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



July, 1926 



Pictorial 
Qems 

of 

Scenes 

in the 

IDest 

The three accompany- 
ing reproductions present 
superb examples of 
"still' photography. 
Each of the scenes is laid 
in the West. 

Above: This photo- 
graph shows a bit of 
background at Jackson 
Hole, Wyoming, where 
George Schneiderman, 
A. S. C, photographed 
location scenes for 
"Three Bad Men," a 
John Ford production 
for Fox. Behind the 
cameras flows the Snake 
River. Schneiderman is 
on the right. With him 
are Joseph Valentine 
(left) second cinematog- 
rapher; and (center) a 
native chieftain who par- 
ticipated in the Ford pro- 
duction. 

Center: Shows a scene 
in the desert country tap- 
ped by Palm Springs, 
California. 

Below: Painted Can- 
yon, 38 miles east of 
Palm Springs, Califor- 
nia. The center and the 
lower scenes were photo- 
graphed by Daniel B. 
Clark, president of the 
American Society of Cin- 
ematographers. 




■ttfc 



July. 1926 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHER 



Seven 



Amateur Cinematography 



Amateur Cinematography as World Peace Aqent 



«59 



^ 



^ 



«fc> 



^? 



De Urij Places Neu> Small Camera on the market 



Relations between Amateurs 
Seen as Being Conducive to 
International Good Will. 



% 



Hiram Maxim, famous inventor, sees in 
amateur cinematographic outfits an agency 
for world peace. His views in this direction 
were expressed in an interview which, writ- 
ten by Kathleen Halladay, appeared recently 
in the Boston Post. 

Mr. Maxim's interview is, in part, as fol- 
lows : 

"It seems to me that an organization of 
amateur cinematographers," began Mr. Max- 
im, "combined in close association with the 
present organization of amateur radio opera- 
tors (and by amateur radio operators I do not 
mean people who listen in on the broadcasting 
of jazz music and after-dinner speeches, but 
• those of us who relay communications to each 
other by dots and dashes from one end of the 
world to the other) — this combination, I 
think, is a remarkably practical influence to 
promote international friendship. 

Connecticut and Timbuctu 
"When people have visual knowledge of 
conditions in other countries, there is bound 
to come sympathy and understanding. The 
mass of the people will not get this knowledge 
from reading, they certainly will not get it 
from lectures; there are too many other things 
to read and hear. 

"But somehow I know that if I could send 
my home-made film, called 'Winter in Con- 
necticut,' to some other amateur in Timbuctu 
or Nikolajewskoje or Caraguatatuba and get 
back one showing conditions in those places, 
the two of us would not only be closer to- 
gether, but we would both understand and ap- 
preciate the problems and advantages of our 
respective countries better than we could in 
any other way ; we wouldn't be in such a hurry 
to cut each other to pieces in the name of 
Mars. . . 

"Of course," he added, "I suppose I've 
eot a lot of fool notions — when I had the idea 



Chicago Firm Develops Stan- 
dard Camera with 100- Foot 
Rolls. Uses Spring Motor. 



Announcement, long anticipated, is made 
this month that the De Vry organization of 
Chicago is ready to market immediately the 
De Vry automatic, portable motion picture 
camera which has been in the process of devel- 
opment for more than a year. 

100-Foot Lengths 
The De Vry camera will take 100-foot 
lengths of standard film in a single loading. 
Motive power is provided by a multiple, high 
tension spring, set into motion by "pressing the 
button." There is a uniform release of 55 feet 
per winding. 

Three View Finders 

The camera comes equipped with stand- 
ard F 3.5 anastigmatic lens, and any other 
standard professional lenses may be installed. 
The instrument carries three view finders. 

Tripods Optional 

Tripods may be used for telephoto pic- 
tures and the like; however, the tripod is not 
required on other shots unless desired. 

The new camera is designed as a com- 
panion instrument to the De Vry standard 
projector which has been in wide usage for 
many years. 



of an international association of amateur ra- 
dio operators, folks said: 'He's just a poor 
darn fool who wants to send telegrams for 
nothing.' 

New Force For Peace 
"When the Englishman, the Frenchman, 
the Belgian, the Italian and the German broke 
bread with each other in a common interest 
and ideal, it broke down a great barrier. It 
established friendly intercourse that was equal 



(Continued on Page l S ) 



L 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINE M ATO GR APHER 



July, 1926 




Frank Cotner, A. S. C, is chief cinema- 
tographer on a series of westerns starring Al 
Hoxie under the direction of Paul Hurst for 
Bud Barsky productions. Cotner's company 
is on location at Sequoia National Park. It is 
expected that they will be there and in the 
vicinity of Three Rivers for about eight 

weeks. 

* * * *• 

Glen MacWilliams, A. S. C, is filming 
Fox' "The Return of Peter Grimm." Victor 
Schertzinger is directing. 

* * * * 

Barney McGill, A. S. C, is photographing 
the Fox production of "What Price Glory" 
which R. A. Walsh is directing. Among those 
who are appearing before McGill's camera 
are Victor MacLaglen as Captain Flagg, Ed- 
mund Lowe as Sergeant Quirt, Dolores del 
Rio as Charmaine, as well as Leslie Fenton 
and Ted McNamara. 

* * * * 

John Arnold, A. S. C, is shooting Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer's special, "The Fire Bri- 
gade." Will Nigh is directing. 

* * * * 

John W. Boyle, A. S. C, is filming "The 
Masked Woman," a First National produc- 
tion directed by Balboni and starring Anna 
Q. Nilsson. The cast includes Holbrook 
Blinn and Charles Murray. 

* * -* * 

Abe Fried, A. S. C, is in charge of pho- 
tography on "The Country Beyond," a Fox 
production which Irving Cummings is direct- 
ing. Olive Borden is featured. 

* * * * 

Harry Perry, A. S. C, is slated to photo- 
graph "Wings," Paramount's epic of the air 
that is to be directed bv William Wellman. 



Walter Lundin, A. S. C, is photographing 
"The Mountain Lad," Harold Lloyd's latest 
production, which is being directed by Lewis 
Milestone, 



Al Gilks, A. S. C, has been busy with 
maritime scenes off Catalina Island, Califor- 
nia, for James Cruze's production of "Old 
Ironsides" for Paramount. The scenes are of 
such magnitude that Bert Glennon and Harry 
Perry, both A. S. C. members and stars on 
the Lasky camera staff, were called in to cap- 
ture important action from different angles. 

3j£ vfc vfc 9p 

Gilbert Warrenton, A. S. C, has com- 
pleted the filming of "Butterflies in the Rain," 
a Universal production directed by Edward 

Sloman. 

* * * * 

Reginald Lyons, A. S. C, is filming the 
current productions of the Richard Harding 
Davis-Van Bibber series at the Fox studios. 

vfc vfc ?|f yf! 

J . D. Jennings, A. S. C, is photographing 
"The General," the latest Buster Keaton. 

feature. 

* # * * 

Georges Benoit, A. S. C, is being praised 
for his cinematography in "The Speeding 
Venus" and "West of Broadway," Metropoli- 
tan productions starring Priscilla Dean. 

* * * * 

Floyd Jackman, A. S. C, is filming Jimmy 
Finlayson comedies at the Hal Roach studios. 
Stan Laurel is directing. 



Victor Milner, A. S. C, will film "Kid 
Boots," which, taken from the Broadway suc- 
cess, will have a cast headed by Eddie Cantor, 
the original star. Frank Tuttle will direct. 
The cast will also include Billie Dove, Clara 
Bow and Larry Gray. 

Sol Polito, A. S. C, is shooting Ken May- 
nard in the western feature, "Ride Him 

Cowboy." 

* * * * 

Ernest Palmer, A. S. C, is photographing 
the Fox production, "The Pelican," which is 
being directed by Frank Borzage. 



July, 1926 



AMERICAN UinEMATOGRAPHER 



Nine 



PROJECTION * Conducted by Earl J. Denison 



Cause, Effect in Cleaninq Motion Picture Film 



Ways in which Film Accu- 
mulates Oil, Dust and the 
like Are Enumerated. 



13u 
CTreuor Faulkner 

(From Transactions, 

Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers) 



Many Experiments to Find 
Machinery Adapted to Prop- 
er and Thorough Cleaning. 



The "Cause and Effect of Cleaning Mo- leased and placed in the hands of the projec- 
tion Picture Film" has been chosen as the sub- tionist for exhibition, it is more sensitive to 
ject for an article that I have been asked to damage than when older, and consequently 
prepare and place before you, and in so doing, more care must be used in its handling. Re- 
I am talking to you on a subject that has oc- gardless of any prior waxing the film may 
cupied my thoughts and efforts since becom- have had to prevent this probable damage, the 
ing identified with the motion picture in- projectionist often applies oil to the film, 
dustry, which dates back many years, when Then there are many cases where the film is 
you consider the few that motion pictures, as often run through a continuous bath of lubri- 
an industry, have known. eating oil, for in one make of projector, when 

In the beginning, as an "operator," then the projector is tilted to fit the angle at which 

as an exhibitor, later as an exchange man, and the light rays must be thrown to reach the 

now as head of a department that has as one screen, there is a receptacle created at the base 

of its chief functions the cleaning and reno- of the mechanism that is capable of receiving 

vating of used positive film, I have experi- and holding a sufficient amount of oil that is 

mented, striven, and constantly had the vision drained from the mechanism to give a long 

of ultimately developing, or at least helping to lower loop for this steady bath of oil. Another 

develop, a satisfactory plant for cleaning film, make of projector, the model of a year or two 



and now feel that this has, to a large degree, 
been accomplished, for we have evolved a de- 
partment that is satisfactorily cleaning and re- 
vitalizing used positive film. 



back, gave the film a constant spray or sprinkle 
of oil through a worm intermittent bearing. It 
is also a usual thing for the projectionist to 
have a pan placed on the floor under the pro- 
jector to catch the oil drip from the mechan- 
ism, and often this pan, with more or less oil 
in it, will also catch the ends of the film as the 
projectionist is either threading up the ma- 
chine or is taking the film out of the lower 
magazine. You can rightfully place all of the 
blame for all oil on film to one or all of these 
conditions, for in no other way does film ever 



Projectionist's Compartment 

To begin, let us first consider the show- 
case that is used to display our stock, "motion 
picture film," — the projection room. 

In practically all cases this room is in the 
highest and most distant point in the entire 
theatre, and is seldom under the care of a jani- 
tor or porter, and in too large a percentage of come [ n contact with oil. 
cases, is hardly ever seen by the manager. 
Again, on account of the compartment being 
at the highest point of a theatre, and usually 
with an exhaust fan in it, a large percentage 
of the dust that arises from the constant stir of 
patronage is drawn into the booth, and neces- 
sarily through the port holes in front of the 



Dust and Lint 

Motion picture film, when moving rapidly 
and subjected to any friction, will generate a 
sufficient amount of static electrical current to 
attract any dust or lint that it comes in con- 
5 that tact with and will so pick up dust and lint 
we are displaying wares under conditions that, very much as a magnet will pick up small 
after a few such showings, offer a big handi- particles of metal Consequently when the 

doors of an enclosed projector are opened, or 
when film is "spilled" on the floor, the film at- 
tracts and collects a large amount of the dust 



Care in Handling 



Now let us consider our stock of ware and 
its handling. When positive film is first re- 



and lint that is around. The oil that is alreadv 



(Continued on Page 16) 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER 



July, 1926 



A. S.C. Establishes 
Experiment Library 



¥ 



President of Society Ex- 
plains Important Undertak- 
ing by Cinematographers 



The following story was written by the editor of this 
publication for the studio section of the EXHIBITORS 
Herald. In it Daniel B. Clark, president of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers, explains one of the ma- 
jor features in the policy of the A. S. C. for the coming 
year : 

Photographic departments recently in- 
stituted by the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers will result in saving producers 
thousands of dollars in production experimen- 
tal costs, according to a statement of Daniel 
B. Clark, president of the cinematographers' 
organization. 

The A. S. C, under the direction of Clark, 
is establishing an experimental library on 
standard cinematographic subjects, including 
lenses, various types of illumination, filters, 
gauze, glass shots, diffusers and the like. 

The object of the library is to reduce, to a 
definite and standard basis, the workings of all 
the major elements that are brought into play 
in the art of cinematography. Clark and his 
fellow members of the A. S. C. state that such 
a procedure sponsored as it by the society will 
be the means of eliminating duplication at 
the various studios in photographic experi- 
ments that parallel each other. 

Aim to Cut Waste 

"We aim," Clark declares, "to cut down 
this economic waste of one cinematograph- 
er's going out and necessarily spending a lot 
of time and company money in ascertaining 
photographic results, when, a couple of weeks 
later, a fellow cinematographer finds that it is 
his duty to cover practically the same ground. 

"What we are doing is to provide, at the 
A. S. C. headquarters, a permanent record of 
cinematographic experiments on standard 
subjects. If a certain cinematographer wants 
to know how a given lens works out, it will be 
needless for his production company to go 
through the expenditure of conducting a sec- 
ond experiment when the subject has been al- 
ready covered in the library by a fellow A. 
S. C. member. 

Subjects Photographed by Experts 

"The subjects in this library will be photo- 
graphed by the A. S. C. members who are 



masters in their individual lines so that the 
film will represent the best results that could 
be attained any place in the world. 

"What I have just mentioned," Clark con- 
tinued, "is but one of the many ways in which 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is working to cut down the cost of produc- 
tion. Our plans for the fiscal year just started 
are the most comprehensive in the history of 
the A. S. C, as will be evident as the year pro- 
gresses." 



Cooper Hewitt to Put Up New 

Six-Story Building in Hoboken 



Plans have been announced for the erec- 
tion of a new building to house the expanded 
activities of the Cooper Hewitt Electric Com- 
pany in Hoboken, New Jersey. 

Work on the new structure will begin at 
once. 

Fourteen years ago, when the Cooper 
Hewitt Electric Co. moved to Hoboken from 
New York City, a large plant was built spe- 
cially for it. This anticipated growth of the 
business for many years to come. Since then 
additional buildings have been acquired, but 
all are now insufficient for the increasing pro- 
duction. 

Continued Growth 

After the General Electric Co. acquired, 
the stock of the company some years ago, it 
became evident that greatly enlarged manu- 
facturing facilities would be needed. Ac- 
cordingly an entire city block was acquired. 
This adjoins the original plant on the north. 
Plans are being made now, not only for pres- 
ent requirements, but also for future develop- 
ments. These call for a new building at the 
northeast corner of Adams and Eighth Streets, 
Hoboken. This is to be 100 ft. front by 430 ft. 
deep and six stories high. 

First Section 

The first part of it to be built will be 100 
ft. by 200 ft. and will be started at once. It 
will contain the glassware manufacturing and 
laboratories of the company to be brought 

(Continued on Pane 'J J I 






July. 192C 



A M E R I C A N C I N E M A TOGP. A P H E R 



Eleven 



Effect of Desensitizers in Deuelopment 



Continued from Last Month. 
Additional Tables and Charts 
Used in Investigation Given. 



Bij m. L. Dundon 
and J. 1. Crabtree 

Of the Eastman Research 
Laboratory. 



Full Details as Announced 
in Transactions of Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers. 




PANCHROMATIC FILM 
BEFORE DESENSITIZING 



PANCHROMATIC FILM 
AFTER DESENSITIZING 




MOTION PICTURE NEGATIVE FILM 
BEFORE DESENSITIZING 



MOTION PICTURE FILM 
AFTER DESENSITIZING 



Figure Six: Effect of Pinakryptol green on color sensitivity of Panchromatic and motion picture 
negative film. Desensitized films were given 200 times as much exposure as the untreated 
films. 



(Continued from last month) 
In Fig. 5 are shown similar results for motion pic- 
ture negative film with 2 minutes bathing. 

The effect of pinakryptol green on the relative color 
sensitivity of panchromatic film is shown by Fig. 6. 
Pieces of panchromatic and motion picture negative film 
were bathed for 2 minutes in pinakryptol green 1-10,000 
dried and exposed in a spectrograph. The desensitized 
samples were given about 200 times as much exposure as 
the untreated film. It is evident that desensitizing with 
pinakryptol green reduces color sensitivity much more 
than it does the original blue sensitivity of the emulsion. 
The effect of different dyes in this respect varies greatly. 
Pinakryptol yellow is more effective and phenosafranine 
less effective in reducing color sensitivity than pinakryptol 
green. In fact phenosafranine is actually a color sensi- 
tizer to a slight degree and confers a definite color sensi- 
tivity on ordinary plates with a maximum effect at 580 
mm. in the green-yellow region. Basic scarlet N also ex- 
tends slightly the sensitivity in the green. 

The effect of time of bathing on sensitivity may be 
seen from typical curves of Fig. 7 in which sensitivity of 
panchromatic film is plotted against time of bathing. It 
is evident that sensitivity falls off very rapidly for the 
first minute or two but diminishes very slowly after 5 
minutes. 

2. Limits of Safety in Exposing Desensitized Film to 

Different Safelights. 

In Table I the comparative safety of untreated film 
to safelight exposure was indicated. In Table II are 
given similar data for film desensitized for 2 minutes and 



5 minutes with various concentrations of pinakryptol 
green. The numbers represent time in minutes for which 
exposures were made without producing visible fog. Tests 
were only extended to 8 minutes, as it was considered that 
this was sufficient time of exposure to cover any practical 
need, although in many cases the time of safety was much 
longer. 

F. indicates fog in less than y 2 minute, and the num- 
bers show the time in minutes for which the film could 
be exposed without visible fog, after a treatment corre- 
sponding to the time and concentration given at the top 
of the column. 

From these figures it is seen by bathing panchromatic 
film in a 1-10,000 solution of pinakryptol green, or after 
the film has been in the developer containing 1 part in 
25,000 of the desensitizer, inspection of the film may be 
conducted with safety with a Series 4 Wratten safelight 
containing a 25 W. bulb at a distance of 12 inches. 

Under the same conditions motion picture negative 
film may be safely examined with a Series safelight. 

3. Bleaching of the Latent Image on Desensitized Film 
' by Red Light. 
It is a well known fact that when an exposed plate 
is treated with certain dyes and then exposed to red light 
the latent image of the first exposure is destroyed. Ordi- 
nary desensitizing dyes promote this action very strongly. 
In fact, as Luppo-Cramer 24 has shown, if a plate is given 



23. A. Hubl, "A Contribution to the Knowledge of Develop- 
ment In Bright Light," Phot. Rund. G2, 235, (1925). 

24. Luppo-Cramer, "Desensitizing and Duplicate Negatives," 
B. J. Phot. 69, 765, (1922) (Abs.) Phot. Rund, 59, 269, (1922). 



Twelve 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



July, 192C 




Above: Figure five. 
Right : Figure seven. 



% 



27. 



1% 



FK5 7 

Effect of Time of Bathin6 in Pinakryptol Green 25000 

ON 

Sensitivity of Panchromatic Film 




ZMin 3MIN 

time of bathing 



a uniform exposure, bathed in phenosafranine, exposed 
through a negative to red light and then developed, the 
preliminary exposure is removed in such a way that a 
duplicate of the negative is produced. In the case of an 
iodized plate when treated with certain dyes bleaching 
may take place even in blue light. 25 

In the ordinary practice of developing a desensitized 
film in bright red light this bleaching action may be quite 
serious. With a non-color sensitive film after a prelim- 
inary desensitizing bath but before development, the safe 
time of exposure to a red safelight is not measured by the 



25. Luppo-Cramer, "Bleached Out Pictures in Silver Iodide," 
Phot. Ind. 1925, p. 650. 



time required to produce fog, but by the time required to 
destroy the latent image. With panchromatic film the 
red sensitivity is not destroyed sufficiently for bleaching 
to become serious. Also after development has once 
started no appreciable bleaching occurs. With motion 
picture negative film bleaching has been found to take 
place with Wratten safelights Ser. 0, 1, and 2, and with 
positive film even Series 00 was effective. No bleaching 
has been detected with the green safelight, Ser. 4. 

In Fig. 8 is shown the bleaching effect of red light 
on a latent image with motion picture negative film. A 
step tablet exposure was made, the film bathed in pina- 
kryptol green 1-2000 for 2 minutes, parts of the sheet 



t 



Wratten 

Safelight 

Series 

1 

2 

3 

4 

00 



4 



Table II 
Safe Time of Exposure of Desensitized Film to Wratten 
Safelights. Exposures at 30 cm. (1 ft.) from 8"xl0" 
Wratten Safelight Lamp containing 25 W Bulb. 
Panchromatic Film 

Concentration of Dye 
Concentration of Preliminary Bath. in MQ Tank Developer. 

1-5000 1-10000 1-25000 1-50000 1-25000 1-100000 

252525252525 



min 


min 


min 


min 


min min 




min min 


min 


min 


min 


min 


F 


F 












F 




F 


F 


1 
8 
8 


2 
8 

8 


8 
8 


8 
8 


8 8 
1 8 




1 8 
1 


8 
8 


8 
8 


F 


1 








M 


otion Picture 


Negative Film. 










1 
8 
8 


8 

8 
8 


F 

8 
8 


8 
8 


F F 
8 8 
8 8 




F F 
1 8 
4 8 


8 
8 
8 


8 
8 
8 


F 
1 
8 


F 

8 
8 



-L 



July, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



Thirteen 



PIG S 

Bleaching Effect of Reo Light on Desensitized Film 



MOTION PICTURE MCG*rrvc Fll_M | 

oeseNsrriEEo emim in pmaKR-n-OL meen zooo 

EXPOSED 1 WCM (E - CNl)PROM 3ER I SAPELIGHT 
I- NO EXPOSURE BCPORE OEvGLOPNIENT 

3- . IOMIN< . 




(LOO E ) DENSITIES OP STEP TABLET 



I 

I 4 



,*£- 



EffectofaPreliminaryBathon Rate *«> ' 

of X>^ «$>•"*!« E 



Development and Fog 




Time op ocvtuopipENT 



exposed to a Series 1 safelight at 1 inch for 5 and 10 
minutes and the several parts of the sheet developed to- 
gether. The progressive destruction of the lower densi- 
ties and resulting increase in contrast are evident. Of 
course these conditions are much more severe than would 
occur in practice. 

In Table III the results of another interesting ex- 
periment are tabulated. A sheet of motion picture nega- 
tive film was given a flash exposure sufficient to develop 
to a density of about 0.90. It was then cut into strips 
which were desensitized for 5 minutes in solutions of 
pinakryptol green of the various concentrations given. 
Parts of the wet strips were then exposed one inch 
(2.5 cm.) from a Ser. 1 safelight for 2, 5, and 10 minutes 
and all developed. The resulting densities show that 
when the treatment was sufficient to prevent fog, bleach- 
ing occurred. Under these conditions with a concentra- 
tion of 1-1,000,000 the film increased in density, while 
with 1-100,000 the latent image was bleached. When a 
Series safelight was used the change took place between 
1-100,000 and 1-50,000. 

Table 77/ 

Effect of Red Light on the Density of Pre-exposed Film. 

Desensitized for 5 minutes with Different 

Concentrations of Pinakryptol Green 

Concentration 

Time of Exposure to Red Light. 

None. 2 min. 5 min. 10 min. 

0.92 0.99 1.19 1.55 



No. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



of Pinakryptol 
Green. 
None 
1-10,000,000 
1-1,000,000 
1-100,000 
1-50,000 



0.91 
0.89 
0.88 
0.89 



0.98 
0.98 
0.76 
0.82 



1.15 
1.12 
0.47 
0.45 



1.40 
1.26 
0.24 
0.19 



In the case of a developing paper which showed bad 
abrasion it may be of interest to note that when bathed 
in pinakryptol green and exposed to red light a latent 
light image was destroyed without affecting the abrasion. 

Carroll 6 found that pinakryptol green destroyed a 
latent image on process plates • in the dark in a few 
hours. A test on motion picture negative film showed 
that after a week the latent image of a step tablet ex- 
posure was appreciably diminished. After three months 
it was again tested and found to have nearly the same 
threshold exposure but the contrast was much less. With 
fine grained emulsions the bleaching would no doubt 
take place much more rapidly. We may conclude, there- 
fore, that it would not be safe to desensitize exposed 



negatives and then keep them for any considerable length 
of time before development. 

4. Fog Produced by Pinakryptol Green in a Prelim- 
inary Bath. 

Many dyes which have a strong desensitizing action 
are such bad fogging agents that they cannot be used 
for this purpose. Pinakryptol green has some fogging 
action and this fact must be considered when using it. 
The intensity of fog produced as well as the effect on 
the speed of development varies greatly with different 
developers. 

In order to find something of the extent of such 
variations, strips of motion picture negative film ex- 
posed uniformly along one edge were dipped into a so- 
lution of pinakryptol green 1-10,000 for 5 minutes, 
wiped with a chamois, and lowered into a tube of de- 
veloper at regular intervals so that a range of develop- 
ment times was obtained on the same strip. Compari- 
son strips were made by soaking in water instead of 
desensitizing. The densities of the image and fog were 
then plotted against time of development. Typical curves 
for three different developers are shown in Fig. 9. 

With pyro 1:1 (B. J. formula) the fog on the de- 
sensitized strip was enormously increased, and although 
the first appearance of the image was accelerated its 
later development was greatly retarded. Dilution of 
the pyro 1:1:2 did not change appreciably the retard- 
ing or fogging action for a given degree of development. 
With chlorhydroquinone the fog was somewhat increased 
for a given time, but the initial accelerating action on 
development was so great that it extended throughout 
any ordinary development time. With glycin no fog- 
ging action occurred, the image appeared sooner on the 
desensitized strip but the growth of density on prolonged 
development was retarded. From these curves it is evi- 
dent that pinakryptol green in a preliminary bath af- 
fects fog and rate of development very differently with 
different developers, and whether it retards or acceler- 
ates development depends on the particular point at 
which a comparison is made. These facts show why 
conflicting statements on this subject might easily occur 
in the literature. 

It should also be mentioned that a desensitizing 
bath which has been standing for some time in a tank 
may accumulate a scum on the surface which must be 
removed before using or it will stick to the surface of a 
film causing a bad smeary fog. 

(Continued on Page 20) 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



July. 192C 



The Camera Now Used by the Industry 

for NEWS REEL, STUNT SHOTS and SPECIAL EFFECTS 




B.gfH. 

MAKES MOVIES AS THE EYE SEES 




Standard Automatic 

The B. & H. Eyemo Standard Automatic is 
the camera now used almost universally for 
news reel and stunt pictures. It was used on 
both the Byrd and Amundsen-Ellsworth North 
Pole Expeditions. Also being used on Third 
Asiatic, Bering Sea, -Speejax and other expedi- 
tions of world interest. Used on busy loca- 
tions to quickly get stunt shots and unusual ef- 
fects. Weighs only 7 pounds and is designed to 
hold in the hand w T hile operating. Sight it from 
the eye, adjusting diaphragm and focusing dials 
which are visible through finder tube. Entire- 
ly automatic, operated by spring motor. Uses 



Commodore J. Stuart Blacktoti using Eyemo to 
obtain a special effect for his Warner Bros, 
production of E. Phillips Oppenheim's "The 
Passionate Quest," featuring W illard Louis, 
May McAvoy, Louise Fazenda and Gardner 
James. 



100 foot rolls standard negative prepared for 
daylight loading — or 120 feet, dark room load. 
J. Stuart Blackton writes of his experience with 
Eyemo : 

"I have used your wonderful little EYEMO 
Camera a number of times during the filming of 
my latest production, "The Passionate Quest," for 
Warner Brothers, and succeeded in getting some 
unique and unusual shots with it. The EYEMO 
is now my constant companion and I consider it 
a great advance in the mechanics of motion pic- 
ture photography. I congratulate you on its 
creation." 

JVrite us for fully descriptive Eyemo Circular, 
"Scooping the Picture with Eyemo." 



The BELL & HOWELL Pioneer Standard 




for all Feature Productions 

For 19 years the Bell & Howell Professional 
•Standard Camera has kept pace with all 
the rigid requirements of the motion picture in- 
dustry. B. & H. Cameras, no matter how long 
in service, never become obsolete. Interchange- 
able detail parts and basically patented pilot 
register movement keep them constantly up-to- 
date. B. & H. Professional Cameras and equip- 
ment are used almost exclusively by the foremost 
Motion Picture Producers the world over. 

BELL ^HOWELL CO. 

1805 Larchmont Ave., CHICAGO, ILL. 

New York Hollywood London 

Eilabli shtd 19 07 




Displays at our Holly llo J 
Neiv York and Chicago Offices 



July, 192G 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Fifteen 



Qlen maclDilliams 
Chosen for A.S.C. 



*$ 



Membership Bestowed on 
Cinematographer with Envi- 
able Record of Successes 



Glen MacWilliams, well- 
known cinematographer, has 
been chosen for membership 
in the American Society of 
Cinematographers, according 
to announcement from the A. 
S. C. Board of Governors. 

Began as Actor 

MacWilliams entered the 
motion picture industry as an 
actor in 1913. His acting ca- 
reer included office boy and 
similar roles with the old Ma- 
jestic - Reliance company. 
Suddenly MacWilliams made 
the discovery that he had out- 
grown "short-pants" parts, 
and naturally his ambitions 
turned to fuller fields in ap- 
pearing before the camera. 
He was unable, however, to 
convince D. W. Griffith that 
he has a potential Walthall. 
When it appeared imminent 
that he would be obliged to 
leave the industry that had so 
intrigued his youthful imag- 
ination, MacWilliams en- 
countered the opportunity to 
become an assistant cinema- 
tographer. Needless to say, 
that, when he was convinced 
that he no longer would be 
able to appear before the cam- 
era, he pounced on the chance 
to perform behind the magic 
instrument. 

With Fox 

MacWilliams at present is 
one of the star cinematogra- 




Glen MacWilliams, A. S. C. 

phers at the Fox studio in 
Hollywood, having just fin- 
ished photographing "The 
Lily" for that organization. 
Recent productions which the 
new A. S. C. member has 
filmed at Fox include "Si- 
beria," "Lazybones," "Thun- 
der Mountain," and "The 
Wheel." 

Other features on which 
MacWilliams has been chief 
cinematographer during the 
past several years embrace 
"Captain January," "The 
Mine with the Iron Door," 
"The Recreation of Brian 
Kent" and "Helen's Babies" 
for Principal Pictures; "Ene- 
mies of Children;" "The 
Dangerous Maid," for Joseph 
M. Schenck; "Quicksands," 
for Hawks-Morosco; "The 
Spider and the Rose," for 



Bennie Zeidman; "Rupert of 
Hentzau," for Selznick; "De- 
serted at the Altar," for Phil 
Goldstone; "The Lamp 
Lighter," "Wing Toy," "Part- 
ners of Fate," "The Mother 
Heart," "Ever Since Eve," 
and "Love Time," all for 
Fox; "The Poor Simp," for 
Selznick; and "My Boy," 
"Trouble" and "Oliver 
Twist," all starring Jackie 
Coogan. 



Riqh Reqard 

Commenting, in the eleventh 
anniversary number of the Ex- 
hibitors Herald, on the produc- 
tion program of his organization 
for the coming year, William 
Sistrom, general manager of the 
Cecil B. De Mille and the Met- 
ropolitan studios, emphasized 
the importance of the cinema- 
tographer in the scheme of mo- 
tion picture making. Sistrom 
stated, in part, as follows: 

"The most marvelous acting 
and the cleverest stories can 
easily be ruined by poor photog- 
raphy and here we also need 
stars of the photographic profes- 
sion. My experience in this 
business leads me to a statement 
of absolute fact that for Pro- 
ducers Distributing Corporation 
we have the most adept group 
of cameramen the business can 
offer." 

Among the A. S. C. members 
who have filmed recent Metro- 
politan productions, the photog- 
raphy of which was praised by 
Sistrom, are Charles G. Clarke, 
J. D. Jennings, Georges Benoit, 
and James C. Van Trees. 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



July, 1926 



PROJECTION 

(Continued from Page 0) 



on the film holds this dirt and more or less dis- 
solves it. As the film is run through one pro- 
jector after another, it picks up more dirt and 
receives more oil until it reaches a point of 
saturation, resulting in this foreign substance 
forming a cataract on both the emulsion and 
celluloid sides of the film. 

There are none of you but that realize the 
importance of a reception of lights and 
shadows on the screen, unmarred by a soiled 
or dusty screen, dirty or sooty condensor lens, 
oil or dirt spots on the projection lens, or a 
hazy reflector in the lamp house. All these are 
under the control of the projectionist and can 
be totally eliminated through his efforts, but 
he is not equipped to remove dirt and oil from 
the film. As a result the screen presentation is 
marred in practically all instances where the 
film used has had five or six prior bookings. 

Handicap 

You can visualize some beautiful scene as 
viewed through a window, or through eye 
glasses which are covered with a film of oil 
and dirt. Magnify that condition by the ratio 
of the motion picture frame to the screen. The 
apparent results present the handicap that the 
projectionist attempts to overcome through 
higher lamp amperage, etc. 

In the foregoing, I have tried briefly here 
to outline the cause and effect of dirt and oil 
on film. Going back to the beginning of my 
experiments in film cleaning, I will say that 
I've learned from them that the chemical or 
wash solution used is of vastly more impor- 
tance than its application. 

Requirements 
In helping to build a proper wash solution, 
we found first that we wanted one that would 
remove all oil and dirt fast enough to suit the 
demands of any vehicle of sufficient capacity. 
Next, a non-inflammable fluid was necessary, 
and no inflammable or explosive gasses could 
be present. It had to be free from all salts and 
alkalis that would have attacked the silver 
salts in any way. There could be nothing in it 
that would attack the emulsion in any manner. 
It could not give off any gas that would impair 
the health of the cleaning operator and its cost 
had to be within a reasonable figure, and 
above all of these things, it had to revitalize 



the celluloid stock instead of devitalizing it. 
We have been able to secure such a solution 
and are using it today in our department, with 
satisfactory results in all of these features. 

After our problems were solved in secur- 
ing a satisfactory wash solution, we then had 
its application to consider and were fortunate 
in getting the manufacturer of the most ac- 
ceptable machine then on the market, to agree 
to go through a period of trials and experi- 
ments with us. He agreed to any changes in 
his machine that he and we found would make 
it more adaptable. As a result of these experi- 
ments, we have a machine that does the work 
satisfactorily, quickly and inexpensively. This 
cleaning unit consists of one double cleaning 
machine, described later, and one film splic- 
ing machine, and an inspector's work table. 

Capacity Per Hour 

The cleaning operator can easily clean 
twelve to fifteen reels an hour on this double 
machine. As they come off the cleaning ma- 
chine, they are handed to the inspector for in- 
spection, the reels bands are placed on the 
reels and the work is then completed and 
ready to be placed in the vaults. Thus ap- 
proximately one hundred reels are cleaned a 
day with the one machine. 

How Operated 

To describe the operation of the machine 
used, the film is passed first through a bath 
of the wash solution, about eight inches being 
submerged at a time. There are felt brushes 
submerged in the liquid that brush both sides 
of the film. The film then travels up through 
the rubber wipers, suspended on a spring at 
the same angle — very much in the same man- 
ner as a window cleaner uses his "sqeegee" in 
drying the water from a freshly washed win- 
dow pane. The film then passes through or 
between flannel strips, slowly driven in an op- 
posite direction to that which the film is trav- 
eling. The points of contact with these strips 
are arranged at offsetting points so that the 
tension of the film is sufficient to thoroughly 
polish it on both sides. It then passes through 
two rubber rollers, wringer-like, which is the 
only driving power or draught the film has in 
the entire operation and the film is then 
wound on a reel by an automatic take-up of 
the same principle as the take-up on the lower 
magazine of a projector. The entire operation 
requires about four and one half minutes to 
the thousand foot reel of film. (continued on p age isj 






July, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M AT OGR APHER 



Seventeen 



PVorthwhile, invaluable 

Eastman Panchromatic Negative is well worth 
using every day for photographing flowers, clouds, 
foliage, and for correctly rendering flesh tints in 
close-ups. 

And sometimes you just cannot get along with- 
out it — brilliant costumes, colorful sets, dazzling 
natural hues require its use. 

Sensitive to all colors — blue, red, yellow, 
green — Eastman Panchromatic Negative enables 
you to keep them all in their correct relationship 
in black and white tones. 

Write for the booklet "Eastman Pan- 

• chromatic Negative Film for Motion 

Pictures." Properties, uses, handling, 

development of the film are described. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Eighteen 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHER 



Julv, 192G 



Filtered 

The solution tank holds approximately one 
quart of the cleaning fluid and is drained off 
into a filter after every seventh or eighth reel 
has been cleaned. After the fluid passes 
through the filter, it can be used as often as 
it is thoroughly filtered and freed from the oil 
and dirt that it carries after it has cleaned the 
seven or eight reels. By actual measurements 
this filter, from a day's work of one hundred 
reels of film, has caught fourteen cubic inches 
of dirt and oil. 

During these years of research, there have 
been many machines considered and tested, 
many wash solutions analyzed, and every sys- 
tem, with which we came in contact, was in- 
vestigated. Many of them have merit, and al- 
most all of them offer, in some manner, a rem- 
edy for dirty film. In most instances, the 
plants that were investigated were operated by 
their owners as cleaning plants and their busi- 
ness was altogether confined to cleaning film 
and not to selling equipment for film clean- 
ing. In such cases it meant the loss of time to 
transport film to their plant. This research 
work included a very careful study of various 
types of machines which were on the market 
and recommended for exchange use, but 
which we found, after a very careful analysis, 
did not accomplish the result we desired. 

Requirements 

In analyzing a machine, it is necessary to 
take into consideration the following perti- 
nent factors : 

First, the capacity of the machine. In de- 
veloping capacity, you must constantly bear in 
mind that the greater speed of the operation, 
the greater are the possibilities of your dam- 
aging the film. We have overcome this by us- 
ing large aluminum rollers with wide flanges 
to guide the film. The film is pulled through 
the machine by two wide rubber rollers, ar- 
ranged similar to a wringer. A gravity switch 
controls the motor so that should the film 
break, the entire plant is stopped immediately. 
There are no buffs or fast rotating polishers to 
heat the film, should it become stationary, and 
there are no sprocket teeth to injure it, or idler 
rollers to crease or mark it. 

I have given you here an outline of the 
operation of our cleaning plant and must 
apologize for using our own operation as a 
concrete example, but feel that you would pre- 
fer to hear a report on the actual operation of 



a working plant, rather than having me pre- 
sent theoretical or hypothetical cases. 

What Is Done 

These results can be summed up as fol- 
lows: We are now cleaning films, regardless 
of the amount of oil and dirt that there is on 
it, at the rate of one 1000-foot reel in practi- 
cally five minutes. Every inch of the one thou- 
sand foot reel is entirely free from all oil and 
dirt; there has been no strain on the perfora- 
tions in any manner; both sides of the film is 
polished; the silver salts in the emulsion have 
not been attacked in any manner; the tinting 
of either the film stock or of the emulsion is 
totally unaffected and is as safe against future 
attacks from the acids in the different lubri- 
cants the operators use, as it was before clean- 
ing; the film stock is not shrunk or warped in 
any manner, and above all, every inch of that 
one thousand foot reel has had a bath in a 
chemical that will soften it and restore its elas- 
ticity. 

Film that has had this treatment is so en- 
tirely free from anything offering any foreign 
resistance to its smooth passage through a pro- 
jector, and is so entirely and thoroughly pol- 
ished and lubricated in every corner and on 
all the surface of every perforation, that even 
though the corners of them may be weakened, 
the film is much less liable to damage than it 
was before its treatment. 



Amateur Cinematography 



(Continued from page 



to years of political and diplomatic discussion 
and suggestion. And now, to send films to 
each other for projections in our homes only 
costs the postage fee — and the good it can do 
can't be calculated in millions. 

. "We've had meetings here in Hartford to 
consider our own home movie organization 
here in this locality (including Springfield, 
New Haven, etc.) and the possibilities of ex- 
tending it over the world. At these meetings, 
experts from two of the leading camera manu- 
facturers have come on here to advise us. We 
have already learned a lot of lessons in our 
experience with radio. We have learned that 
such an organization must be absolutely al- 
truistic. There can be no executive offices, no 
professional interference; an amateur or- 



Ufttt 



July, 1926 



AMERICAN C INE M AT O GR APHER 



Nineteen 



ganization of home movie photograpers must 
be kept 100 per cent for amateurs. 

A New Sport For the Rich 

''Just now, amateur movies are providing a 
big thrill for the wealthy, who have hereto- 
fore had private showings of professional 
films. Close-ups of the family playing golf or 
sitting on the beach, projected on the small 
screen in their own drawing rooms, provided 
a new sport, a new pastime. 

"But not only the people in the Social 
Register are using home movie machines. We 
hear about only people like the Duke of York, 
the Hornblowers, the Schwabs, Colonel E. H. 
R. Green, the Vanderbilts and Galli-Curci 
making their own movies, but these are only 
a fraction of the ten thousand 'fans' today. 

"Doctors use a small-size movie camera to 
record major operations, and use the films in 
instruction courses; architects 'shoot' the prog- 
ress of skyscrapers; explorers use a small cam- 
era where a professional standard-size ma- 
chine would mean leaving behind ammuni- 
tion and food. 

"Radio, like amateur cinematography, 
was first the fad of society — and society tired 
of it and went to something else. Amateurs 
have brought about great improvements in air 
communication because they worked from a 
whole-hearted love of its development. I feel 
sure that in cinematography, too, the influence 
of the amateur will be felt in a technical way 
as well as in the development of this interna- 
tional friendship — which I hope isn't an im- 
practical vision of mine. 

"Already chemists have perfected a non- 
inflammable film which will not explode and 
which can be used without danger, and engi- 
neers have adapted projectors that are fool- 
proof. Four hundred feet of this small 16- 
millimeter film is equal to a thousand feet of 
the professional or 35-millimeter film, which 
brings the cost within the reach of everv- 
body." 



Camera Craft and 
American Cinematographer 

May be had on Clubbing offers — 
Consult them. 



The critics are 

all right, but — 

OCCASIONALLY it hurts when they 
don't see just where credit is due! 
Oft-times skilful lighting and photography 
alone have carried a picture from an ordi- 
narily high level into the ultra-distinctive 
class. 

And we feel that Cooper Hewitt light 
deserves its share of the praise for being 
constantly and dependably on the job — a 
willing slave to every wish of director or 
cinematographer. Want Cooper Hewitt 
help on some kinky lighting problem? 
Just get "Mike" Shannon on the phone! 



COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office — 7207 Santa Monica Blvd. 
KEESE ENGINEERING CO., John T. "Mike" Shannon, Mgr. 

14; ©C. H. F. Co., 1926 



PARIS 



BRUSSELS 



VIENNA 



MADRID 



LISBON 



JERUSALEM 



LONDON 



RENE 
GUISSART 

Atmospheric Shots in Any 
Part of Europe 



Taken according 
to your own in- 
structions in an 
artistic manner to 
match the pho- 
graphy of your pro- 
duction. 



OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENT IN 
EUROPE FOR: 

American Society oj 
Cinematographer s ; 
Frank D. IVilliams 



118 Avenue des Champs-Elysees 

PARIS 

Cable Address: 
LOUVERANDE-PARIS 



BERLIN 



BUDAPEST 



CAIRO 



ATHENS 



ALGIERS 



ETC. 

CD 



ETC. 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



July. 1926 



DESENSITIZERS 



I Continued from Page 13) 



The data in Table IV were obtained from curves 
similar to those in Fig. 9. These values merely indicate 
the variation in the effect on rate of development and 
fog with several developers. 

Table IV 

Effect of a Preliminary Bath in Pinakryptol Green on 
Fog and Time of Development with Various De- 
velopers. 

Time in minutes 

required to reach 

the same image Fog for same 



Developer. 
Pvro 


density. 

Soaked 

in Desen- 
water. 'sitized. 
VA 4 

3/2 m 

2/2 3X 

\oy 4 ioy 2 

5/ 3-M 

iy A 8/ 
5/2 VA 


image 

Soaked 
in 

water. 
0.15 
0.18 

0.16 

0.14 

0.33 

0.14 
0.13 

0.20 


density. 

Desen- 
sitized. 
0.33 


MQ-100* (Elon).. 

MQ-80 (Elon 80%, 
H y d r o q u i none 
20%) 


0.19 
0.21 


MQ-25 (Elon 25%, 
H y d r o q u i none 
75%) 


0.24 


MQ-O (Hydroquin- 
one) 

Chlorhydroquinone 
(MQ Formula).. 

Caustic Glvcin 

Rodinal 


0.38 

0.16 
0.14 
0.12 



*MQ formula is: developing agent 5 grams, sodium 
sulphite 75 grams, sodium carbonate 25 grams, and 
potassium bromide 1.5 grams per liter. 

Among these developers only rodinal showed a dis- 
tinct decrease in fog on the desensitized film, while with 
glvcin and elon there was no appreciable change. It 
should perhaps be emphasized that 5 minutes treatment 
in a 1-10,000 solution is a longer time than is required 
in most cases for satisfactory desensitizing, but a shorter 
treatment would only diminish these effects and not 
eliminate them. Phenosafranine, which is generally stated 
to give no fog, was tested in the same way as the pina- 
kryptol green with similar results. With pyro it gave 
bad fog, with MQ-100 no additional fog was produced, 
and in both cases development was retarded. It ap- 
pears from the data obtained in these tests that the fog 
produced in a developer after desensitizing is closely re- 
lated to the tendency of that developer to precipitate the 
dye. Possibly the precipitate formed in the emulsion has 
some sort of nucleating effect and so promotes the growth 
of fog. 

5. Useful Life of a Desensitizing Bath. 

The instructions furnished with pinakryptol green 
state that the solution should be kept in the dark, so it 
is probably light sensitive. However, solutions have been 
kept for severel weeks in an ordinary dark room in which 
a skylight was frequently open without noticeable decrease 
in strength. 

The solutions of concentration 1-5000, 1-10,000, 
1-25,000 and 1-50,000 used in tests previously described 
were also tested for exhaustion. Over a period of 10 



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July, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR A P HER 



Twenty-one 



days a total of one hundred 8" x 10" sheets of panchro- 
matic film per gallon (equivalent to about 500 feet of 
motion picture film) were desensitized and at the end 
of that period a test showed an average difference of 
about one step on the tablet used for these tests. In- 
asmuch as two steps on the tablet doubled the exposure 
and desensitizing is proportional to concentration, this 
indicated a loss of about 25% in the active concentration 
of the bath. More stock solution could be added to 
keep up the strength for further use, but a difference of 
that magnitude should be well within the limits of safety 
allowed. A tank of desensitizing bath could therefore be 
used at least as long as a tank developer, and by occasional 
strengthening its life could be extended very greatly. We 
have no indication that the fogging action or retarding 
effect on development is greater in old solutions than in 
fresh ones of equal desensitizing power. 

Wooden racks become stained when used repeatedly 
in a desensitizing solution, and so a test was made to 
see if the dye were absorbed by dried cypress wood suf- 
ficiently to interfere with the activity of the bath. The 
effect, if any, was found to be inappreciable. 

Small amounts of hypo up to 0.1% were added to a 
pinakryptol green solution and even after considerable 
use there was no indication that the hypo interfered in 
any way with the desensitizing action of the dye. 



VI. The Use of Pinakryptol Green in the 
Developer 



1 



Solubility in Developers. 

The most serious difficulty in using desensitizers in 
the developer is their tendency to form a precipitate with 
certain developing agents. The insoluble substance 
formed is apparently a combination of the dye and devel- 
oping agent which forms in alkaline solutions. If the 
developer is oxidized the reaction reverses and the dye 
reappears in the solution. The formation of the precipi- 
tate is greatly retarded by the presence of quinone or 
oxidation products of the developer. For example, if 
a developer is partially oxidized by standing exposed to 
air or if 5% to 10%. of exhausted developer is added to 
the fresh solution much less trouble from precipitation 
occurs. 

Hydroquinone gives the most difficulty in this re- 
spect of any developer tried in this laboratory. It can 
be used in elon-hydroquinone developers in which the 
concentration of hydroquinone is not too high. For 
example, in the elon-hydroquinone tank developer (MQ- 
80 tank) it can be added to a concentration of 1-25,000, 
in regular MQ-80 only about half that amount will re- 
main in a fresh developer, while with No. 16 motion 
picture developer less than 1-100,000 is soluble. With 
pyro-soda 1:1 (B. J. formula) 1-25,000 precipitates if 
the solution is protected from the air, but in a tray 
oxidation takes place so rapidly that the precipitate may 
not form. When diluted 1 :1 :2 as usually recommended, 
the precipitation takes place in the same way if the de- 
veloper is kept from oxidizing. 

Chlorhydroquinone (adurol) gives only slightly less 
trouble than hydroquinone. Para aminophenol with car- 
bonate or with caustic alkali in the form of rodinal, 
glycin, and elon, either do not give a precipiate, or if one 
forms in a concentrated stock solution it readily redis- 
solves on dilution of the developer for use. These facts 
are discussed fully by Luppo-Cramer 8 (Bright Light De- 
velopment, p. 52). 

When precipitation in a developer is likely to occur 
it is very important to add the desensitizer very slowlv 



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FRED HOEFNER 

Cinema and Experimental Work 

5319 Santa Monica Blvd. (rear) 
GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Cal. 



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Subscribed for separately. Camera Craft 
and the American Cinematographer will cost 
a total of $4.50 per year. As a special clubbing 
offer, both magazines may be had at a total 
price of $3.40 per year. 

American Cinematographer 

121920 21-22 Guaranty Bldfl. 
Hollywood. Calif. 



JU„ 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINE MAT OGRAPHER 



July, 1926 



with constant agitation and to use as dilute a stock so- 
lution as is convenient. When a precipitate once forms 
because of a high local concentration it dissolves very 
slowly, if at all. 

We have never been able to prepare successfully a 
phenosafranine-hydroquinone developer as frequently 
recommended jn the literature. 

2. Effect of Concentration and Time of Bathing on De- 

sensitizing. 

With pinakryptol green and most other desensitizers 
the effectiveness is greatly increased by the presence of 
the developer and therefore the concentration of dye re- 
quired is much less than when used in a water solution. 
In Figs. 4 and 5 curves are given which show the com- 
parative desensitizing action of pinakryptol green in dif- 
ferent concentrations when used in the developer and in 
a preliminary bath. From these curves it is evident that 
a concentration of 1-25,000 in an elon-hydroquinone de- 
veloper produces more desensitizing in a given time than 
a 1-5000 solution in water. In view of this fact Hubl ' 
has suggested that development be started with an old 
developer containing desensitizer and completed in a fresh 
developer without desensitizer. He also states that after 
a preliminary bath the desensitizing is increased when 
the film is put into the developer rather than the dye 
being washed out. This, of course, does not apply to 
desensitizers which are made inactive by sulphite. 

3. Limits of Safety in Exposing Desensitized Film to 

Different Safelights. 

In Table II data are also given which show the 
safe time of exposure to different safelights after de- 
sensitizing with different concentrations of pinakryptol 
green in the developer. It can be seen that panchromatic 
film can easily be made safe for the bright green light 
Series 4, but not for bright red lights. Motion picture 
negative film, on the other hand, can easily be made 
safe for the Series or even Series 00 safelight. 

4. Fogging Action of Pinakryptol Green when used in 

the Developer. 

It is stated by the manufacturers of pinakryptol green 
that it diminishes development fog, and a similar effect 
was found by Amor 4 for several desensitizers. The ef- 
fect of pinakryptol green added to the developer in con- 
centrations between 1-25,000 and 1-100,000 was studied 
for several different developers, including glycin, rodinal, 
elon, elon-hyroquinone and pyro. Motion picture nega- 
tive film was used. In most cases it was found that both 
the development of the image and the growth of fog 
were retarded. The effect of shortening the induction 
period is the same as when used as a preliminary bath. 
However, for the same image density in most cases the 
fog was slightly less when desensitizer was present. The 
decrease in fog density varied from to 0.04 with dif- 
ferent developers for normal development, and was not 
therefore of sufficient magnitude to be of very great prac- 
tical importance. In no case was any serious fogging 
action detected when the dye was used in the developer. 

5. Comparative Desensitizing Action During Exhaus- 
tion of Developer. 

In order to find whether the desensitizer 
in a developer was effective throughout the life of 
the developer, solutions containing 1-25,000, 1-50,000, 
and 1-100,000 of pinakryptol green in MQ- Tank de- 
veloper were exhausted. _ Over a period of 10 days one 



E. Burton Steene 

Freelance 

Akeley Camera 
Specialist 



GRanite 
1622 



Care of American Society of 
Cinematographerg 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 

Hollywood, Calif. 




FOR RENT! 

MITCHELL and BELL & HOWELL 

CAMERAS 

F 2. 3. - F. 2. 7. - F. 3. 5. Lenses 
40-50-75 M. M. 

COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 

J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 North Orange St. 
Phone Glendale 3361-W Glendale, California 



CRECO 



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HERBERT GEORG STUDIO 
514 East Capitol Avenue Springfield, Illinois 



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July, 19'26 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-three 



hundred 8" x 10" sheets of panchromatic film per gallon 
were developed (equivalent to 5000 feet of motion pic- 
ture film). At the end of this time film desensitized in 
ths solutions showed an average differnce of three steps 
on the tablet exposures from the values obtained when 
fresh. This means that in these tests the effective con- 
centration of the dye had decreased to less than one-half 
of its original value. In another set of similar solutions 
exhausted to half that extent no decrease in desensitizing 
action could be detected. It is probable that the margin 
of safety would be sufficient to cover any loss of de- 
sensitizing power during the life of the developer. In 
case of doubt more dye may be added occasionally. 

There was no indication in these or other tests that 
the dye affects the life of the developer. 

6. Composition of the Developer. 

In this investigation only the elon-hydroquinone tank 
developer (AIQ-80 Tank) was used for exact studies of 
the behavior of the desensitizing dye in the developer. 
This is a typical dilute elon-hydroquinone developer and 
is widely used for motion picture work. On account 
of the large amount of labor involved the investigation 
was not extended to developers of different composition. 
Information in the literature, and our general experience 
do not indicate any marked difference in desensitizing 
with any developer in which the dye is sufficiently soluble 
to be used satisfactorily. However, desensitizers affect 
the speed of development to an extent which varies both 
with the developer and with the particular dye used. In 
practice, therefore, when using a desensitizer the proper 
development time must be found for each individual com- 
bination. 

Summary 

1. A desensitizer is used primarily to secure greater 
visibility during development although it also prevents 
aerial oxidation fog. Greater visibility may also be ob- 
tained by so choosing a safelight that the visual intensity 
of the light which it transmits is a maximum and its pho- 
tographic intensity in relation to the emulsion iispJ is a 
minimum. 

2. A practical desensitizer in addition to having 
a satisfactory desensitizing action must not affect the 
latent image or the shape of the characteristic curve of 
the developed image. It must also not give fog or stain 
and should be soluble and stable in a developer. No de- 
sensitizer is known which is stable in a developer rich in 
hydroquinone. 

3. The properties of the following commercial 
desensitizers have been studied in the light of the above 
requirements: phenosafranine, pinakryptol green, pina- 
kryptol yellow, basic scarlet N, and aurantia. 

4. The limits of safety in the use of pinakryptol 
green with motion picture negative and panchromatic 
emulsions have been determined. This desensitizer was 
chosen because it appeared to be the most satisfactory of 
the known desensitizers at the time of this investigation. 

5. The comparative safety of untreated film and 
film desensitized for varying times with varying con- 
centrations of pinakryptol green to different safelights 
has been studied. By bathing panchromatic film in a 
1-10,000 solution of pinakryptol green, or after it has been 



in a developer containing 1-25,000 of this desensitizer for 
2 or 3 minutes, inspection of the film may be conducted 
with safety with a Series 4 Wratten safelight containing 
a 25 W. bulb at a distance of 1 foot (30 cm.). Under 
the same conditions motion picture negative film may be 
safely examined with a Series O safelight. 

7. A latent image on a desensitized emulsion tends 
to bleach out when exposed to red light. This bleaching 
action is greatest with non-color sensitive emulsions. 
With panchromatic emulsions the effect is not serious and 
after development has commenced no appreciable bleach- 
ing occurs. With desensitized non-color sensitive emul- 
sions the same time of exposure to a red safelight is de- 
termined by the time required to destroy the latent 
image and not by the time required to produce fog. 

8. Data have been obtained on the fogging action 
of various desensitizers with developers. 

9. An exhaustive study has also been made on the 
effect of pinakryptol green when used in the developer 
instead of as a preliminary bath. 

Practical Importance of Desensitizers 

With superspeed motion picture negative film it is 
possible to satisfactorily inspect the image with safety 
during development without the use of a desensitizer. 
With an 8 x 10 Wratten Series 2 safelight containing a 
25 W. bulb, the emulsion can be given an exposure of 2 
minutes at a distance of 1 ft. (30 cm.) before a visible 
fog is produced, which time is far in excess of the time 
necessary for satisfactory inspection of the film. With 
this film therefore the use of desensitizers is unneces- 
sary. 

With panchromatic motion picture negative film, 
under the above conditions an objectionable fog is pro- 
duced in 10 seconds. Inspection of this film during de- 
velopment is therefore dangerous and unless a desensitizer 
is used development should always be carried out in the 
dark for a predetermined time at a given temperature as 
determined by the preliminary development of test strips. 

The use of pinakryptol green either as a preliminary 
bath or when added to the developer will permit of the 
safe inspection of panchormatic film with a Wratten 
Series 4 safelight containing a 25 W. bulb at a distance 
of 1 foot (30 cm.). The film should not be exposed to 
this light until the film has been immersed in the 
desensitizing solution for at least 3 minutes. 

For use dissolve 2-3 ounce of pinakryptol green in 
50 gallons of water (20 grams per 200 liters) as a prelim- 
inary bath. When used in the developer dissolve 120 
grains per 50 gallons (8 grams per 200 liters). It is 
usually impossible to add the desensitizer to a developer 
rich in hydroquinone because the desensitizer is precipi- 
tated. The dye should first be dissolved in as small a 
quantity of hot water as possible and then diluted with 
cold water or added to the developer. 

Desensitizers are valuable insofar as they permit of 
greater visibility during development and prevent aerial 
oxidation fog. They are not indispensable, however, 
and there is always a danger of accidentally fogging an 
emulsion in the bright light before the desensitizing so- 
lution has had sufficient time to act. With panchro- 
matic emulsions their use permits of inspection of the 
image during development which is otherwise not pos- 
sible. 



Twenty four 



AMERICAN C INE M AT OGR APHER 



July, 1926 



(Continued from Page 1 0) 

together in one place. Also it will contain 
the general offices of the company and of the 
sales department. 

Different Lines 

Construction of this important building is 
in line with the success of the company in the 
fields of its activity. These are industrial illu- 
mination, photographic and motion picture 
lighting; also in the various applications of 
quartz apparatus as a source of ultra-violet 
light. An added field is the manufacture of 
mercury switches. 

The plan for development is evidence of 
the confidence of the board of directors in the 
future of the company under the administra- 
tion of W. A. D. Evans, who has been presi- 
dent since its affiliation with the General 
Electric Co. 

Lockwood Greene & Co. of New York 
are the engineers on the new job. The con- 
tracts for building have not as yet been 
awarded. 



Cohen Celebrates Eleventh 

Anniversary With Pathe News 



Emanuel Cohen, editor of Pathe News, 
sailed for Europe last month via the S. S. 
Majestic, bound for England, France, Ger- 
many and other European countries, where 
he will confer with his camera staff and ex- 
pand his facilities abroad along certain lines. 
He recently celebrated his 11th anniversary 
as editor of Pathe News. 



E. Burton Steene, A. S. C, has returned to 
Hollywood from Oakland, Calif., where he 
filmed Akeley camera shots for Paramount's 
"The Campus Flirt." 



SUBSCRIBE 



FOR THE 



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Cinematographer 




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FOR SALE BT 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. - - Los Angeles, Calif. 



^T- 



-■^y^ 



July, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M AT O G R APHER 



Twenty-five 



International Newsreel 

Chief Visits Los Angeles 



E. B. Hatrick, vice-president and general 
manager of International Newsreel, is in Los 
Angeles, where he will remain a month. 

M. D. Clofine, editor of International 
Newsreel, who has been on the Coast for some 
time in connection with International News- 
reel's pictures of Amundsen's arrival at Tel- 
ler, Alaska, returned to New York late last 
week. 



Dig nity 

in 

Advertising 

Espousing the aesthetic as well as the practical 
progress of the art of cinematography, the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer has, through the prestige 
of its advertisers and contributors, gained an en- 
viable place in the reajm of dignified advertising. 

The psychology of dignity in compelling at- 
tention which directly breeds the confidence of 
the reader is evinced in the high grade 'copy' 
which is the consistent characteristic of the ad- 
vertisers using the American Cinematographer in 
the field of cinematography. 

He who advertises in the American Cinemato- 
grapher indeed keeps excellent company ! 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinematographer 

may be had on a special one year's club- 
bing subscription at a very substantial 
saving. Separately, the two publica- 
tions cost a total of $4.50 per year. By 
virtue of the clubbing offer, both may 
be had for $3.40. 



CLASSIFIED 

ADVERTISING 

Rates: Four cents a ivord. Minimum charge 
one dollar per insertion. 

.-Ill copy must be prepaid and must reach us 
before the 15th of the month preceding publication. 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

American Cinematographer, 

1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, California 



WANTED: MOTION PICTURE CAMERA 



AKELET Camera Outfit. State price and equipment. Len H. 
Roos, Bank of New South Wales, George Street, Sydney, 
Australia. N. S. W. 



FOR SALE: LENSES 



ONE three-inch Dahlmeyer F.l:9, mounted for Mitchell; one 
two-inch Bausch & Lomb F.2:7; one Dahlmeyer Pentac 37 
mm. F.2:i). George Benoit, S45 Crescent Heights Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 



CARL ZEISS, F. 2.7. 50 mm. 
of Cinematographers. 



Dan Clark, care American Society 



FOR RENT: CAMERAS 



BELL, & HOWELL. Victor Milner, 2221 Observatory Ave., Los 
Angeles, California. 596-944. 

MITCHELL, and Bell & Howell Cameras, F.2:3; F.2:7; F.3:5 
Lenses — 40-50-75 mm. Complete equipment. J. R. Lock- 
wood, 523 North Orange St., Glendale, California. GLendale 
3361-W. 

E. BURTON STEENE, Bell & Howell, and Akeley. Complete 
Camera Equipment. Latest models. Address American 
Society of Cinematographers, Hollywood, Calif. 

BELL & HOWELL. Frank M. Cotner, 62 7 3 Selma Ave., Holly- 
wood, California. HOIIywood 5046. 

BELL & HOWELL. 17(1. with 30, 40. 50 and 75 lens equipment. 
Baby Tripod. Also. B. & H. Cine Motor. Charles Stumar. 
GRanite 9845. 1201 Vista Street. Hollywood. 

WANTED: MISCELLANEOUS 

GRAF VARIABLE Lens, two inch; also Eyemo Camera. State 
lowest cash price. C. T. Kirby, 1340 Forty-second Avenue, 
San Francisco, Calif. 

FOR SALE: MISCELLANEOUS 

16 mm. Motion Picture Cameras, Projectors and Accessories. Spe- 
cials: Kodascope Model A Projector; Victor Camera and 
Projector. Write Carlton W. Bliedung, 1622 Wilcox Ave., 
Hollywood, California. 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty B!dg., 

6331 Hollywood Blvd.. Hollywood. Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with the issue of 

192 

Name 

Address 

Town 

State 

(Note: Camera Craft will be sent for a slight addi- 
tional sum. Consult the clubbing offer.) 



i wenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER 



July, 192G 




This shot shows pioneer American 
news cinematographers in Galveston, 
Texas, in April, 1914, during the 
trouble with Mexico revolving about 
Huerta's refusal to salute the American 
flag. On the extreme right is E. Bur- 
ton Steene and second from the right is 
Victor Milner, both of ivhom were cov- 
ering events for Pathe Weekly. The 
gentleman in the center with the Stetson 
and with his hand to his chin is none 
other than Romaine Fielding, a foremost 
director. The rotund lad behind Field- 
ing is one " Kewpie" Morgan, a "discov- 
ery" of the director in Galveston. Miss- 
ing from the picture is L. Guy Wilky, 
who was cinematographer for Fielding. 
Milner, Wilky and Steene are now stu- 
dio cinematographers located in Holly- 



wood and all are members of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers. At 
the time the photograph was taken, 
American patriotism was at its highest 
point since the Spanish- A merican war; 
and celebrities of the newspaper and lit- 
erary work, including Richard Harding 
Davis and Jack London, ivere in the ad- 
venturous atmosphere at Galveston for 
the departure of Gen. Fred Funston's 
five transports for Vera Cruz. 

Steene's headquarters for Pathe were 
in Houston, and he worked the cramped 
territory that extended from Florida on 
the East to El Paso on the West. Mil- 
ner ivas down from Denver, the head- 
quarters from which he covered a coun- 
try that stretched as far west as Salt 
Lake City. 



Cinematographer Films Many 

Sets on Griffith's Latest 



Harry Fischbeck, A. S. C, is being called 
on for a variety of lightings and general cine- 
matographic effects, by virtue of the many sets 
in D. W. Griffith's "Sorrows of Satan," on 
which the A. S. C. member is chief cinemato- 
grapher. 

Twenty-two sets have been used in D. W. 
Griffith's "The Sorrows of Satan," nearing 
completion at the Paramount Long Island 
studio. The sets range from palatial hotel din- 
ing-room to squalid boarding house. Two 
thousand extras have been used. All exterior 
as well as interior scenes were shot from sets. 
Charles M. Kirk designed them for Forrest 



Halsey's screen arrangement of the Marie 
Corelli novel. 

The hotel dining room was 200x120 feet 
and William Cohill, casting director, pro- 
vided 300 guests fashionably attired. Paul 
Oscard of Publix trained women dancers for 
the cabaret entertainment. 

In five days the fronts of 30 buildings were 
put up and painted and plastered and a street 
paved, when an exterior set from the back lot 
was removed to finish a street scene. In four 
days a garden 220x120 feet was constructed. 
As fast as one part of this set was finished an- 
other part was being torn down after the 
shooting had been done and a Georgina hall 
went up. When the park sequence was com- 
plete the interior of the mansion was ready. 






HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Sociehj of Cinematoqraphers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark ------------- President 

L. Guv Wilky ---------- First lice President 

Frank B. Good - - - - Second lice President 

Ira H. Morgan --------- Third f'ice President 

George Schneiderman ----------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke ------------ Secretary 



Victor Milner 
Daniel B. Clark 
George Schneiderman 
L. Guy Wilky 
John Arnold 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Frank B. Good 
Alfred Gilks 
Charles G. Clarke 
Glen MacWilliams 
Horner A. Scott 



King D. Gray 
Fred W. Jackman 
Reginald E. Lyons 
E. Burton Steene 
Ira H. Morgan 



Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Barnes. George .S. — with Henry King. Samuel Goldwyn Prod. 
Beckway. Wm. — 

Benoit, Georges — with Metropolitan Productions, Metropoli- 
tan Studios. 
Boyle. John W. — with Balboni, First National. Burbank. 
Brodin, Xorbert P. — Frank Lloyd Productions, Fust National. 
Broening, H. Lyman — 
Brotherton, Joseph — 

Clark. Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studio. 
Clarke, Chas. G. — with "Red" Grange, Sam Wood directing, 

F. B. O. Studios. 
Cowling. Herford T. — 29 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 
Cotner. Frank M. — 
Crockett, Ernest — 
Cronjager, Henry — with Famous Players-Lasky, New York 

City. 
Dean, Faxon M. — 
Doran, Robert V. — • 
Dored, John — Riga, Latvia. 
DuPont, Max B. — 

DuPar, E. B. — with Warner Bros., New York City. 
Duhray, Joseph A. — 

Edeson, Arthur — with First National, New York City. 
Evans, Perry — 

Fildew, Wm. — 

Fischbeck. Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players 

Lasky, New York City. 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson. F. B. O. Studios. 
Fried. Abe — with Fox Studio. 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 
Gilks. Alfred — with James Cruze, Famous Players-Lasky. 
Glennon. Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Good, Frank B. — with Jackie Coogan Prod., Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer Studios. 
Gray, King D. — 

Griffin, Walter L. — with David Hartford Productions. 
Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. 

Haller. Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. 
Heimerl, Alois G. — 

Jackman, Floyd — Fred W. Jackman Prods. 

Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. 

Jennings. J. I). — willi Buster Keaton. 

Koenekamp. Hans F. — with Colleen Moore, First National, 

Burbank. 
Kull, Edward — with Universal. 
Kurrle, Robert — with Edwin Carewe. 



Landers, Sam — 
Lockwood. J. R. — 

Lundin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropoli- 
tan Studios. 
Lyons. Reginald — with Fox Studios, 

.Marshall. Wm. — willi Raymond Griffith, Famous I'lavers- 
Lasky. 

McCoid, T. D. — 

McGill, Barney — with Fox Studios. 

MacLean, Kenneth G. — with Mack Sennett Studios. 

MacWilliams, Glen — with Fox Studio. 

Moehan, George — with Columbia Pictures. 

Milner. Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan, Ira H. — with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan, Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Musuraca. Nicholas — with Warner Brothers. 

Norton, Stephen S. — with Arthur Beck Prod. 

Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio 

Perry, Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Perry, Paul P. — with Universal. 

Polito. Sol — with Chas. R. Rogers. First National. 

Ries, Park J. — 

Roos, Len H. — Sydney. Australia. 
Rose, Jackson J. — with Universal. 
Rosher. Charles — with "Ufa," Berlin. 

Schneiderman. George — with Fox Studio. 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Short, Don — 

Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Steene, E. Burton — 

Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Stumar, John — with Universal. 

To. Uurst. Louis H. — producing microscopic pictures, for 

Pathe. 
Totheroh, Kollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 
Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Van Buren, Ned — 
Van Enger. Charles- 
Van Trees, James 
Burbank. 

Warrenton, Gilbert — with Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — with Corinne Griffith Productions. 

Whitman, Philip H. — with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario 

Dept. 
Wilky, L. Guy — 



-with First National, New York City. 
C. — with First National Productions, 



Edison, Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb, Arthur C. — Attorney. 



Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every .Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 



Vol. VII, No. 5 
25 Cents a Copy 



August, 1926 



i. 




An exceptionally long 
line of gradations 
combined with Sine grain, 
high speed and excellent 
color separation, makes 




Negative the better stock 



"Ask the men who use it" 



^? 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Alter, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 

10S6 North Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 6669 

Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VII AUGUST, 1926 No. 5 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss. Editor and General Manager 
C. K. Phillips, Special Representative 



Contents : 

Page 

Scenes From A. S. C. Location Library 4 

The Editor's Lens 5 

Location Library Is Founded by A. S. C 6 

Amateur Cinematography — 

An Amateur Gives Some Suggestions — 

By Hamilton Riddel 7 

An Open Letter 8 

Bad Negatives Hurt American Films in Europe 9 

Hail Jackman Triumph in "The Devil Horse" 10 

What It Takes to Be a Cinematographer — 

By Daniel B. Clark, A. S. C 1 1 

In Camerafornia 12 

Editors Enter Motion Pictures 15 

PROJECTION — Conducted by Earl J. Denison 

Progress in Projection 16 

Photograph Explosion from Air Amid Bursting Shots 

and Shells __ 19 

Junior Cameramen Elect New President 20 

Explains North Pole Close-up in Official Byrd Motion 
Picture 21 

New Cinematographic Process Is Launched 23 

Classified Advertising 25 

E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, Works on Vitaphone 26 

A. S. C. Roster 

An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3. 50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



August, 1926 



Scenes from A. S. C. OQ3 

Location Library WJ 



Views from A. S. C. Collec- 
tion Reproduced. Many Beau- 
tiful Vistas Photographed 






Above, left : Pinnacle 
Peak, one of the spectacular 
crags in the Tatoosh Range. 
Above, right: Washington 
Cascades, a series of prime- 
val waterfalls in the Paradise 
River above Narada Falls. 
Below: Looking across Sih 
ver Forest to snow-capped 
mountains beyond. 

All three stills were taken 
in Rainier National Park, 
and are part of A. S. C. loca 
tion library. 



$ 






&k 



August. 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M AT O G RAPHE R 



Five 



The EDITOR'S LENS 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



lieu? or Old? 



' Memories that are convenient serve their mas- 
ters well ; but, in this day of periodic praise for for- 
eign pictures, there are still those who remember 
the reception accorded several years ago the show- 
ing of the German film, "The Cabinet of Dr. Cali- 
gari," at the old Miller's theatre, Los Angeles. How 
different are the current encomiums from the hiss- 
ing, hooting and egg-throwing that attended poor 
old Dr. Caligari's artistic entrance to the fair city 
of the angels ! 

If Verily, the pendulum doth swing from extreme 
to extreme. The antagonistic hysteria — for which 
the war could certainly not have been held entirely 
responsible — happily has passed until now we stand 
at the opposite end of the cycle. Behold, then, the 
extravagant plaudits which are heaped on those for- 
eign-made pictures which are commercially prede- 
stined to be hailed as American triumphs. If the 
condemnation of five years ago was undeserved, then 
much of the contemporary eulogizing lacks timing. 

If Which brings us to an article that appeared some 
time ago in the Film Daily lauding camera "angles" 
as practiced in certain enumerated instances in Ger- 
man pictures. While no body of men is more 
pleased than the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers to recognize advancement, whether made in 
Europe or America, in the field of motion photogra- 
phy, it might be well for some writers to more care- 
fully appraise the antiquated methods that they are 
prone to dress up in the clothes of novelty. 

If Many of the angles mentioned in the article in 
question, according to Gilbert Warrenton, A. S. C, 
would appear palpably crude if they were incorpor- 
ated in American productions, for the simple rea- 
son that they were discarded as obsolete in the Mid- 
dle Ages of cinematography. Critical appraisals 
which tend to popularize methods, which definitely 
have proved out-of-date, bring about retrogression 



rather than progress in cinematography — and the 
motion picture industry, whether in this country or 
abroad, needs all the progress that can be given it. 

1f Cinematography can use criticism, but it must 
come from an even-keel. Warped perspectives are 
not any more to be desired than the projection of a 
picture that is out of focus. Give European as well 
as American cinematography fair and just appraisal, 
and that which comes from beyond the waters will 
continue to go forward steadily as it has in the past 
couple of years. 

^f After all, cinematography is a universal language, 
and achievements in its field one place are achieve- 
ments the world over. 



Knights of Courage 



1f To paraphrase the old saying, "when Greek 
greets Greek," the greeting perforce breathes of 
manly sincerity. In other columns of this issue, an 
aviator bespeaks the admiration of the crusaders of 
the air for the courage of cinematographers. 

*I That this admiration — which comes from cour- 
ageous men — is well bestowed is again indicated in 
the report concerning the exploit of John A. Brock- 
horst and M. A. Baron, of International Newsreel, 
in flying in the teeth of death to get motion pictures 
of the exploding arsenals and magazines during the 
recent disaster in New Jersey. Cinematography, as 
well as aviation, thrives on such spirit. 

If The deeds of the International Newsreel cinema- 
tographers not only served to give the public a 
graphic report of the inferno but also immeasurably 
aided the military authorities in combating the con- 
tinued explosions. Courage plus organization make 
such things possible. 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



August, 1926 



Location Library is 
Founded bij A.S.C. 



y 



Cinematographers Devise Ex- 
pert Means of Determining 
Locations' Film Qualities 



A location library, designed to meet the 
needs of A. S. C. members as well as those of 
motion picture producers generally, is the lat- 
est unit in the program of the American Soci- 
ety of Cinematographers for the current year, 
according to an announcement from Daniel 
B. Clark, president of the A. S. C. 

Cinematographer's Angle 

The library is being formulated with par- 
ticular regard to the expert and pictorial eye 
of the cinematographer, and is intended as a 
specialized aid to those producing organiza- 
tions which already maintain their own loca- 
tion bureaus. 

The new A. S. C. undertaking, it is plan- 
ned, will contain pictorial reproductions of 
locations throughout the world, with empha- 
sis being laid on those in the American West, 
which is nearest the film capital, the base of 
operations of all production activities. 

Motion Picture Film Included 

Arrangements are also being made to in- 
clude not only still photographs in the library, 
but to list motion picture film as well. 

By carrying cinema positive as a part of 
the enterprise, cinematographers and their 
producers will be enabled to see just how a 
given location will appear on the screen be- 
fore they risk company money and time in 
traveling a great distance to the spot in ques- 
tion. 

Filming Data 

The photographing of such locations will 
be done under the direction of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, with complete 
data being kept as to what lenses, exposures, 
stock and the like were employed in the mak- 
ing 

Backed by Resources 

Clark and his fellow members of the A. 
S. C. believe that a location library, main- 
tained strictly from a cinematographic per- 
spective, will serve to reduce this phase of film 
production to something of an exact science. 
All of the resources of the American Society 



of Cinematographers, Clark states, will be 
marshalled to make this venture a success. 

Well Started 

Already included in the library, are rep- 
resentative scenes of the following locations: 
Painted Canyon district, 38 miles east of Palm 
Springs, Calif.; Zion Canyon and Bryce Can- 
yon, in the state of Utah; Puget Sound and 
Seattle, Wash., and vicinity ;San Juan Islands; 
Lake Washington; Rainier National Park; 
Lake Chelan; Olympia peninsula country; 
Poodle Dog Pass and the attendant snow-cap- 
ped mountain district; the Monte Cristo re- 
gion; the country about Mt. Baker, Mt. Shuk- 
san and Green River Gorge; Sooke river can- 
yon district; forests in the Jordan River val- 
ley; Mr. Arrowsmith; Cameron Lake and nu- 
merous other scenes in British Columbia. 



Lighting Equipment Received 

For A. S. C. Experiment Library- 



Lighting equipment, valued at several 
hundred dollars and manufactured by the 
Cooper Hewitt Electric Company, was in- 
stalled during the past month at the headquar- 
ters of the American Society of Cinematogra- 
phers as a part of the A. S. C. test and experi- 
ment library. 

The equipment was installed under the 
special direction of John T. Shannon, man- 
ager of the Keese Engineering Company, 
Hollywood representatives of the Cooper 
Hewitt company. 

Following the installation of the appa- 
ratus, Shannon and R. A. Keese, of the firm 
that bears his name, appeared before the A. 
S. C. open meeting of July 19th, at which 
time Shannon lectured on present and coming 
advances in cinematographic illumination. 
Shannon recently spent several weeks on a 
trip in the East, during which time he held 
numerous conferences at the Cooper Hewitt 
home offices, particularly with his firm's re- 
search laboratory officials. 



August. 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Seven 



Amateur Cinematography 



An Amateur Qiues 
Some Suggestions 



Bijj Hamilton Riddel 



Hints as to How One Amateur 
Improves Quality of Motion 
Pictures Taken by Himself 



( The following article, written by Hamilton Riddel, 
a representative amateur, indicates some of the many ways 
in which amateur cinematography may be applied in an 
interesting fashion :) 

It is to the interest of the amateur that he 
edit his Cine-Kodak films after they have 
been returned from the finishing station and 
are ready for projection. Perhaps some ama- 
teurs will say that they haven't the time for 
editing; but when they realize that it does not 
require an excessive amount of time, and that 
such time is well spent and will add to the 
screen results, they will no doubt be anxious 
to edit their films. It is interesting work — 
this editing — and no matter how good a film 
is, it will be greatly improved by some judi- 
cious cutting. 

When the finished film is returned from 
the laboratory it should be projected. During 
projection the photography, length of scene, 
sequence, and the general action should be 
noted. This will make editing easier. 

Accessories 
A film splicer and rewind are necessary 
accessories. Cine-Kodak film is so small that 
it is difficult to splice it without the aid of a 
splicer. And, of course, a rewind facilitates 
the handling of the film while it is being 
edited. These two accessories are time-sav- 
ers, too. 

"Leader" 

Every film needs a "leader." This is 
usually a strip of plain film from which the 
emulsion has been removed. If you have 
none, soak some old film in warm water and 
then the emulsion is easily removed from the 
film base with a knife. A leader film should 
be about eighteen inches to two feet long. 
This leader is used when threading the pro- 
jector preparatory to showing the picture. 

If you do not have a main title to your 
film, it is well to follow the leader with a foot 
of black film. This is film that was not ex" 
posed, but which has been finished at the lab- 
oratory. Quite often you will get a few feet 
of this black film at the beginning and end of 
your roll of Cine-Kodak film. The object of 
putting a foot of this* black film after the 



leader is so that when you start projecting 
your pictures, the white leader will not flare 
up on the screen, thus causing a most unpleas- 
ant effect upon the eyes of those watching the 
pictures. Of course, in threading your pro- 
jector, you should note that the first part of 
the black film is before the projection lens. 
Then when you start your projector and the 
safety shutter slides out of the way allowing 
the light to pass through the film, the screen 
will be dark for a moment and your pictures 
will then follow. This assures a pleasant in- 
troduction of your pictures. 

Opening Scene 
After the strip of black film, you will 
have to decide what will be your opening 
scene. The writer believes that, in general, 
this should be a distant scene, after which you 
so arrange your different scenes so that many 
close-ups are included. Motion pictures of 
your family or friends prove so interesting 
that you should take many close-ups as they 
add life to your films. 

Ratio 

Most of your scenes should not last more 
than ten seconds upon the screen or about four 
feet of Cine-Kodak film. Many scenes should 
be from five to eight seconds long. Have a 
good sense of what is interesting and you will 
never show a picture that is jerky, because of 
shortness of scene, nor a long drawn out one, 
due to too much footage. Use your discretion 
— and your scissors. 

As you take your own motion pictures you 
will become more critical of your photogra- 
phy. So don't get discouraged if all your 
scenes are not properly exposed. Cut them 
out ,and forget them. And resolve to do bet- 
ter when you are taking your next roll of film. 
Your projected pictures will be a delight to 
you if you only allow your best photography 
to be in your edited films. 

At the end of your reel of film there 
should be another foot or two of black film. 
Thus when the last scene appears on the 
screen, it will be followed by the black film. 

(Continued on Page 22) 



Eight AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER August, 1926 



Jin Open Letter 

(The following letter is self-explanatory. It represents the views of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers on a subject that has been more or less perennial in 
its interest:) 

On Location 
Care Tom Mix Company 
Glenwood Springs, Colo. 

Editor, American Cinematographer, 

Hollywood, California. 
Dear Mr. Goss: 

My attention has been called to the published reports concern- 
ing a movement afoot in the East to unionize cinematographers. As 
the President of the American Society of Cinematographers, which 
represents the foremost cinematographers in the world, I believe it 
imperative at this time to make known the stand of the A. S. C. in this 
matter. 

As you well know, we do not oppose unions as a matter of policy 
or principle. They are very necessary factors in some industries. In 
the motion picture industry itself, I don't suppose that there is any 
question that the unions have proved the salvation of the calling of 
the projectionists. 

However necessary the union may be in other lines, it has no 
place among cinematographers at this time. I make this statement 
as based on the accumulated wisdom of cinematographers for all 
time past. The idea of a union for cinematographers has come up 
for discussion many times during the decade that the American So- 
ciety of Cinematographers has been serving the industry. Each time 
all logic and reason have proven plainly the fallacy of such a move, 
Aside from the fact that we believe that cinematography is essen- 
tially an art and the cinematographer an artist, we regard his work as 
individual and distinctive to such a degree that it cannot be stereo- 
typed into a set basis for a wage scale, nor do we think that it will 
permit of even an "equitable" arrangement in the form of a sliding 
scale or the like. 

The foregoing represents the views of the American Society of 
Cinematographers. We do not for a moment take the position that 
the millennium has arrived in salaries or working conditions for cine- 
matographers. But we believe that the continued recognition on the 
part of producers of the constructive work that the American So- 
ciety of Cinematographers has been, and is doing, will do much more 
for the benefit of all concerned, than any union could. If and when 
this recognition should fail, then the time might be ripe to talk trade 
unions for cinematographers; but knowing what the A. S. C. is 
achieving for the present and what the magnitude of its plans for the 
future is, I do not think that such a time is imminent in the least. 

Sincerely yours, 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, DANIEL B. CLARK, President, 

Hollywood, California. American Society of Cinematographers. 



August, 1926 



AMERICAN OiMSMATOGRAPHER 



Nine 



Bad Negatives Hurt American Films in Europe 



Adverse Criticism Due 
Largely to Worn-Out Nega- 
tives Received in Germany 



°$ 



World - Famous Cinematog- 
rapher Studies Situation for 
Six Months. Finds Cause 



German indifference or opposition to 
American motion pictures is due largely to 
the dilapidated condition of prints and nega- 
tives when they are received in Germany, is 
the view entertained by Charles Rosher, A. 
S. C, in an article, which appearing in the 
Berlin Lichtbild Buehne, Berlin, has com- 
manded wide attention among the American 
film trade papers. 

In Berlin 

Rosher, famous as chief cinematographer 
on Mary Pickford productions, is at present, 
during the course of Miss Pickford's tour in 
Europe, under contract to Ufa with headquar- 
ters in Berlin. 

Studied Situation 
For the past six months, Rosher has at- 
tended every premier of American, German 
and other motion pictures to be held in Ber- 
lin. It is his observation that the majority of 
negatives which reaches Germany is in such 
deplorable condition that even the most pro- 
ficient of the country's laboratories would be 
unable to reproduce an acceptable print. 

Wear and Tear 

This condition is brought about, Rosher 
believes, by the facts that not only more than 
200 prints are often required for the home 
market, but because, before a negative reaches 
Berlin, it often has been promiscuously used, 
cut, printed and spliced on way points during 
the course of its life in France and England. 
Often, Rosher finds, it is a secondary negative 
which comes to Germany and which has pre- 
viously gone through French and English 
laboratories. 

Must Understand Audience 

''Besides," Rosher continues, "the Ameri- 
can producer knows too little about German 
psychology. If the American industry wants 
to maintain its footing on the German mar- 
ket, every producer who intends to send his 
product to Germany should have a man in his 
studio while the picture is being shot. This 
man would have to be thoroughly acquainted 
with the German psychology. The ideal 



would be a German expert who has lived in 
the United States for a number of years. This 
man would act as an advisor to the director 
and should have even authority to see that cer- 
tain scenes or passages would be filmed in two 
different versions, one to suit the Americans, 
the other catering to the German taste. This 
man should also be able to translate the titles 
into German right in Hollywood, so that mis- 
understandings on the part of Berlin editors 
would be avoided." 

Rosher has observed that American films 
have been absolutely misunderstood and mal- 
treated in their German re-editing. The ex- 
pense connected with the engagement of such 
experts, he says, does not compare with the ad- 
vantages that will accrue on the market not 
only in Germany but in entire central Europe. 

To the German producers who aspire to 
the American market, the noted cinematogra- 
pher gives the similar advice — to have Amer- 
ican advisors not only on the set but, above all, 
in the department in charge of the selection of 
scenarios. 



Offers Cooperation 

Creco, Inc. 

923 Cole Ave. 

Hollywood, Calif. 

July 6th, 1926. 
Mr. Foster Goss, Editor, 
American Cinematographer, 
Guaranty Building, 
Hollywood, California. 

My dear Mr. Goss : 

It was with extreme interest and enthusiasm 
that I read your article in the July issue of the 
American Cinematographer on the establishing of 
an experimental and research laboratory. 

May I say at this time that myself and any 
member of my organization is at the service of the 
A. S. C. and the individual members in an advisory 
capacity, from a lighting or electrical engineering 
angle. 

In all sincerity, 



HS:G 



H. Sylvester. 



±M 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



August, 1926 



Hail Jackman Triumph in 11 The Deiril Horse 11 



A. S. C. Members Realize An- 
other Achievement in Film 
Starring Wild Horse King 



"8? 



Blase New York Critics Doff 
Hats at Excellency of Pro- 
duction Made by Jackmans 



Severe Eastern critics lavished praises on 
another Fred Jackman production when "The 
Devil Horse," made for Hal Roach for Pathe 
release, had its world premiere in New York 
City recently. 

"The Devil Horse," which stars Rex, 
"king of wild horses," was directed by Fred 
W . Jackman, A. S. C, and was photographed 
by Floyd Jackman, A. S. C. The triumph is 
made more complete for the Jackman family 
by virtue of the fact that Master Fred Jack- 
man was accorded the plaudits of the New 
York audiences for the prominent part that 
he essays in the feature. 

Direction, story interest and photography 
alike are praised in the following New York 
reviews which are reprinted in part herewith : 



* * 



Herald-Tribune: 

This picture has been made by a man or 
men with imagination, and there were little 
whimsical touches in it which delighted us. 
For instance, a title was flashed on the screen 
reading, "The news flashed through the wild 
country — the devil horse had captured a 
man!" Then followed a scene where the wild 
horse was being ridden by the hero, while out 
of the grass peeped rabbits and out of the for- 
est peeped wild deer, eyes wide with wonder 
as they crashed back into the woods to carry 
the news to their neighbor: "The Devil 
Horse has captured a man!" 



* * * * 



World : 

Rex, the silver screen stallion, the hand- 
some, big, black horse, the Lionel Barrymore 
of equine dramatics, prances across the white 
sheet in Warners' Wondertheatre this week in 
a cinema written so expertly as to render him 
in his art quite considerably more than human. 
Wherever a good horse with a fine, steady eye, 
a high, rangy head and a barrel of dynamite 
in each leg is loved, Rex will attract and win. 



American : 

Another gifted animal this week holds 
forth at the house usually devoted to Rin-Tin- 
Tin, the wonder dog. And Rinty's own audi- 
ence, fickle and unashamed, doesn't object in 
the slightest. For it is Rex, as "The Devil 
Horse," which stamps impatient feet. 



Evening World : 

"The Devil Horse" is a good deal more 
than a trained animal act photographed. It 
is cleverly and logically constructed drama 
with the human element present in a sub-plot 
that entertains and adds to the major drama 
without interfering with is. 

* * * * 
Times: 

"The Devil Horse" was produced by Hal 
Roach and directed by Fred Jackman. In it 
figures that remarkable horse named Rex, 
which will be remembered as the animal who 
gained no little fame, for what might be 
termed a performance, in the film called "Rex, 
the King of Wild Horses." 

Rex is just as wonderful in "The Devil 

Horse" as he was in the other picture. 

* * # * 

Motion Pictures Today: 

The great horse, Rex, is starred in this 
super-western. Critics are unanimous in say- 
ing that his work is remarkable and busi- 
ness is very good. Fred Jackman directed. 



Charles Clarke, A. S. C, is shooting 
George Melford's production for Fox, en- 
titled "Going Crooked." 



Robert Kurrle, A. S. C, is photographing 
the Fox feature, "The Runt," which is being 
directed by Jack Blystone. 



Barney McGill, A. S. C, is filming the 
latest of the Van Bibber comedies for Fox. 
Robert Kerr is directing. 



r" 



August, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



IDhat It Takes to Be 



Daniel B. Clark, 

A Cmematoqrapher AS .c. 



Pre-requisites of Cinema- 
tographic Calling Out- 
lined by A.S.C. President 



{Editor's Note— The following story was written by 
Daniel B. Clark, president of the American Society of 
Cinematographers, for the HOLLYWOOD MAGA- 
ZINE, by special permission of which it is reprinted 
here:) 

Hollywood is not only the mecca for thou- 
sands who would achieve fame as players on 
the screen but, records of the American Soci- 
ety of Cinematographers show, this commun- 
ity is becoming the magnet for scores of others 
who aspire success as cinematographers — or 
cameramen — with the various motion picture 
studios. 

Photographic triumphs in releases of the 
past two years have engendered interest in the 
cinematographer to a remarkable degree with 
the result that there has arisen a countless 
number throughout the world that would 
emulate the accomplishments of filmdom's 
most celebrated cinematographers. Every 
week brings its quota of inquiries to the Amer- 
ican Society of Cinematographers, seeking in- 
formation as to how and where to learn to be a 
cinematographer. 

Without going into the situation that the 
supply of even the recognized cinematogra- 
phers — with years of experience and success- 
ful productions to their credit — greatly ex- 
ceeds the demand, it might be said that the ace 
cinematographer stands as a combination of 
diversified qualities, including those of the 
artist, the chemist, the mechanic and the stu- 
dent of human nature. 

The artistic is probably the dominant note 
in the success of the cinematographer. In the 
artistic lies the basis of presenting the subject 
in a visually pleasing manner. The cinemato- 
grapher with artistic ability does not worry if 
a subject lacks beautiful qualities. The ex- 
perience that is peculiar to him teaches him 
that after all "art" is not "what" but "how." 
As proof of this, the homliest sandpile, the flat- 
est landscape, or, on the other hand, the most 
irregular features can be made, by thought- 
ful treatment, beautiful to look upon. How- 
ever, that which we term as artistic ability 
has no value at all unless the possessor has a 
balance of judgment of how, when and where 
to use it. 

This brings us to the all-important matter 
of composition which in itself is of sufficient 
proportions to cover a cinematographic treat- 



ise. By composition, it is possible to express 
a definite thought, or designate a certain spot 
to which the path of the eye is to travel, there 
to halt for the action that is to take place. In 
fact, by being a master of composition, the 
cinematographer, in the proper use of lights 
which is his forte, often can make what is a 
negligible piece of acting appear as a master 
performance, to the agreeable surprise of di- 
rector, actor and all concerned. 

Because he must be familiar with the ex- 
posure and development of motion picture 
film, the cinematographer must have, briefly, 
a working knowledge of chemistry, so that he 
may intelligently correct his lens exposures 
and arrive at the point of perfection. 

His mechanical ability asserts itself in the 
actual manipulation of the delicate instru- 
ment called the camera. The slightest vibra- 
tion or mechanical imperfection in the camera 
might well make the finished film display fig- 
ures who jumped instead of walked across the 
screen, since each fallacy in the negative pic- 
ture, which is little more than an inch square, 
is magnified many times when it is thrown on 
the screen. In short, he must conquer all the 
intricate ramifications of the camera mechan- 
ism before he can lay the most elementary 
claim to being a cinematographer. 

Being a student of human nature is a very 
important factor in the calling of the cinema- 
tographer. All human beings have certain 
characteristics, and these must be portrayed 
on the screen. Some of these characteristics 
are visible on the countenance and in human 
actions, and some are invisible. In the por- 
trayal of a character, cinematographically, it 
often is necessary to eliminate the visible and 
reveal the invisible, either by adaptation of 
light or by any other of the things which are a 
part of the cinematographer's stock in trade. 
It is only by knowing his subject thoroughly 
from a human interest standpoint that the 
cinematographer can decide upon just what 
treatment to use in a given case. 

So it is that many intangible matters go in 
making up the profession of the cinematogra- 
pher. He must be equipped with a sort of 
sixth sense as to how to make a certain scene 
superior, photographically, but his decision 
must at the same time be based on sound judg- 



(Continued on Page 18) 



Twelve 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



August, 1926 




Victor Milner, A. S. C, is working hard 
as chief cinematographer on Paramount's 
production of "Kid Boots" which is starring 
Eddie Cantor. E. Burton Steene, A. S. C, 
is photographing the Akeley camera shots 
for the production. Lengthy location trips on 
"Kid Boots" hold no terrors for Steene who 
has augmented his cinematographic equip- 
ment with modern seven-league-boots in the 
form of a powerful Marmon roadster with 
which to cover maximum distances with a 
minimum ticking of the clock. What with 
Milner's Lincoln, the new Marmon, all of 
Steene's cameras and lenses, not to mention 
Milner's auxiliary Ford, does not this make a 
high-powered pair of cinematographers? 



* * 



Harold Wenstrom, A. S. C, is filming 
"Just Off Broadway, starring Corinne Grif- 
fith. 



* * 



George Benoit, A. S. C, is photographing 
"Pals in Paraside," a Metropolitan produc- 
tion directed by George Seitz. Marguerite 
de la Motte, John Bowers and Rudolph 
Schildkraut are featured. Two weeks will 
be spent on location at Lake Arrowhead. 



* * * * 



Glen MacWilliqms, A. S. C, is photo- 
graphing "The Return of Peter Grimm," the 
Fox production of the David Warfield suc- 
cess. Victor Schertzinger is directing. 



* * * * 



Bert Glennon, A. S. C, is filming Pola 
Negri in "Hotel Imperial," a Paramount pro- 
duction. 



Dan Clark, A. S. C, is still holding forth 
in Colorado where Tom Mix, for whom 
Clark is chief cinematographer, is making the 
Fox production, "The Great K. and A. Train 
Robbery." Clark reports that he had never 
known that there were so many camera angles 
on a train. He has photgoraphed from the 
top of the train, from the side, front, rear, 
straight-up and endwise. So, Clark writes, 
he thinks that he has about covered the train, 
while the train, through the co-operation of its 
big-hearted coal-burning engine, has recipro- 
cated by covering Clark, camera and crew 
with an abundance of soot and grime. 



* * 



* * 



Sol Polito, A. S. C, has completed the 
photographing of "Ride Him Cowboy/' star- 
ring Ken Maynard for First National release. 

* * * * 

Gilbert Warrenton, A. S. C, is photo- 
graphing Universal's "Taxi, Taxi," starring 
Edward Everett Horton. 

* * * * 

Walter Griffin, A. S. C, is shooting "Rose 
of the Bowery," a David Hartford produc- 
tion. 

* * * * 

Charles Van Enger, A. S. C, has returned 
to Hollywood from New York City. Van En- 
ger is under contract to film First National 

productions. 

* * * * 

Ross Fisher, A. S. C, is filming "The 
Lone Hand," starring Fred Thomson at the 

F. B. O. studios. 

* * # * 

Norbert Brodin, A. S. C, is chief cinema- 
tographer on "Eagle of the Sea," Frank 
Lloyd's first production for Famous Players- 
Lasky. 



Abe Fried, A. S. C, is back in Hollywood David Abel, A. S. C, is photographing 

from Canadian locations where he filmed "My Official Wife," a Warner Bros, produc- 

scenes for Fox' "The Country Beyond," di- tion. Irene Rich and Conway Tearle head the 

rected by Irving Cummings. cast. 



August, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Thirteen 



But logical 

It's but logical to agree that for 
correct rendering of colors in black 
and white tones, you need film that 
is completely color sensitive. 

So it's but logical to use Eastman 
Panchromatic Negative. 

Sensitive to all colors — blue, red, 
yellow, green — it enables you to 
keep them all in the negative in their 
true monochrome relationship. 



Write for the booklet "Eastman Panchromatic Neg- 
ative Film for Motion Pictures". Properties, uses, 
handling, development of the film are described. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN C INE M AT OGR APHER 



August, 1926 



BELL & HOWELL CAMERAS 

—another way of saying" Photographic Excellence and Flexibility " 



On Location 
with the B & H 
Pioneer Standard 



and 




AUTOMATIC 

One of the First 
National producing 
units on location in 
Long Pine, Califor- 
nia; using Bell and 
Howell Cameras to 
film "Senor Dare- 
devil." 




GROWING -Right along with the Industry 



This, in a few words, sums up 
reasons for the present almost ex- 
clusive use of Bell & Howell cam- 
eras by the foremost Motion Pic- 
ture Producers the world over. 

Bell & Howell pioneered with the 
industry. The first B. & H. Cam- 
eras, made 19 years ago, more than 
answered the limited requirements 
of those early days. As exactions 
grew, Bell & Howell kept pace, 




Ey emo 



Automatic 
Standard Camera 



usually anticipating new effects and 
aiding in all forms of motion pic- 
ture standardization. 

Many of the original Bell & 
Howell Cameras are still in use. 
Interchangeable detail parts and 
basically patented pilot register 
movement have kept them con- 
stantly up to date. A B. & H. 
Camera may become old, but never 
obsolete. 

And now, still growing with 
the industry, Bell & Howell have 
perfected EYEMO, the automatic 
professional standard camera op- 
erated while held in the hand. For 
news reel, stunt shots, special ef- 
fects, and as a means to get quick- 
breaking pictures in a hurry, 
EYEMO is the wonder of the day. 
Already you find it on nearly 
every lot, along with its bigger 
brother, the B. & H. Pioneer 
Standard. 



Bell A Howell Company 

6324 Santa Uonloa Boulevard 

Hollywood, California 



When tola "Infant Industry" of oura 
grows up, I have no doubt It will etlll bo using 
Boll 4 Howell oameraa. That's because you axe grow- 
ing right along with It: 

Wo used tbe S.A H. whllo as vara asking 
"Sonor Daredevil " for Cbaa. R. Rogore. We bad a lot 
of very dlffloult looatlon work at Lone Pino, wbere 
men and oamerSB had to hare enduranoe and dependability 
— In other words, had to "otand the gaff ." That, as 
observed, was where Bell 4 Howsll ebons. Of course, 
the fine work It does la an axloa among elasBstograpnora. 







The World's Standard 

B. &f H. Professional 

PIONEER 



Write for Descriptive 
EYEMO Circular. 




BELL & HOWELL CO. 

1805 Larchmont Ave., CHICAGO, ILL. 

New York Hollywood London 

Est a t U ihi d 19 07 




Displays at Our 

Hollywood, New York 
and Chicago Offices. 



■ktw 



August, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRA P HER 



Fifteen 



Editors Enter 

motion Pictures 



*$ 



A. S. C. Makes Official Film 
of Industry's Entertainment 
of Editors of United States 



By special arrangements conducted by the 
American Society of Cinematographers, an 
official motion picture was made of the Span- 
ish luncheon given at the Writers Club, Hol- 
lywood, on July 6th, to delegates to the con- 
vention of the National Editorial Association 
by the Association of Motion Picture Produc- 
ers, on behalf of the film industry as a while. 

Industry as Hosts 

The luncheon was a highlight in the pic- 
ture profession's reception of the visiting edi- 
tors who came to Los Angeles from every sec- 
tion of the United States. Scores of film- 
dom's celebrities acted as hosts to the editors 
and their families during the course of the oc- 
casion, which was especially marked by 
speeches delivered by Will H. Hays, Rupert 
Hughes and Donald Ogden Stewart. 

In Charge of Filming 

The American Society of Cinematograph- 
ers sponsored the making of the film of all the 
official proceedings. King Gray, A. S. C, and 
Reginald Lyons, A. S. C, were the cinema- 
tographers in charge of photography. 

Lightning Speed 

By record-making work, supervised by the 
A. S. C, the editors were enabled to view 
themselves on the screen within six hours after 
they had been photographed. 

Lyons and Gray completed the actual 
photographing in the middle of the afternoon, 
and the negative was rushed to the Cinema- 
graph Laboratories where it was developed 
in despatch time. 

Claude C. Baldridge, superintendent of 
Cinemagraph, handled the developing and 
printing. Titles for the film were written and 
a form of continuity was devised by theAmer- 



ican Cinematographers editorial staff, which 
likewise, in co-operation with Baldridge, exe- 
cuted the editing of the finished film. The 
positive titles were photographed by the Jac- 
obsmeyer Company and were delivered simul- 
taneously with the drying of the positive. The 
print was immediately taken to Grauman's 
Egyptian theatre where, following the over- 
ture, the assembled editors were given the sur- 
prise of viewing themselves on the screen as 
they appeared before the camera on the same 
afternoon. 

No Prior Arrangements 

The feat is especially outstanding in view 
of the fact that no pre-arrangements had been 
made for the rapid making of the print. The 
request for the film to show to the editors on 
the same night came after photographing of 
the affair had already begun, and arrange- 
ments were effected by the representatives of 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
before the exposures had been completed. 

Numerous Scenes 

Among the scenes, which were projected 
before the editors at the Egyptian, were those 
of Rod La Rocque and Donald Crisp con- 
gratulating Herman Roe, newly elected presi- 
dent of the National Editorial Association; 
Ramon Novarro, Lionel Barrymore and other 
stars in similar scenes with eminent editors; 
Will H. Hays, Governor Richardson of Cali- 
fornia, and Fred Beetson felicitating the new- 
ly elected officers of the editors; shots of Will 
Hays while making the principal speech of 
the day; a scene of Rupert Hughes delivering 
his address; Fred Beetson, secretary of the 
Association of Motion Picture Producers, in- 
troducing the scores of stars to the gathering 
of the editors; and various scenes of the edi- 
tors and their families on the Writers Club 
grounds. 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOQRAPHER 



August, 1926 



PROJECTION + Conducted by Earl J. Denison 



Progress in 
Projection 



•« 



American Projection Society 
Great Benefit to Industry. 
Q| How to Thwart Fire Hazard 



This writer recently had the pleasure of 
addressing the members of the American Pro- 
jection Society at their club rooms in New' 
York City. The subject was "Proper Splic- 
ing, Care and Handling of Film," with some 
remarks regarding projection in general. The 
membership of the American Projection Soci- 
ety is made up of the foremost projectionists 
in New York City and the vicinity and after 
talking to them for about two hours I learned 
that they are a progressive and up-to-date 
body of projectionists who know their busi- 
ness thoroughly. This fact was brought out 
by the pertinent questions asked after the lec- 
ture was over. I was told that mine was the 
57th address made before the Society and no 
doubt they have heard 57 varieties on the sub- 
ject of projection. 

Progress 

This is indeed an age of progress in the 
motion picture industry. Everything points 
to this fact; better pictures, better photogra- 
phy, better condition of film, (as served by 
the exchanges, better equipment, better pro- 
jection, better working conditions, better satis- 
fled audiences. 

For Improvement 

However, there is one thing that I firmly 
believe could show immediate improvement 
and that is the care and handling of film by 
the projectionists in the theatres. Punch 
marking of film by projectionists has practic- 
ally been eradicated but there is still consider- 
able unnecessary damage done to the film 
through careless handling and splicing by the 
projectionist. 

Proof 

The average projectionist will not agree 
with the writer on this statement, but a trip 
through the film exchanges, when the inspec- 
tors are examining and repairing film, will 
conclusively prove the above statement to be 
true. As long as film comes in contact with 



steel projectors the film will suffer damage. 
Manufacturers and distributors of motion 
picture film expect a reasonable amount of 
wear and tear on the film but a great deal of 
unnecessary damage could be eliminated at 
once through more careful handling. 

When new installations are made in a pro- 
jection room, or additions to the present equip- 
ment, each piece of apparatus should be care- 
fully selected for that particular installation 
in order that screen results will be of a high 
standard. Such equipment should include a 
proper and separate receptacle for scrap film, 
a separate receptacle for oil rags or waste, a 
separate receptacle for waste paper, and a 
separate receptacle for carbon stubs. 

Each receptacle should be plainly marked 
so there will be no danger of mixing film with 
paper, etc. 

Fire Hazard 

The above leads us to one of the most 
important subjects of the entire film industry; 
that is the ever present fire hazard. Of all 
the branches of the motion picture industry 
projection constitutes the greatest fire hazard 
with the possibility of the greatest loss of life 
and property. This is true because only in 
projection does the film come in contact with 
intense heat and every precautionary method 
known should be strictly applied at all times 
to keep the fire hazard to an absolute mini- 
mum. 

Extinguishers 

Each projection room should be equipped 
with fire extinguishers and so located that 
they are in easy reach at all times but the fire 
extinguisher is of no use unless it is kept 
charged. Although fire extinguishers may 
have never been used, they should be in- 
spected and recharged at least every six 
months. In addition to the fire extinguishers, 
each projection room should contain at least 
one bucket of sand and one bucket of water, 






August, 1926 



AMERICAN CINBM ATOGR APHER 



Seventeen 



Better Projection 

Pays 



International Projector Corporation 



90 Gold Street, New York, N. Y. 



SIMPLEX POWER'S ACME 

Motion Picture Projectors 



using the standard round bottom fire buckets 
and buckets plainly marked showing contents. 
These buckets should be hung side by side on 
standard wall fire hooks about four feet from 
the floor in the most accessible location. 

The average projectionist has neither time 
nor facilities for experimental and research 
work but a careful and intelligent reading of 
the projection and technical departments in 
the trade papers and the transactions of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers, (S. M. 
P. E.), will be found well worth while, and a 
consistent reading of the above mentioned 
trade papers and transactions by all projec- 
tionists should result in marked improvement 
in projection generally. 



Camera Craft and 
American Cinematographer 

May be had on Clubbing offers — 
Consult them. 



Poor Projection Beats Off 

Theatre Patronage, Says James 

Writing in his characteristically forceful 
and original vein, Arthur James, in the July 
17th issue of Motion Pictures Today, of 
which he is editor, decries the "business" 
complex that permits poor projection which, 
he suggests, really kills business. James' edi- 
torial follows : 

If you were privileged to view a sublime 
masterpiece contrived by a genius in art and 
before you looked at the canvas you smeared 
your eyeglasses with butter, would you be get- 
ting the most out of your opportunity? 

This question arises in our minds as a re- 
sult of recent visits to smaller theatres, some in 
New York suburbs and others in lesser cities 
where the pictures were good pictures but be- 
cause of poor projection, the entertainment 
value of the offerings was reduced by more 
than fifty per cent. In some cases the too 
rapid running and the bad lighting turned en- 
tertainment into irritation and we saw people 
leave the theatres and overheard their expres- 
sions of dissatisfaction. In the larger theatres 
where so many of us see the pictures we have 



Eighteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRA P H E R 



August, 1926 



< Continued from Page 17) 



so come to expect fine projection that we al- 
most take it as a matter of course. 

Is there in this day of advanced excellence 
in the mechanical devices available and the 
almost fool proof machinery, really any ex- 
cuse for poor projection? Only a short sighted 
policy will permit a theatre manager to abuse 
the eyesight and infringe on the patience of 
his customers. 

Projection is so much an essential part of 
the entertainment value of motion pictures 
that showmen have every business incentive 
for being liberal in their expenditures for 
equipment and careful in their choice of ap- 
paratus. We are convinced that this is not 
only wisdom in business judgment but a mat- 
ter of actual necessity if a theatre is to retain 
its patrons and meet the theatre competition 
that is bound to enter a field not properly 
served. 

Every theatre in the land should be so 
equipped that perfect screen service is un- 
varying. There should be safeguarding 
against all contingencies and protection for 
all emergencies. This is the showman's es- 
sential cooperation in the entertainment of his 
audiences. 

A medium picture projected so that the 
beauties of its photography are evident is bet- 
ter than the finest picture masterpiece so 
poorly put on that the customers are an- 
noyed. 

We believe the day is not far off when the 
public will stay away from theatres that have 
poor projection and we can't say that the 
blame will rest with the public. They know 
now what good projection is and they are not 
slow to place the responsibility where it be- 
longs — on the shortsighted or careless man- 
ager. 



(Continued from page 11) 



ment and experience — and the latter includes 
experiments. Very often the cinematogra- 
pher finds it necessary to disregard his artistic 
urge when, to give vent to it, would mean 
hundreds of dollars of additional expenditure 
to his company. The recognized cinematog- 
rapher is ever on the outlook to effect econo- 
mies in production, and, as a matter of fact, he 
has perfected his art to the degree where, 
through the progress of cinematography as a 
whole, thousands of dollars are saved in the 
film industry each year. Thus it is that the 



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(Continued on page 19.) 



SUBSCRIBE 

FOR THE 

American 
Cinematoqrapher 



mm 



August, 1926 



AMERICAN CIN E M AT O GR APHB R 



Nineteen 



cinematographer, least of all film people, can 
not be temperamental for his profession calls 
for unfailing, mature deliberation and judg- 
ment. 

In short, while the cinematographer must 
be somewhat a jack-of-all-trades, he must be, 
to vary the old proverb in a paradoxical way, 
a master of one — and that is cinematography. 
While as yet it is not generally admitted that 
a cinematographer can "make" a picture, it is 
well stipulated that he can "break" it. And if 
there is no royal road to learning, surely there 
is less of such a highway to the destination of 
becoming an "ace" cinematographer who has 
little or no precedent to guide him, but who 
must literally conjure his calling from the 
university of hard knocks, better known as the 
field of experience. 



Photograph Explosion From Air 
Amid Bursting Shots and Shells 



Risking their lives in the attempt, John A. 
Brockhorst and M. A. Baron, International 
Newsreel cinematographer and still man, 
photographed, from an aeroplane flying at an 
exceedingly low altitude, the scene of the ar- 
senal explosion at Lake Denmark, N. J. 

During the course of their flight, maga- 
zines were still bursting and shells were still 
peppering the winds. 

Photographic records obtained by Brock- 
horst and Baron proved of great service to 
Army and Navy authorities in locating the 
exploded magazines, those which were on fire 
and those where there was a possibility of sav- 
ing life and surrounding property. 

It was not until International Newsreel's 
serial pictures of the disaster were hurried to 
Dover did those in command of the "battle 
front" have any clear idea of just what maga- 
zines were burning and which were still likely 
to fall victims to the flames, with the result- 
ing danger of more terrific explosions. 

At dawn Brockhorst and Baron flew over 
the scene of destruction and made pictures of 
the disaster from the air. 

That was the only point from which it 

(Continued on Page 2 4) 



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Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



August, 1926 



Junior Cameramen Elect New 

President; Club in Active Month 

David Ragin has been elected president of 
the Junior Cameramen's Club to succeed 
Gregg Toland who has resigned due to a pro- 
longed absence in New York City where he is 
assistant cinematographer to Arthur Edeson, 
A. S. C, who is photographing First National 
productions. 

Other officers of the organization are Bur- 
nett Guffy, vice president; Joseph McDonald, 
second vice president; Robert Laprelle, third 
vice president; Ira Hoke, secretary; and Ro- 
land Piatt, treasurer. The board of directors 
includes Max Cohen, K. F. Green, Gregg To- 
land, and William Reinhold. 

Hold Dinner 

During the past month, John R. Marshall 
was admitted to membership. Marshall was 
initiated at a dinner given by the Junior Cam- 
eramen's Club at the Piccadilly, Hollywood, 
on the evening of July 8th. 

The dinner was the first of a series of so- 
cial affairs that the club will stage in addition 
to its regular activities. Among those who at- 
tended were Robert Laprelle of the Warner 
Bros, studios; Burnett Guffy and Clifford 
Shirpser of the C. B. De Mille Studios; Ed- 
die Cohen and Ira Hoke of the First Na- 
tional Studios; K. F. Green of the Hollywood 
Studios; and Bill Margolis, Dave Ragin, An- 
thony Urgin, Red Marshall, Hatto Tappen- 
beck and Frank Powlony of the Fox Studios. 

^ News Notes of Junior Cameramen's Club 
Gregg Toland, ex-president of the Junior 
Cameramen's Club, is sojourning in New 
York. He has been there for three months 
and expects to stay three more. He is assist- 
ing Arthur Edeson, A. S. C, in the filming of 
First National productions in the East. 
* * * 

Max Cohen returned from a trip to Jas- 
per National Park, Alberta, Canada, with 
Abe Fried, A. S. C. They made exteriors 
there for the Fox production, "The Land Be- 
yond." The Canadian Pacific Railroad was 
unbale to supply the baggage car needed by 
Max to bring back all the bottles ordered by 
the gang, and not wanting to disappoint the 
boys entirely he brought back labels from the 
empties that would have been full had the 
necessary transportation been provided. Ques- 
tion? Who made the full ones empty? 



Behind the praise 

of the critic — 

WHEN a critic applauds skilful 
photography, what does his praise 
mean? He may not know it — but it means 
praise of the cinematographer's instinct 
for distinctive, artistic treatment. And his 
genius for getting that treatment trans- 
lated into film via camera and lighting 
effects. 

One reason why such praise has been 
frequent is that Cooper Hewitt light has 
made it possible to carry out unusual 
lighting ideas. Our service department, 
of course, is always ready to help you. 
Just ask for "Mike" Shannon. 




COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office — 7207 Santa Monica Blvd. 
KEESE ENGINEERING CO., John T. "Mike" Shannon, Mgr. 

14'. ©C. H. E. Co.. 1926 



Roy 
Film Laboratories 

The Little Laboratory 
with the Big Reputation 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
HOLLYWOOD 1944 




l/ALTER J. VAN ROSSEM 

6049 Hollywood Blvd. 
Phone Holly 725 



Commercial Photogi^phy 

Still Devdopind and Printing 
bHoiaCoraaas-FOR. RENT— Still 




August, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-on' 



Ira Hoke is representing John W. Boyle, 
A. S. C, in the use of the combination Akeley- 
Bell Howell camera designed by Boyle. His 
latest engagement for Boyle is with Von Stro- 
heim's production, "The Wedding March." 
Boyle's invention makes possible the filming 
of a regular Akeley closeup at the same time 
that a straight scene with the Bell and Howell 
is made. Hoke is being assisted by Cliff 
Shirpser, also a member of the Junior Cam- 
eramen's Club. 

* * * 

Jack Marta and Bill Margolis have shed 
the "tin derbies" they wore all through "What 
Price Glory" where they ably backed Barney 
McGill, A. S. C, the chief cinematographer. 



now 



Explains North Pole Close-up 

in Official Byrd Motion Picture 

The element of mystery that is suggested 
as to the taking of scenes wherein Lieut. Com. 
Byrd is shown, in the North Pole flight films, 
making his instrument calculations on the ter- 
rain, is explained in an opinion ventured by 
Jerry Phillips, who, a well known aviator of 
Hollywood, has piloted numerous cinematog- 
raphers in photographic aerial expeditions. 

The mystery that occurs to cinematogra- 
phy students relative to the Byrd official films 
is simply: who could have been the cinema- 
tographer of the scenes in question if Floyd 
Bennett, the sole other occupant of the plane, 
was busy at his task as pilot in the dash to and 
over the Pole, especially in view of the fact 
that the camera used was not independently or 
electrically driven? 

"It is possible," according to Phillips, 
"that Bennett left the controls of his Fokker 
plane long enough to shoot the particular 
scene in question, in order that we might have 
a record of it for all posterity. Evidently the 
air conditions were ideal as the pictures indi- 
cate no jerkiness which would be attendant 
were the air 'bumpy.' This is the primary 
reason why the pilot was able to allow his ship 
a brief moment in which to keep its own 
course. When a pilot leaves his controls he 
must be able to sense the exact moment at 
which he must again take his ship in hand — 
or it really will not matter after all. 

"While the world is acclaiming the Byrd 
flight as an example of that courage which 
makes aviation possible, it likewise is an out- 
standing example of the courage which makes 



60 



Announcing a new price, 
made possible by $i 
increasing inter- 
est in this Re- 
markable 
Speed 
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We 

also make 

RADAR F : .'! r . 
Anastigmat (M. P.) 
as well as RADAR Tele- 
photo Anastigmat F:5.6 and 
a complete line of high-grade 
cameras and lenses for the still stu- 
dio. Write for our complete catalogue 



UNDLACH-MANHATTAN OPTICAL CO. 

900 Olinton So., Rochester, N. T. 



Subscribe to 

American 
Cinematographer 



4 in. Iris Combination and Sunshade 

Trueball Tripod Head 

FRED HOEFNER 

Cinema and Experimental Work 

S319 Santa Monica Blvd. (rear) 
GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Cal. 



SCHEIBE'S PHOTO-FILTER SPECIALTIES 

Are now popular from coast to coast, and in 
some foreign countries. 

If my many varieties do not always fill the bill, 
tell me your wants and I will make them on special 
order. 

Always at your service. 

GEO. H. SCHEIBE 

1636 Lemoyne St. Dunkirk 4975 Los Angeles, Cal. 



Foa RENT 



BELL - HOWELL 

AND 

AKELEY CAMERAS 

With or Without Cameramen 



SEIDEN CAMERA EXCHANGE 

729 Seventh Ave. N.YC. 

Bryant 395 1 



Wire us 

for any 

New York Scenes 

you may need 

Prices 
Reasonable 



CLUBBING OFFER 

Subscribed for separately. Camera Craft 
and the American Cinematographer will cost 
a total of $4.50 per year. As a special clubbing 
offer, both magazines may be had at a total 
price of $3.40 per year. 

American Cinematoqrapher 

1219 20 21-22 Guaranty Bldq. 
Hollywood, Calif. 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHBR 



August, 1926 






cinematography possible. The courage of the 
cinematographer is admired by no one more 
than the aviator himself. Pilots universally 
recognize the sterling spirit which brings 
back pictures such as those taken by Byrd's 
expedition. We only wish that the public 
would be of the same discerning trend." 



Amateur Cinematography 



(Continued from page 7) 



This gives you time to cut off the light of your 
projector, either by clapping your hand over 
the projection lens, or by closing the safety 
shutter. You will then have ended the show- 
ing of your pictures without the distracting 
white flare of the projector light appearing on 
the screen. 

Be sure to keep your films free from dust 
and keep them flexible. The best way to do 
this is to keep them in the Kodascope humidor 
film cans. Keep the blotter in the bottom of 
the can moist, and this will assure your films 
being flexible. It also keeps your films free 
from dust. 



Simple Filing System Given 

to Identify Amateur Films 

A simple way to label the Kodascope four 
hundred foot humidor cans is by the use of 
white adhesive tape. This adhesive tape ad- 
heres easily to the polished surface of the hu- 
midor can and is permanent. 

Secure some white adhesive tape one-half 
inch wide. Cut a strip of the tape about four 
inches long, and place it on the roller of a 
typewriter. Type the number of the reel and 
its title upon the tape. The tape is then re- 
moved from the typewriter roller, and affixed 
to the side of the humidor can. By so placing 
the tape on the side of the humidor can, it is 
easily read when there is a stack of such cans. 

This method of labeling the Kodascope 
humidor cans affords ready reference to the 
number and title of the reel. It also has the 
advantage that the adhesive tape label may be 
removed quickly should it be necessary to 
change the number and title of the reel. 



The 



New DeVry Movie Camera 

at the 

DEVRY AGENCY 
Educational Project-O Film Company 

218 American Bank Bldg. 
1X9 W. Second St., Los Angeles • Phone VA. 8228 



FOR RENT! 

MITCHELL and BELL & HOWELL 

CAMERAS 

F 2. 3. - F. 2. 7. - F. 3. 5. Lenses 
40-50-75 M. M. 

COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 

J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 North Orange St. 
Phone Glendale 3361-W Glendale, California 



CRECO 



Follow 

PROJECTION 

and 

Amateur Cinematography 

in the 

American Cinematographer 





HARRY 


D. 


BROWN 




Cinema Stu 


dios 


Supply Corp. 


1438 


Beachwood Drive 


- 


HOIIy 0513 


Brown-Asheraft 
Studio Lamps 




HOIIy 0514 

Carbons, and Other 

Studio Equipment 



August, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-three 



JXexo Photographic Process is Launched 



Two Negatives Filmed at Once 
But Record Embodied in Sin- 
gle Negative. <JNo Duplicates 



It 



Claim that Studio Shots May 
Be Incorporated with Any 
Background. ^ Shadows Shown 



D 



ETAILS of the system of cinematography, known as the "Handschiegl Process," were 
announced this month by Max Handschiegl, inventor, and Ray Smallwood, well known 
director, who has acquired production rights to the process. 



By means of the Handschiegl system, 
which is covered by a number of patents the 
first of which was filed in January, 1923, ac- 
tion taken in a studio in Hollywood can be 
made to appear naturally against a back- 
ground photographed any place in the world. 

Results Shown 
In a series of preliminary tests illustrat- 
ing the possibilities of the process, which is 
already being put to use in professional pro- 
duction, a shot of an actress in Hollywood is 
identically carried through a long range of 
backgrounds, running through forest fires, 
scenes in the South American mountain coun- 
try, European village scenes, etc. 

Dissolves 
These various backgrounds follow each 
other in regular sequence as well as dissolv- 
ing from one to the other. 

Stock Shots 
All of the backgrounds in question were 
ordinary "stock" shots and were not made 
with the particular use in view to which they 
were put. The process was also applied to 
still picture backgrounds, such stills being 
used as those from "Camille" with Nazimova 
and Valentino appearing therein. 

Production Cost Reduction 
The process is advocated by its sponsors 
as reducing production costs to a major de- 
gree. According to Handschiegl, stock shots 
may be utilized to the extent, for instance, of 
using formal ballroom scenes and, by intro- 
ducing new and atmospheric action in the 
foreground or wherever needed, converting 
them into a carbaret sequence. It is also 
claimed that characters photographed by the 
process in Hollywood can be made, on the 
screen, to walk among the crowds at Fifth 
avenue and Broadway, New York City, or in 
a similarly difficult location. 

Shadows Shown 



"air-cushion" effect to their treading on the 
ground. This is due in a great degree, it is 
said, to the fact that natural shadows fall from 
the players no matter what is the background 
against which they are appearing. 

Ordinary Projection 
No special type of projection is required 
for the invention, ordinary projection meth- 
ods sufficing. 

Technical Facts 

The technical description of the process is 
as follows : 

Mask Made 

The characters and action in question are 
shot on two negatives against a blue or a black 
background. A mask is made by the special 
development of one of the negatives. By em- 
ploying suitable filters, the mask negative is 
made white and the other negative is made 
black. 

Single Negative 
When the mask has been made, an optical 
printing machine is brought in use; by this 
means the developed negative is placed in 
front of the other negative which, though un- 
developed, has the same image; and the un- 
developed picture is thereby masked with the 
developed negative. Whereupon any back- 
ground may be photographed around the lat- 
ent image — these backgrounds including stock 
shots, still pictures, oil paintings, miniatures, 
etc., thereby putting all the completed work 
on the original negative. In other words, no 
"dupe" film is used, but the entire record is 
embodied in the single negative. 

One Operation 

The camera which takes the two negatives 
is of Handschiegl's own device. The two 
negatives are both taken in perfect registra- 
tion, and in the same operation. 

Handschiegl is a prominent inventor in 
motion picture circles. -lis creations include 



A feature of the process is the naturalness color methods, and various types of machin- 
with which the characters walk. There is no ery for motion picture use. 



Twenty four 



AMERICAN CINE MAT O GRAPHER 



August, 192G 



(Continued on Pa&'e 10) 



really could be comprehensively pictured. 
Those on the ground were wholly unable to 
approach closely, because of the danger from 
bursting shells and shrapnel. 

Officers in command were in complete ig- 
norance of the extent of the disaster. They 
did not know what to expect next. Captain 
R. L. Berry of the navy learned that an Inter- 
national Newsreel cinematographer had 
flown over the "battle front." 

He immediately got in touch with the 
newsreel's officials and asked that copies of the 
motion pictures and still photographs be 
rushed with all possible speed to Dover, where 
Brigadier General Hugh Drum, Admiral 
Plunkett and other officers waited to inspect 
them. An official navy car, carrying Lieuten- 
ant Gunnell, U. S. N., was dispatched to the 
Park Place station of the Hudson Tubes in 
Newark where S. H. Macean, news editor of 
International Newsreel, met it with a com- 
plete copy of the motion pictures and a pro- 
jector, together with enlargements from the 
still picture negatives. 

MacKean was accompanied on the trip by 
Captain Walter H. Wells of Governor's 
Island, representing the army. The distance 
from Newark to Dover was covered in record 
time. 

A Marine on the running board waved all 
other cars off the road and despite heavy traf- 
fic the Navy car went through without a stop. 

At Dover it was learned that General 
Drum had entered the reservation with other 
officers and the ride was resumed to the main 
gate of the arsenal, two miles within the line 
of troops. 

The car promptly was passed and the pic- 
tures rushed over shell-torn roads to the 
"front," where General Drum was found in 
company with Captain Sayle, Captain Berry 
and others. In an impromptu "theatre," to 
the roar and whistle of exploding shells, sur- 
rounded by acres of trees laid flat, wrecked 
automobiles and shattered buildings, the offic- 
ers eagerly studied the pictorial record that 
gave the information so eagerly desired. 

From these pictures conclusions were 
drawn which enabled the officers in command 
to say with some certainty just how much dan- 
ger remained of further explosions. General 
Drum and all of the officers concerned ex- 
pressed to International Newsreel their thanks 
and congratulations on its enterprise. 




WHETHER for in- 
terior or outdoor 
shots, Zeiss Lens equip- 
ment on your camera 
insures results. No 
matter how thorough 
your methods, how 
good your lighting or 
how elaborate your 
settings, the Sinai re- 
sult will be better — 
whenever and where- 
ever Zeiss Lenses are 
employed. 



CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

153 West 23rd St. 
New York 
[Formerly H. M. Bennett} 



A NEW LENS 

"That has made good" 

Large aperture F:2.3. To a large extent responsi- 
ble for the Bas-relief, or solid appearance of th« 
subject on the screen. 

Good definition over the entire field, yet not harsh 
or wiry. 

A portrait lens In short focal lengths 

40mm, 50mm, 75mm, with full closing diaphragm. 

Price is reasonable 

40mm $50.09 

50mm SO.OO 

75mm 55.O0 

A trial will be satisfying 

ASTRO-GESELLSCHAFT, mbh., Berlin 

FOR SALE BY 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. - - Los Angeles, Calif. 



August, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-five 



CLASSIFIED 

ADVERTISING 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge 
one dollar per insertion. 

All copy must be prepaid and must reach us 
before the 15th of the month preceding publication. 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

American Cinematographer, 

1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, California 



WANTED: CAMERAS 



WANTED: MOTION PICTl RE CAMERA 



AKELEY Camera Outfit. State price and equipment. 

Roos, Bank of New South Wales, George Street, 
Australia, N. S. W. 

FOR SALE: LENSES 



Len H. 

Sydney, 



ONE three-inch Dahlmeyer F.l:9, mounted for Mitchell; one 
two-inch Bausch & Lomb F.2:7; one Dahlmeyer Pentac 37 
mm. F.2:9. George Benoit, 845 Crescent Heights Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 



CARL ZEISS, p. 2.7, DO nun. 
of Cinematographers. 



Dan Clark, care American Society 



FOR RENT: CAMERAS 



BELL & HOWELL. Victor Milner, 2 221 Observatory Ave., Los 
Angeles, California. 596-944. 

MITCHELL, and Bell & Howell Cameras. F.2:3; F.2:7; F.3:5 
Lenses — 40-50-75 mm. Complete equipment. J. R. Lock- 
wood, 523 North Orange St., Glendale, California. GLendale 
336 1-W. 

E. BURTON STEENE, Bell & Howell, and Akeley. Complete 
Camera Equipment. Latest models. Address American 
Society of Cinematographers, Hollywood, Calif. 

BELL & HOWELL. Frank M. Cotner. 62 7 3 Selma Ave., Holly- 
wood, California. Hollywood 5046. 

BELL & HOWELL, 170, with 30. 40, 50 and 75 lens equipment. 
Baby Tripod. Also. B. & H. Cine Motor. Charles Stumar. 
GRanite »S45. 1201 Vista Street, Hollywood. 

FOR SALE: MISCELLANEOUS 

16 mm. Motion Picture Cameras, Projectors and Accessories. Spe- 
cials: Kodascope Model A Projector; Victor Camera and 
Projector. Write Carlton W. Bliedung. 1622 Wilcox Ave., 
Hollywood, California. 

WANTED 

PARTY interested motion picture production. Some knowledge 

cinematography desirable. Advanced amateur considered. 

Strickly co-operative basis. Spare time start. P. O. Box 

1 44 t Berkeley, California. 

WANTED: POSITION 

EXPERIENCED assistant cameraman desires position. One year 
with Carl Gregory in New York City. One year with Mary 
Sunshine Productions. Good basic knowledge of cinemato- 
graphy. Phone Frank Dugas at GLadstone 8420, Holly- 
wood, Calif. 

FOR RENT: AIRPLANES 

AIRPLANES equipped to carry cameras facilitating the photo- 
graphing of stunts or other unusual action, for rent by the 
hour, day or week. Jerry Phillips, Professional Pilot, Clover 
Field, Santa Monica, California. 

FOR RENT: STILL CAMERA 

WILL RENT still camera to local parties. Special arrangements 
to A. S. C. members. Geo. Meehan, Ph. GRanite 3830. 744 
Curson Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

FOR RENT: CAMERAS 

FOR RENT — Bell & Howell studio equipment complete. 170-De- 
gree Shutter. Libera] commission to cameramen. Call Mr. 
Smith, Metropolitan 4086. Evenings call Main 1373. (Los 
Angeles). 

AKELEY and Bell & Howell cameras for rent. John Boyle, 1207 
Milton Ave. Phone Granite 2213, Hollywood, t_auiuiiiia. 



WILL PUT you in touch with buyers for Bell & Howell cameras 
and equipment. Phone or write the A. S. C, 1222 Guaranty 
Bldg. Granite 4274. Hollywood. California. 



WANTED: LENSES 



\\ ILL BUY aiiy kind of three-inch lens in first class condition, 
E. Burton steene, 1222 Guaranty Building, or Phone Granite 
1022. Hollywood, California. 



Dignity 

in 

Advertising 

Espousing the aesthetic as well as the practical 
progress of the art of cinematography, the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer has, through the prestige 
of its advertisers and contributors, gained an en- 
viable place in the realm of dignified advertising. 

The psychology of dignity in compelling at- 
tention which directly breeds the confidence of 
the reader is evinced in the high grade 'copy' 
which is the consistent characteristic of the ad- 
vertisers using the American Cinematographer in 
the field of cinematography. 

He who advertises in the American Cinemato- 
grapher indeed keeps excellent company! 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinematographer 

may be had on a special one year's club- 
bing subscription at a very substantial 
saving. Separately, the two publica- 
tions cost a total of $4.50 per year. By 
virtue of the clubbing offer, both may 
be had for $3.40. 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bide.. 

6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood. Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with the Issue of 

192 

Name 

Address 

Town 

State 

(Note: Camera Craft wUl be sent for a slight addi- 
tional sum. Consult the dubbin* offer.) 



lwenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APHER 



August, 1921J 



E. B. Du Par, A. S. C. 
Works on Uitaphone 

E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, has concluded th 
Warner Bros. "Vitaphone." This presentat 
nized with the exhibition of "Don Juan," ar 
world. 

At Premier 

The film photographed by Du Par will be 
used at the New York premier of "Don 
Juan," which stars John Barrymore, and will 
be employed in conjunction with the road 
showing of the same vehicle. 

As an indication of the importance which 
the Warner outfit attaches to the "Vitaphone" 
rendition, a record price of ten dollars top for 
motion picture theatres will be charged on 
the opening night of the picture in New York 
City. 

Films Hays 

A feature of the special picture photo- 
graphed by Du Par will be an address by Will 
H. Hays, who especially appeared before the 
A. S. C. member's camera for the event 

Hays' speech will follow the opening 
number which will be given, through arrange- 
with the Brunswick Balke Collender com- 
pany, by the New York Philharmonic Or- 
chestra, Henry Hadley conducting. This 
rendition will be succeeded by the appear- 
ance — vocal and visual — of Giovanni Martin- 
elli who will be accompanied by the same or- 
chestra. 

In the order of their appearance, other 
artists photographed by Du Par will come as 
follows on the program: Marion Talley, 
Efrem Zimbalist, Harold Bauer, Anna Case 
and, again, the Philharmonic orchestra. 

During Miss Case's vocal appearance, 
there are accompanying dances by the Casinos 
and music by the Marimba Band. 

The appearances of the musical stars in 
the picture were made through arrangement 
with the Victor Talking Machine Company, 
with the single exception of that of Marion 
Talley, Metropolitan Grand Opera celebrity. 

Du Par has been in New York City for 
some time working on the first of the "Vita- 
phone" offerings. 

Made Research 
His first steps on his important assignment 
was to conduct exhaustive research into the 



^ 



A. S. C. Member Films Opera 
Stars in Initial Applica- 
tion of Warner Bros. Device 



e filming of the first public presentation of the 
ion is in the form of numbers which, synchro- 
e rendered by six celebrities of the music 

intricacies of the invention. He worked in 
close alliance with engineers and authorities 
of the Western Electric Company and of the 
American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany. 

He perfected the cinematographic feasi- 
bility of the device, with the result that, 
within a comparatively short period of time, 
it was applied to the important production, 
"Don Juan." 

Du Par comes by his big assignment as a 
reward of merit. He has photographed many 
Warner Bros. Productions, including numer- 
ous of that company's pre-eminent successes. 



Visual Education Meeting To 

Be Held In Chicago This Month 



With a pedagogical array of distinguished 
educators on its faculty, the De Vry Corpora- 
tion opens its second Summer School Session 
of Visual Education on Monday, August 23. 

Instruction in all types of visual education 
is to be given free of charge to teachers, minis- 
ters, and business men recognizing the indus- 
trial value of such, as well as to any person in- 
terested in the progressive movement which 
it is the object of the school to promote. 

Classes will be held at the Parkway Hotel 
in Chicago, Illinois. Amateurs in cinema- 
tography will be given special attention by 
members of the De Vry Corporations' prac- 
tical staff. Additional information may be 
obtained from the Director, De Vry School of* 
Visual Education, 1111 Center Street, Chi- 
cago, 111. 



Norma Shearer's next picture under the 
direction of Monta Bell will be photographed 
by Gaetano Gaudio, A. S. C. 



"Tell It to the Marines," starring Lon 
Chaney, is being photographed by Ira Mor- 
gan, A. S. C, according to announcement 
from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 



HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Phone GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark ------------- President 

L. Guy Wilky ---------- First Vice President 

Frank B. Good --------- Second lice President 

Ira H. Morgan --------- Third flee President 

George Schneiderman ----------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke ------------ Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Victor Milner Frank B. Good King D. Grav 

Daniel B. Clark Alfred Gilks Fred W. Jackman 

George Schneiderman Charles G. Clarke Reginald E. Lyons 

L. Guy Wilky Glen Mac Williams E. Burton Steene 

John Arnold Homer A. Scott Ira H. Morgan 

Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. Landers, Sam — 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Lockwood, J. R. 

Barnes. George S.— with Henry King. Samuel Goldwvn Prod. Luridin, Walter— with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropoll- 
Beckway, Wm.— tan Studios. 

Benoit, Georges— with Metropolitan Productions, Metropoli- Lyons, Reginald— with Fox Studios. 

tan Studios. , „ „, 

Boyle. John W.— with Balboni. First National. Burbank. Marshall. Wm.— with Raymond Griffith, Famous Players- 
Rrodin Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions, Famous Play- Lasky. 

' ers-I.asky. McCoi d, T. D.— 

Broening H Lyman McGill. Barney — with Fox Studios. 

Brotherton Joseph Mac-Lean, Kenneth G. — with Mack Sennett Studios. 

MacWilliams, Glen — with Fox Studio. 

Clark. Dan— with Tom Mix. Fox Studio. Meehan, George— with Fox Studio. 

Clarke Chas G with Fox Studio Milner. Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Cowling, Herford T.— 29 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. Morgan, Ira H.— with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan, Metro- 
Cotner, Frank M.— with Bud Barskv Pro,!. Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Crockett. Ernest Musuraca, Nicholas — with Warner Brothers. 

Cronjager, Henry— with Cecil B. Do Mille Studios. Norton. Stephen S— with Arthur Beck Prod. 

Dean. Faxon M. — Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio. 

Doran, Robert V. — Perry. Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Dored. John — Riga, Latvia. Perry, Paul P. — 

DuPont, Max B. — ■ Polito, Sol — with Chas. R. Rogers, First National. 

DuPar, E. B. — with Warner Bros., New York City. 

Duhray, Joseph A.— "ies. t ark „ J - _ ,, , , t ,. 

Roos, Len H. — Sydney, Australia. 

Edeson, Arthur — with First National, New York City. Rose. Jackson J. — with Universal. 

Evans. Perry — with Frank B. Good, Jackie Coogan Prod. Rosher. Charles — with "Ufa," Berlin. 

Fildew, Wm. — Schneiderman, George — with Fox Studio. 

Fischbeck, Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players Scott, Homer A. — 

Lasky, New York City. Seitz, John F. — with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, F. B. O. Studios. Sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios 

Fried, Abe — with Fox Studio. Short, Don — 

Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Steene E. Burton 

Gilks, Alfred — with James Cruze, Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar Charles with Universal. 

Glennon. Bert— with Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar! John— with Universal. 

Good. Frank B. — with Jackie Coogan Prod., Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer Studios. Tollyirst, Louis H. — producing microscopic pictures, for 

Gray, King D— Pathe. 

Griftin, Walter L. — with David Hartford Productions. Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 

Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Haller, Ernest — with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. Van Buren, Ned — 

Heimerl, Alois G. — Van Enger, Charles — with First National Productions, Bur- 

bank. 
Jackman. Floyd— Fred W. Jackman Prods. Van Trees, James C. — with First National Productions, 

Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. Burbank. 

Jennings. J. D. — with Buster Keaton. 

Warrenton, Gilbert — with Universal. 
Koenekamp, Hans F. — with Colleen Moore, First National, Wenstrom, Harold — with Corinne Griffith Productions. 

Burbank. Whitman, Philip H. — with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario 

Kull, Edward — with Universal. Dept. 

Kurrle, Robert — with Edwin Carewe. Wilky, L. Guy — 

Edison. Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb, Arthur C. — Attorney. 

Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 



Jw. 



t ORl>^ E ° 



RlFFlTtt 



PBOOI'CTIO^ 



S TUO'OS 



janaary l5. 



1925 



„ H. Bo«6 er ' 
141 ■ . corporation. 

Calif ornia. 
W6 WgeleB. Cal 



Dear «• »>« er '- 



€6 ° «„ 

i i camera 1° 
A a Bitcnell can. 
I ba ,e aaed 4i „eted. 

- — -c - - - -*z 

! „ 1B n to congra to6 r„Hc 

erfeC tion of a v 

iv vours. 



-.iv vours. 
Sincerely * 



BGV.S- 



■■ 



Vol. VII, No. 6 
25 Cents a Copy 



September, 1926 







American 
Cinematoqrapher 




Published in 
Holhjujood, California 




Bu American Societu 
of Cinematoqraphers 





View front Saanich Arm, sixteen miles from Victoria, British Columbia 
Reproduced from location library of American Society of Cinematoqraphers, Hollywood 



THIS MONTH : 
"Sea-Going" Cameras for "Old Ironsides' 1 ; 
How First "Vitaphone" Film Was Photographed; 

Amateur Cinematography; Projection, by Earl J. Denison 





An exceptionally long 
line of gradations 
combined with fine grain, 
high speed and excellent 
color separation, makes 




Negative the better stock 



"Ask the men who use it" 



e^p 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Alter, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 

1056 North Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 6669 

Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VII SEPTEMBER, 1926 No. 6 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss. Editor and General Manager 
C. K. Phillips, Special Representative 



Contents : 

Page 
The Editor's Lens 5 

Eye Strain In Cinema Theatres? 6 

"Sea-Going" Cameras For "Old Ironsides" 7 

In Camerafornia . 9 

How First Vitaphone Film Was Photographed 10 

PROJECTION — Conducted by Earl J. Denison — 

Troubles of the Projectionist 11 

Amateur Cinematography — 

32 Exposures per Second for "Eyemo" 

Sponsors Theatre Community Films 

E. Burton Steene Purchases "Eyemo" 

Camera Follows Projector Trail 12 

Cinematographer Is Key Factor In Film's 

Success, Says Writer — By Joseph L. Kelly 21 

Employment Exchange Founded by Junior 

Cameramen's Club 22 

Chinese Cinematographer Studies American Methods .... 23 
Len H. Roos, A. S. C, Begins Work on Australian Film.... 26 
John F. Seitz, A. S. C, Back From Two-Year Stay 

In Europe 26 

A. S. C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Subscription terms: United States, $3. 00 a year; Canada, $3. 50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographer s, Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 1926 



J\. 



$ 



N Advertiser, too, is judged 
by the company he keeps. 
Published by one of the 
foremost professional 
organizations in the United 
States, the American Cine- 
matographer appeals to an 
intelligent clientele, a clien- 
tele that buys, a clientele 
whose purchases run into 
thousands for the purpose 
of keeping apace cinemato- 
graphic progress. National 
advertisers have long since 

recognized this fact 

Truly, he who advertises 
in the American Cinema to - 
grapher keeps excellent 
company! 



September, 192»i 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Five 



The EDITOR'S LENS 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



Blanketing the IDorld 



T7^ ROM an organization which was purely local 
-*■ at the time of its origin, the American Soc- 
iety of Cinematographers has grown until its scope 
at the present time spans the world, according to 
Daniel B. Clark, president of the A. S. C, in the 
"Studio Section" of a current number of the Ex- 
hibitors Herald. 

1 Correspondence clearing through the offices of 
the Society in Hollywood comes from every nook 
of the civilized world. As the organization of the 
foremost cinematographers of all times, the A. >S. 
C. is turned to as the authority on cinematographic 
matters. From India, China, Russia, Australia, 
Java, New Zealand, South Africa, the Phillippines, 
as well as from every state in the Union, there ar- 
rive many and varied queries concerning the affairs 
of motion photography. Letters bearing postmarks 
come rom obscure outposts of civilization seeking 
advice as to how to cope with primitive conditions 
which defy the amateur's efforts to deal success- 
fully with the making of motion pictures for local 
use or otherwise. 

r The fame of the A. S. C. has been spread in no 
small degree by the countless travels of various of 
the Society members who have circled the globe 
for many thousands of miles. 

1 Herforl Tynes Cowling, A. S. C, has crossed 
and re-crossed the lines of latitude and longitude so 
many times that his name as a traveler is on the par 
with his renown as a cinematographer. Some sug- 
gestion of this is indicated by the listing of his ex- 
ploits in no less an authority than "Who's Who." 
Cowling has cut through the jungles of Africa as 
well as of India, while he preceded even the Roose- 
velt expedition in carrying a camera into forbidden 
Tibet. He was able to accomplish this unpreced- 
ented feat through the co-operation of the celebrated 
Sir Hari Singh, who later commissioned Cowling 
to officially photograph his coronation. Cowling 
made a flying trip from Suffolk, Va., to India to 
film the ceremony pictures which, though they were 
to rest only in Sir Hari's private archives, are said 
to have brought Cowling a reward well in the five 
figures. 



% Len Roos,A. S. C, has carried the name of the 
American Society of Cinematographers into all parts 
of the Antipodes. He at present is photographing 
in Australia and New Zealand. On his trip to 
Australia last year, he was tendered, prior to his 
departure, an elaborate banquet in Sydney at which 
leaders in the Autralian film industry were the hosts 
with Guy Bates Post as master of ceremonies. 

I' John Dored, A. S. C, keeps the fires of the 
Society burning in the Arctic circle territory. His 
headquarters are located at Riga, Latvia. At the 
time he made a prohibited dash into Russia to cap- 
ture films of Lenin's funeral, he was imprisoned by 
the Reds for days until, through information furnish- 
ed by the correspondent of an American newspaper, 
officers of the A. S. C. and friends in this country 
learned of his fate and succeeded in effecting his re- 
lease. 

If Charles Rosher, A. S. C, has been in Berlin 
during the past winter under special contract to 
Ufa, and is now reported as having signed with 
British National pictures. Rene Guissart, A. S. C, 
maintains permanent headquarters in Paris, which 
he uses as a base of operations to photograph special 
European material for American producers. Guis- 
sart's latest work in an American production is in 
"Ben Hur," on the production of which he was one 
of the cinematographers in Italy. Previously he 
had filmed "Chu Chin Chow" in Berlin. John F. 
Seitz, A. S. O, has just returned to Hollywood 
after two years on the Riviera where he was chief 
cinematographer for Rex Ingram productions. 
Among the other A. S. C. members who have car- 
ried its name beyond the waters recently, are Robert 
Kurrle, who was chief cinematographer for Edwin 
Carewe, who produced First National's "Son of the 
Sahara," on that desert; Charles Stumar, A. 'S. C, 
who photographed for Universal, on Edward Laem- 
mle's expedition to Europe; E. Burton Steene, A. 
S. C. Akeley camera expert, who traversed Europe, 
the Balkans and Mesopotamia for educational cine- 
matographic work ; William Beckway, A. S. C, 
who went to Europe to photograph Rider Hag- 
gard's "She"; and Ernest Haller, A. S. C, who 
filmed J. Gordon Edwards' "The Shepherd King" 
in Italy and Egypt. 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOORAPHER 



September, 1926 



Exje Strain in 

Cinema Theatres? 



is 



Motion pictures do not injure the eyes, 
vision experts of both America and England 
find, according to the Eye Sight Conservation 
Council of America in a report summariz- 
ing investigations. 

No definite reports of any specific harm 
or injurious effect, and but few complaints of 
inconveniences are disclosed. "This leads to 
the conclusion," says the Council, "that under 
favorable conditions, moving pictures do not 
cause serious eye fatigue. 

"Another important reason for this is 
the fact that viewing motion pictures is dis- 
tance vision which does not demand the de- 
gree of effort or strain in the use of the eyes 
as would be involved for near vision." 

Recommendation 
Illuminating engineers of London have for- 
mulated certain recommendations in regard 
to the position of the seats with respect to the 
screen. These engineers found that eyestrain 
results when the eyes of spectators are directed 
upward at an abnormal angle due to the ciose 
proximity of seats to the screen. 

Seats, the London experts hold, should 
not be too far to the side, as such position con- 
stitutes a possible source of eyestrain. One 
serious cause of eyestrain, they discovered, is 
flicker or jerkiness of movement caused by 
the faulty mechanism of the projecting appar- 
atus. Scratches on old film, faulty opera- 
tion, as well as imperfect apparatus should be 
eliminated, it was said. 

Special precautions are urged when 
portable machines are used for exhibitions be- 
fore English school children. The London 
engineers recommend that general illumina- 
tion of the theatres should be properly dis- 
tributed and of as high intensity as possible 
without interfering with the display of the 
pictures. 

Efficiency of Eye 

For many years a series of experiments 
have been carried on to determine the effi- 
ciency of the eye under different conditions of 
lighting. 

"The effect of motion pictures on the eye 
indicates," the Illuminating Engineering Soc- 
iety of New York reported, "that while the 
eyes are strained a great deal by the observa- 



Commission Makes a Special 
Investigation and Summarizes 
Findings ; Eyes Are Safe 



tion of moving pictures, even in the better 
moving pictures houses, they are damaged lit- 
tle more by that, in all probability, than they 
are by reading steadily the same length of 
time under the greater part of the lighting 
that is now in actual use." 

While it is evident, the Eye Sight Con- 
servation Council points out, that motion 
pictures may cause eyestrain, the reason is 
usually traceable to prolonged concentration 
of the eye, defective eyesight, position of the 
observer, faulty general illumination, or poor 
films, bad projection, faulty operation. All 
of these conditions, it was declared, are avoid- 
able. 

"Prolonged concentration of the eye," 
said the Council's report, "is not a fault of 
motion pictures, although it is most likely to 
follow because of intense interest created by 
the picture. Long continued use of the eyes 
for any purpose will cause eyestrain. 

Rest Periods 
"Usually in the ordinary uses of the eyes 
at work or reading, frequent rest periods are 
unconsciously provided due either to a lack 
of the power to concentrate or to surrounding 
influences, interruptions, etc. Observers 
should avail themselves of every opportunity 
that is offered to rest their eyes during a dis- 
play. 

Defective Eyes 

"In all probability most of the com- 
plaints of eyestrain from viewing motion 
pictures are due to defective eyes. Resulting 
headaches or other annoying discomforts are 
likely to be indications that the eyes should 
be examined and defective vision corrected. 

"Observers should not sit too close to the 
screen. The minimum distance depends 
upon the height of the picture from the level 
of the line of vision and ordinarily the dis- 
tance of the observer from the screen should 
not be less than twenty or thirty feet. 

Distortion 

"The distortion noticeable in the picture 
when viewed from seats placed too far to the 
side is likely to be annoying. The best posi- 
tion to view motion pictures is directly in 

(Continued on Page 26) 



September. 102'! 



AMERICAN C'INEMATOGRAPHER 



Seven 



"Sea-Qoinq' Cameras 
for "Old Ironsides" 



^ 



Pendulum and Hydraulic 
Apparatus Attached to Cam- 
era to Show Tossing of Sea. 




Above — Alfred Gilks, A . S. C, shown with 
one of the "nautical" cameras used to film 
"Old Ironsides." Suggesting the gyroscope, 
the cameras maintain their equilibrium no 
matter how great the sway of the ship, thus 
showing tossing of the sea realistically. Right 
— Steel cage made to be swung anywhere in 
the rigging where it was desired to place 
cameras. 




Filming a production of 
such magnitude a s Para- 
mount's "Old Ironsides," en- 
tirely at sea, called for a new 
code of camera dynamics, 
with the result that a lion's 
share of cinematographic pio- 
neering fell on the shoulders 
of Alfred Gilks, A.S.C., chief 
cinematographer on the lat- 
est James Cruze vehicle for 
Famous Players-Lask). 

Gilks was particularly 
qualified for the important 
task assigned him, not only 
from the standpoint of his 
ability as a cinematographer, 
but by virtue of the fact that 
he qualified as a sea-going 
camera artist, the A.S.C mem- 
ber having served his country 
in the Navy during the war. 



Ideal Medium 

So the traditions of the 
American fighting vessels 
found an appreciative and 
understanding medium of 
expression through the lenses 
of Gilks' camera which, in 
charge of a cinematographer 
and sailor, stood well to bring 
all the salty, pounding glory 
of "Old Ironsides" to the 
screen. 

Plotting the photograph- 
ing of this production was 
like laying out the campaign 
to break up the Armada — 
possible, but apparently not 
so feasible. A difference is 
presented between filming a 
picture with a few maritime 
scenes, and one which is 
photographed wholly on the 
high seas. 



Natural Roll Desired 
Because most of "Old Iron- 
sides" had to be shot on board 
a sailing vessel at sea and a 
good portion of it during a 
real storm, it was desired to 
show on the screen the actual 
and natural roll of the ship. 
Same Movement 
With an ordinary tripod 
"anchored" to the deck or 
otherwise fastened to the 
ship, this would have been 
impossible. In such an ar- 
rangement, the camera is 
part and parcel of the ship. 
The movements of the camera 
coincide with those of the 
ship. 

Horizon Jumps 

The result is that, instead 
of showing the tossing of the 
ship itself on the screen, the 



Eight 



AMERICAN C I NE M AT O GR A PH ER 



September, 1926 



horizon line appears to 
be tipping first one way and 
then another. The rougher 
it is, the more the ocean 
seems to jump about, while 
the ship, because the camera 
follows its motions, seems to 
be perfectly steady. Natur- 
ally, in the interest of real- 
ism, it was desired to portray 
the rolling of the ship, and 
not the illusionary heaving of 
the horizon. 

The important duty then 
was to devise a tripod which 
would make possible the 
showing of the movements of 
a real ship on the screen. 
There is a form of "sea-go- 
ing" tripod that has been in 
common use for a long time. 
It, however, has marked lim- 
itations in that once the 
weight is started swinging by 
a roll of the ship, the camera 
continues to swing whether 
or not the ship continues to 
do so. This of course gives 
an unsatisfactory result. This 
form of tripod has its head 
swung in gimbals, just as a 
mariner's compass. A pen- 
dulum with a weight attached 
at the bottom counterbalances 
the camera. 

Three Types 

The tripod which we used 
was developed after a great 
deal of experimental work in 
the Lasky camera shop. 
Three different methods of 
controlling the sway of the 
pendulum were designed by 
Leigh M. Griffith, mechani- 
cal engineer. The tripods 
were then built in the shop. 
They were later tried out at 
sea under actual conditions. 
It was found that a hydraulic 
scheme of dampening the 



swing of the pendulum was 
much more satisfactory than 
either of two mechanical sys- 
tems, so the former type was 
adopted. 

Hydraulic Method 

The hydraulic method 
works in the following man- 
ner: 

The motion of the pendu- 
lum swinging is transferred 
by shafts and gears to two 
double pistons working in a 
cylinder against oil. A tube 
connects the opposite ends of 
the cylinders. This tube is 
fitted with an adjustable 
valve by which the amount of 
oil flowing from one end to 
the opposite end of the cylin- 
der may be controlled. By 
adjusting these valves it is 
possible to control the swing 
of the weighted pendulum to 
fit the roll of the ship at the 
time the scene is to be taken. 




Another view of "sea- 
going" camera, showing pen- 
dulum arrangement between 
tripod legs. 



Panchromatic Used 

"Old Ironsides" is the first 
Lasky picture to be photo- 
graphed exclusively on pan- 
chromatic film. 

"The reason," Gilks states, 
"I decided to use panchrom- 
atic was because Mr. Cruze 
will not have make-up on 
any of his people, including 
the leading man and the lead- 
ing woman. I realized how 
sunburned and tanned every 
one would become in three 
months of location shooting at 
sea and at Catalina Island. It 
was imperative that I use 
'pan' which gave me a wide 
range of filters to bring into 
play properly photograph 
people in the foreground and 
to hold down the bright sky 
and water in the background. 

"Technicolor panchromatic 
was used to shoot certain 
night scenes in the daytime 
and gave very satisfactory re- 
sults." 

Directions By Radio 

Mechanical proficiency in 
the form of radio was again 
brought into use to deliver 
commands over the wide area 
which was being photo- 
graphed during the course of 
the production. 

"Radio," according t o 
Gilks, "proved a godsend in 
this picture. It was a marvel- 
ous help in the enabling the 
giving and changing orders at 
any instant. We know just 
when to begin photograph- 
ing and when to 'cut.' As a 
result, no useless footage was 
shot because of any confusion 
of signals. 

(Continued on Page 16.) 



September, 192fi 



AMERICAN CI NE M ATOGRAPH ER 



Nine 




Charles J. Van Enger, A. S. C, and E. 
Burton Steene, A. S. C, are in Guadalupe, 
Calif., on location for the second time within 
the past month. They are photographing 
scenes for First National's "Men of the 
Dawn,' 1 for which Van Enger is chief cine- 
matographer. Steene is making special Ake- 
ley shots for the production. George Arch- 
ainbaud is directing and Milton Sills is star- 
red. The cast includes Viola Dana, Charles 
Murray, Arthur Stone, Montague Love and 
William V. Mong. 



Harold Wenstrom, A. S. C, is filming 
"The Lady in Ermine," in which Corinne 
Griffith is starred. James Flood is direct- 
ing. Wenstrom will have an opportunity for 
pictorial effects, as the story is laid amid a 
martial background in Italy and Austria dur- 
ing Napoleon's campaigns. 



Ross Fisher, A. S. C, is photographing 
"A Regular Scout," starring Fred Thomson 
at the F. B. O. studios. 



James Fan Trees, A. S. C, is photo- 
graphing Colleen Moore in "Tivinkletoes." 
Charles Brabin is directing. 



* * 



Reginald Lyons, A. S. C, has com- 
pleted the filming of one of the latest of the 
Van Bibber series for Fox. Earle Fox is the 
star, and Robert Kerr directed. 



H. Lyman Broening, A. S. C, is filming 
"Rose of the Tenements," an F. B. O. pro- 
duction starring Shirley Mason. Phil Rosen 
is the director. 



Harry Perry, A. S. C, will leave shortly 
for another trip to San Antonio, Texas, 
which will be used as a location for the pro- 
duction of "Wings," on which Perry is chief 
cinematographer. The story deals with the 
air forces during the war. Perry has had ex- 
tensive experience in aerial cinematography, 
and has had so many hours in the air that he 
has lost count of them. 



Sol Polito, A. S. C, is shooting "Flame 
of the Border," starring Ken Maynard for 
First National. 

* * * 

Bert Glennon, A. S. C, is concluding the 
cinematography on Famous Players-Lasky's 
"Hotel Imperial," starring Pola Negri. 
Maurice Stiller directed. 



-1* /J- -7. 

Frank B. Good, A. S. C, and Perry 

Evans, A. S. C, are in San Francisco on lo- Dan Clark, A. S. C, is shooting "The 

cation for "Johnny, Get Your Hair Cut," Canyon of Light," Tom Mix' latest starring 

Jackie Coogan's latest production. vehicle for Fox. 



Ten 



AMERICAN C I NE M A TO GR AP H E R 



September, 1926 



Ho uo First Uitaphone Film IDas Photographed 



1 ^/. S. C. Member Has 

Soundproof Booth Built to 
Prevent Recording Studio 
Noises. 

IF Du Par adapts Camera for 
Vocal Reproduction Work; 
Storage Batteries Used for 
Lights. 

An interesting insight into 
the cinematographic diffi 
culties which had to be con- 
quered before the new cele- 
brated Vitaphone process, 
used by Warner Bros., in con- 
junction with "Don Juan," 
was reduced to the plane of 
commercial acceptability is 
shown in an account of the in- 
vention by E. B. Du Par. the 
A. S. C. member who sur- 
mounted its photographic 
barriers and thus made pos- 
sible the actual application of 
the device. 

Xoise Cut Out 

"First of all," Du Par re- 
ports, "the noise incident to 
the taking of a motion picture 
made it necessary to shut the 
camera in a special sound- 
proof booth. With the cam- 
era, I was locked in the 
booth. I shot through a 
small aperture, and looked 
out through a small peek hole. 
However, the construction of 
the booth does not permit of 
the booth's occupant to hear 
anything from without. It 
is necessary to depend en- 
tirely on light signals for 
starts and fades. 

Synchronized 

"The camera is run bv a 
motor which is synchronized 
with the recording machine 




E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, at camera in sound-proof chamber, 
especially constructed to overcome studio noises in the filming 
of the first "Vitaphone" presentation , to be shown in conjunction 
with Warner Brothers' "Don Juan," starring John Barrymore. 



motor. Instead of running 
at the regular speed of 16 
pictures per second, we ex- 
posed at the rate of 24 per 
second! The recording ma- 
chine is so located that it is in 
another part of the building, 
far enough away so that no 
sound can get to the actual 
place of photographing. The 
apparatus in the recording 
room is in charge of a record- 
ing expert. Another expert 
is stationed at the 'mixing 
panel,' as we call it, his duties 
being to listen to what is be- 
ing recorded and also to 
watch a very sensitive dial 



that indicates every little var- 
iation of sound. When the 
dial starts to jump up to a 
certain mark, he has to vary 
the amplification on the mic- 
rophone so as not to cut over 
certain high notes; high fre- 
quencies are apt to make the 
cutting point on the recorder 
break through the delicate 
walls of wax and spoil the re- 
cord. 

Far Removed 

"The master recorder," Du 
Par continues, "was stationed 
on the sixth floor above us. 

(Continued on Page 16) 



September, lOi'G 



AMERICAN CINEMA TOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



PROJECTION * Conducted by Earl J. Denison 



Troubles of the 

Projectionist 



« 



Standardized Methods for 
Care of Film Eliminates 
Expensive Economic Waste 



(A lecture delivered by Earl J . Denison, 
before the American Projection Society.) 

Until the last year or two if you had 
made an inquiry of any projectionist as to 
what his great single trouble was, it is the 
foregone conclusion that the answer would 
have been "condition of film." 

If branch managers had been approach- 
ed with the same query, in the greater major- 
ity of the cases, the answer would be the same. 
It appears therefore, that your troubles and 
his troubles were closely related. In the 
past a great deal of time was wasted in use- 
less recrimination between exchange man- 
agers and projectionists. During the period 
that these recriminations were being indulged 
in, little constructive effort was made to de- 
termine the cause for the great amount of ex- 
cess film damage then existing. 

Shortly after my return from Europe in 
1919, I was employed by the Famous Players- 
Lasky Corporation to investigate the cause 
for the great amount of excess film damage 
which had been of long standing and was 
costing the company a great deal of money, 
and only spasmodic attempts had been made 
to find a remedy, and to my mind the entire 
proposition had been approached from the 
wrong angle. 

Conditions Studied 
My first commission was to visit all of our 
exchanges in order that I might observe act- 
ual conditions. In following up cases of 
specific film damage which would be re- 
ported by an inspection department, as hav- 
ing been returned from a certain theater, I 
would then visit that theatre, inspect the 
equipment and make a general check-up on 
projection conditions. In all, I inspected ap- 
proximately 300 projection rooms throughout 
the country. 

Improper Splicing 

After classifying the kind of damage, the 
final analysis conclusively proved that ap- 
proximately 75 percent of the excess film 
damage was traceable to improper splicing 
in our own exchanges. After presenting the 
proper executives with sufficient evidence I 
was again commissioned to devote my entire 



time in correcting this unnecessary evil, and 
in following up this particular line of work 
for a period of seven years a great many inter- 
esting discoveries were made regarding the 
proper care and handling, inspection, and 
splicing of motion picture film. In most 
cases examiners in our exchanges knew abso- 
lutely nothing about film and each examiner 
was making a different kind of »a splice of 
various widths, shapes and sizes. There had 
been practically no attempt at standardiza- 
tion and in the majority of cases, film splic- 
ing was done in the crudest manner possible; 
their working tools being a pair of shears and 
a razor blade; with any kind of cement kept 
in uncorked bottles and applied with any 
kind of a brush that could be purchased in 
the nearest store. Mis-framed splices were 
as common as framed splices withd no at- 
tempt being made to splice in frame, in fade- 
outs. 

Preferred Hand Methods 

Practically everyone connected with ex- 
changes was antagonistic toward any kind 
of a mechanical device for use in splicing 
film, their argument being that better splices 
could be made entirely by hand. 

Another very common cause for film 
damage was the use of bent and loose reels. 
Also there was no attempt at that time for 
the proper handling of the film; that is, keep- 
ing the film in containers while being in- 
spected and awaiting shipment. 

Splice Standardized 

Our first step was to standardize on the 
type of splice, method of handling, and equip- 
ment. The only thing obtainable was the 
ordinary splicing block which simply regist- 
ered the perforations and applied pressure to 
the splices. But even this crude equipment 
showed a remarkable improvement in condi- 
tions in a very short time. But it was one con- 
tinual battle to get examiners to use the equip- 
ment that we installed ; we were constantly 
carrying on research work trying out devices, 
in fact doing everything possible to still fur- 
ther improve conditions. 

Although we realized a certain percent- 
age of the damage was caused by improper 

(Continued on Page 17) 



Twelve AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER 




September, 1926 


Amateur 


Cinemato 


8 


raphy 



32 Exposures Per 

Second For 'Eyemo' 

A double speed mechanism 
for the Eyemo camera, is an- 
nounced by the Bell & How- 
ell Company, manufacturers 
of the Eyemo. 

The new mechanism per- 
mits the taking of pictures at 
the rate of 32 exposures per 
second, in addition to the 
standard speed of 16 per sec- 
ond. 

On Camera Face 

The increased speed is put 
into force instantaneously by 
manipulating the speed ad- 
justing lever which, located 
on the face of the camera, con- 
trols the governor of the in- 
strument. 
Used On Current Models 

The double speed mechan- 
ism, Bell & Howell officials 
state, may be embodied in 
Eyemo cameras now in use, 
the addition to the camera be- 
ing made at the factory of 
the company in Chicago. 
Spring Motor 

As in the past, the 32 per 
second exposure speed will be 
motivated by a spring motor, 
the Eyemo being entirely 
automatic. Likewise, no tri- 
pod will be required. 

Besides facilitating the 
cinematographic activities of 
those engaged in golf, row- 
ing, horse racing and other 
forms of sports and athletics, 
the addition to the Eyemo 
equipment is regarded as be- 
ing especially adaptable for 
studio, newsreel and other 
professional motion picture 
use. The Eyemo is being 
used professionally by Inter- 
national, Pathe, Fox and 
Kinograms newsreel organi- 




Illustrating "Eyemo" with 
new double-speed attach- 
ment. 



zations; and by Famous Play- 
ers-Lasky, Warner Brothers, 
Mack Sennett, Universal, 
Metro- Goldwyn - Mayer, 
Chaplin, Christie and other 
motion picture studios. It 
also is being used by various 
exploring expeditions. 



Sponsors Theatre 

Community Film 

The Bell and Howell Com- 
pany is sponsoring the idea 
of motion picture theatre 
owners "putting the neighbor- 
hood in the movies," 

Like Idea 

An increasing number of 
exhibitors are said to be re- 
sponding to the promotion 
possibilities suggested b y 
the idea. 

Details of such a commun- 
ity arrangement are offered 
by the Bell and Howell Com- 
pany, 1801 Larchmont ave- 
nue, Chicago. 



E. Burton Steene 

Purchases 'Eyemo 1 

E. Burton Steene, A.S.C., 
Akeley camera specialist, has 
added an Eyemo to his array 
of camera equipment. 

Steene's paraphernalia in- 
cludes an Akeley camera, a 
Bell and Howell professional 
and a wide variety of lenses. 

The A.S.C. member will 
use the Eyemo for special 
work and difficult shots. 



Camera Follows 

Projector Trail 

Owners of the De Vry 
standard projector are prov- 
ing to be among the first 
purchasers of the new De Vry 
automatic standard camera, 
officials of the De Vry cor- 
poration, Chicago, declare. 

Standard Size 
The De Vry projector, 
built to take standard size 
film under any conditions, 
has been in international use 
for many years. Within the 
industry, De Vry outfits are 
owned by Al Christie, Cecil 
De Mille, Corrine Griffith, 
Mary Pickford, William S. 
Hart, Ben Turpin, the Fam- 
ous Players-Lasky Corpora- 
tion, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 
and Warner Brothers. 

Official Use 
Some time ago, newspaper 
reports stated that, on a west- 
ern trip, President Coolidge 
viewed motion pictures while 
traveling on the presidential 
train. Investigation showed 
that a De Vry projector was 
used. Similarly, the same 

(Continued on Page 16) 



September, 192G A M ERICAN CINEMATOGRA P HER Thirteen 

Many — and important 

Eastman Panchromatic Negative Film is 
sensitive to bright reds and yellows, as 
well as to blues and violets — all colors can 
be rendered in their true black and white 
relationship. 

The uses of the film are many — and im- 
portant: for photographing colored sets 
and costumes, for accurately rendering flesh 
tints in close-ups, for outdoor sets, includ- 
ing photography of clouds against a 
blue sky. 

But write for booklet, ff Eastman Pan- 
chromatic Negative Film for Motion 
Pictures", that tells you all about its prop- 
erties and uses. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN f'lNEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 1926 



BELL & HOW 




Above: master of trick shots E. A. Dupont, director of 
Universal's super-Jeivel, "Love Me and the World Is 
Mine," had this battery of Bell £?" Howell Cameras for 

one shot. Dupont is under the umbrella. Jackson Rose, his firs 
cameraman, is second to right from him. At the right: Camera- 
man Jackson Rose, Charles Puffy, Dupont, Mary Philbin and Nor- 
man Kerry in a scene from the same production. 

"The Never Obsolete Pioneer 
B.^fH. PROFESSIONAL STANDARD 

A SCREEN production can be no better than the 
cameras used in making it.The work of the writers, 
the continuity men, property men, directors, actors, 
camera men, and all others who contribute to the success 
of a production, mean nothing until their efforts are 
focused in the eye of the camera and faithfully recorded 
on film so that others can see it. 

For 19 years the Bell & Howell Pioneer Standard Pro- 
fessional Camera has been a familiar "property" to those 
who have reached the heights of filmdom. This Pioneer 
Camera has constantly kept pace with the developments of 
the industry. Through it the best thought, talent and 
effort of the profession have been brought to the eyes 
of the world for its appreciation and rewards. 
Jackson Rose, in the pictures above, also a Pioneer, oper- 
ated Bell & Howell's Camera No. 1, way back in the 
Essanay Days. He still puts his faith in a Bell & Howell 
and says he always will. The reason is that though the 
B. & H. may become old it never becomes obsolete. 
Basically patented pilot register movement and inter- 
changeability of detail parts keeps it constantly up to date. 
Displays at our Hollywood, Chicago, New York and London offices 



BELL &f HOWELL CO. 

1805 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

New York, Hollywood, London 

Established 19 07 




September, 192>5 



A M R R I ( ' A N ('IN E M ATOfi R A PII ER 



Fifteen 



LL CAMERAS 



This Remarkable Camera already 



Marvelous Success in 



FOUR Great Fields of Professional Service 
1. — Newsreel Scoops. 

2. — Stunt Pictures by Professional Producers. 

3. — Exploration Pictures. 
4. — "Neighborhood Movies." 

Profit for You 

in one or more of these uses 

1. In response to a universal demand for a light, automatic, pro- 
fessional camera which would approximate the work done by our 
larger Pioneer Standard B. & H. Camera, the Eyemo was per- 
fected and made available for general use. 

Today it is considered indispensable for field use in every enterprise 
involving the making of professional motion pictures. 
In Newsreel Scoops it stands supreme, having given the world first 
visual news of the sinking of the Japanese Steamer "Raifuku Maru," 
the rescue of the "Antinoe" crew, the Mauna Loa volcanic eruption, 
the recent Arsenal explosion and many other unusual happenings 
which have been flashed on the screens of the world. Eyemo is used 
by International, Pathe, Fox, Kinograms, Universal, Paramount and 
others to scoop the pictures because it is thoroughly professional — 
and so compact and light that it can instantly be brought into use 
wherever things are happening. 

2. Eyemo is used for professional production purposes by all of the 
following: Universal, Famous Players-Laskv, Warner Bros., Mack 
Sennett, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Charlie Chaplin, Christie and 
others. These people consider Eyemo indispensable for getting stunt 
shots, special effects and testing locations. 

3. Eyemo has been used in 
every recent exploring expedi- 
tion of importance. It adds 
little to the weight of materials 
to be carried — and much to 
the weight of historic evidence 
brought back. The following 
expeditions are among those 
Eyemo-equipped : 

4. The most recent activity of Eyemo is "putting the neighborhood 
in the movies" — the new idea that is coining money for local ex- 
hibitors. The Chicago Daily News has instituted a local screen 
service which has already been accepted by forty theaters. The De- 
troit News and other newspapers and independent exhibitors every- 
where are also using the idea. It is bringing wonderful results in 
box-office returns. 

The coupon here will bring you further information on any use of 
Eyemo which interests you. Mail it. 




Byrd Polar Expedition 
Amiindseii-Ellsuorth Polar Expedition 
Speejax Expedition 
tiering: Sea Expedition 
Third Asiatic Expedition 
Smithsonian-Chrysler Expedition 
to Africa 

African and Mongolian Expedition of 
the AmejQean Museum of Natural 
History 

l. S. Department of Interior Geolog- 
ical Survey. (Alaskan) 



Standard Automatic 
Professional Camera 

for Field a?id Stunt Use 

This shows how easy Eyemo is to han- 
dle and operate. Simply sight through 
the spyglass viewfinder and press the 
trigger. Eyemo uses standard film, 
100-ft. daylight loading rolls or 120- 
ft. darkroom load. Full specifica- 
tions given in literature the coupon 
will bring. 



n 



MAIL THIS FOR MORE INFORMATION 




BELL 



HOWELL CO. 



1805 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

New York, Hollywood, London 

Established 19 07 



BELL & HOWELL COMPANY 

1827 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, III. i 

Please send me your special circular de- 
scribing the EYEMO Camera and its 
uses. . 



Name ... 
Address 



I 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 1926 



Vitaphone 



(Continued from Page in) 



"He is surrounded by dials 
whereby he can tell just what 
the vocal actions of the art- 
ists are. He is also attended 
by a large horn, about five 
feet square, in which he lis- 
tens for any foreign noices. 
The microphones are so sen- 
sitive that he can detect if 
anybody on the set makes the 
least noise, such as walking, 
whispering or even the flick- 
ering of a light. If such are 
recorded, then the record is 
ruined. A flicker of a light 
sounds out like a pistol shot. 
This makes for a severe test 
on the lights. A number 
runs about ten minutes, or be- 
tween 900 and 1000 feet. On 
some sets I have to use big 
storage batteries, weighing 
about 400 pounds each; seven 
of them are required to run 
a G. E. light of 150 amps. I 
use batteries to avoid genera- 
tor noise. On the same lights, 
we had the gears changed 
from metal to fiber in order to 
eliminate gear noise on the 
automatic feed light. 

Adapted Camera 
"Since ! beginning this 
work," Du Par states, "I 
have almost remodelled my 
camera. I use 1000-foot 
magazines, high-speed shut- 
ter, leather belt, special 
clutches on the take-up spool, 
and a light signal built right 
in the camera. 

"There is somewhat of a 
difference in photographing 
motion picture and then 
grand opera stars. In the 
past several weeks I have 
filmed Mischa Elman, violin- 
ist; Efrem Zimbalist, violin- 
ist; Harold Bauer, pianist; 
Giovanni Martinelli, tenor; 
Marion Talley, and the New 



York Philharmonic Orchestra 
of 100 pieces. 

"A strange incident oc- 
curred when we were taking 
'Swaunee River.' Every- 
thing was still, and I had 
just received the signal to 
start; I flashed back the sig- 
nal that I was fading in and 
everything was going nicely 
when I noticed frantic signals 
to stop. Looking out the 
peek-hole, I saw that every 
one was exceedingly excited. 
The cause, I learned, had 
been the screams of a colored 
janitress who claimed that 
she had seen the late Oscar 
Hammerstein walking across 
the balcony. It was eleven 
o'clock in the morning, and 
it is said that it was his old 
custom to walk across the bal- 
cony at that time in the old 
Manhattan Opera House 
which we were using to work 
in. This was the third time 
that the janitor's force had 
claimed seeing Mr. Hammer- 
stein, and of course the com- 
motion ruined that shot." 



Amateur 
Cinematography 

(Continued from Page 12) 



projection outfit was employ- 
ed by the MacMillan expedi- 
tion to exhibit pictures to the 
Eskimos. 

The De Vry projector will 
be used as a part of the de 
luxe equipment of the "land- 
cruiser" trains of the Ray- 
mond Whitcomb Company. 



New Attachment 

For Slow Motion 

The Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany is marketing a device 
whereby slow motion pictures 
may be made with the Cine- 
Kodak A, f, 1. 9. 



Different Rates 
The regular crank is re- 
moved and a four to one gear 
ratio crank is substituted. 
With the turning of the crank 
at the rate of two turns per 
second, with the result that 
the finished picture is slowed 
down proportionately. 



"Sea-Going" 

Cameras 



(Continued from Page 8) 



"A low-powered broad- 
casting set, operated by bat- 
teries, was set up at a vantage 
point near the director where- 
ever worked. During the 
weeks required to do the bat- 
tle stuff, everything was con- 
trolled by radio. At times 
as many as twenty receiving 
sets were used. 

"Movement on more than 
a dozen fighting ships and as 
many tugs, action at the fort, 
instruction to cinematograph- 
ers on the hill getting long 
shots, cinematographers on 
board the ships getting close- 
ups, were controlled from 
Mr. Cruze's microphone. 

"Operators at the receiving 
sets signified that they had 
received the message by the 
wave of a flag or the toot of 
a whistle. The electricians 
were able to move the broad- 
casting outfit to a ship, barge, 
side of a cliff — in fact, any 
place the director wished — 
almost as quickly as the cam- 
eras could be moved and set 
up. Having seen the enor- 
mous possibility of this form 
of communication while 
serving on sub-chasers during 
the war, I suggested the use 
of radio to the director while 
we were preparing the pic- 
ture, and fortunately for all 
concerned the suggestion was 
carried out." 



September. 1920 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



PROJECTION 



(Continued from pa 



handling and the carelessness of the pro- 
jectionist, we felt that if we could thoroughly 
clean up exchange conditions we would then 
be in a position to further eliminate the 
trouble by going direct to the projectionist, 
and 1 want to be perfectly frank with you 
when I say that conditions under which film 
was handled in many theatres, (not necessar- 
ily the small town theatres) were positively 
disgraceful. Not one theatre in a hundred 
ever possessed any kind of a splicing block or 
patch press, as they were called at that time. 
There was no attempt at registering sprocket 
holes or keeping the width of the splice with- 
in certain dimensions, etc., etc. Film ar- 
rived from the theatres with leaders parts, 
end titles, tail pieces, torn off, rolled up and 
stuck in the shipping case. This cost a great 
deal of extra work in the inspection rooms at 
exchanges, and sometimes resulted in the ex- 
hibitor not getting the show he had booked. 

Take-Up Tension 

Another common fault in the theatre, 
was excessive take-up tension which claimed 
its percentage of the film damage. Worn 
sprockets, excessive aperture tension, worn 
tension springs, worn magazine valve rollers, 
' emulsion deposit, etc., etc., also were respon- 
sible for a certain percentage of the film 
damage. 

In working out the present day stand- 
ards in our exchanges which have absolutely 
proven to be right, we had to disregard many 
theories and much equipment; and under- 
stand that all the time when we were carrying 
out this work in the field we were also test- 
ing splices and film on especially rigged pro- 
jectors. We finally standardized on the full 
hole splice and schooled our examiners in the 
proper method of making this splice and we 
insisted under penalty of dismissal that the 
full hole splice and no other must be made at 
all times. We had reached the point in the 
manual inspection and splicing of film that 
we believed to be final, and we felt that if we 
could get the proper kind of automatic or 
semi-automatic film splicing machine that 
was adapted for exchange use, and would 



Now! 




A Professional 
Movie 

Camera 

at an 
Amateur 

Price 



DeVry 

Standard Automatic 

Movie Camera 

The De Vry Corporation, world noted 
makers of motion picture projectors, an- 
nounces a new movie camera holding 
100 feet of standard film at the amazing 
low cost of only $150.00. 
This remarkable new camera weighs 9 
pounds and is 8 Vss x6 V2 x3 % . Hand- 
some all-metal, grained-leather finished 
case. Accurate, automatic footage 
meter. Three view 
finders: 1 — direct on 
the film, 2 — direct on 
the scene, 3 — right 
angle view finder in 
upper right corner. 
F 3.5 anastigmat lens 
on micrometer mount. 
Any standard lens can be fitted to the camera 
including telephoto. Focusing range — 2 feet to 
infinity. Instantly removable aperture. 

Amazingly Low $ 
Price - - Only 




150" 



The low price of the De Vry does not mean a 
sacrifice of quality of material or workmanship. 
It is due entirely to the quantity production 
machines constructed by De Vry to avoid the ex- 
pense of assembled and handwrought jobs. This 
movie camera must be seen by professional 
cameramen to be appreciated It has all the 
features of other cameras and features the others 
do not possess. 

All other standard film automatic movie cameras 
sell for $350.00 and up! We welcome a compari- 
son of the De Vry at the low price of only $150.00 
with that of higher priced cameras. 

Ask Your Dealer 

Your dealer will gladly show you the De Vry. 
If your dealer cannot give you this information, 
write us direct. A postcard will do. 

The DEVRY CORPORATION 

mi Center Street Dept. 8-X Chicago, Illinois 



^isliteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 1926 



stand up under heavy work, our problems 
would be solved. 

It remained for the Bell & Howell Com- 
pany of Chicago to furnish us with such a 
machine, but is was necessary for them to 
change their positive splicing machine so 
that it would give us the full hole splice. It 
was also necessary to put a number of other 
special attachments on the machine which we 
believe to be highly essential in exchange 
work. Today every one of our 41 exchanges 
in the United States is equipped with a Bell & 
Howell splicing machine. Our laboratories 
and film depot are all similarly equipped. 
This machine has more than stood the test in 
the quality of the splice, ease and simplicity 
of operation and speed in making splices. 
The plates on which the splices are made are 
heated to about 120 degrees F. electrically. 
The heat not only acts as a binder to the splice 
but makes the cement quick drying. 

Special Theatre Type 

Negotiations are in progress at this 
time for the manufacture of a special theatre 
type of splicing machine and I assure you that 
once projection rooms are equipped with 
splicing machines that will make the same 
kind of a splice which we are making in our 
exchanges, your troubles and our troubles will 
be reduced materially. 

Six Primary Causes 

In order that there would be no mistakes 
made in developing apparatus, methods, and 
standards for splicing film, it was necessary 
to make several slow motion pictures show- 
ing the action of film in projectors under 
actual operating conditions. We can safely 
say that there are six primary causes for film 
damage which should be studied and avoided. 
Cause No. 1. Splice out of register 
(of sprocket holes not perfectly matched.) 
Splices of this kind will jump while passing 
through the projector and damage the film. 

Cause No. 2. Splicing too wide. A 
splice is stiff and unbending, and if too wide 
will not seat properly on the sprocket wheels 
of the projector, causing a jump with probable 
damage. 

Cause No. 3. Emulsion or gelatin not 
entirely removed. Due to the fact that film 
cement only acts upon the celluloid base of 
the film, it is necessary to entirely remove 
the emulsion in making the splice. Where 
there is a particle of emulsion, the cement will 
not hold, causing the splice to open and come 
apart. 



CINOPHOT 

The Automatic Exposure Meter 
for the Movie Camera 

Patented by Dr. Emil Mayer 



S-JK5 



Automatic — scientifically 
exact under all light con- 
ditions. Gives correct 
diaphragm settings for 
sun and twilight, out- 
doors, studio, natural or 
artificial light. Adjust- 
able for individual vision. 
Always ready for use. 

The CINOPHOT saves 
film waste and disap- 
pointment. Price in fine 
sole leather case, 




.SO 



12 



Chas. G. Willoughby, inc. 



HO West 32nd Street 



New York, N.Y. 



JERRY PHILLIPS 

Professional Airplane Pilot 

Specializing in Motion Picture Work. 

Producers and Cinematographers — Attention ! 
Planes Equipped to Carry Motion Picture 

Cameras on Tail Section, Wings or in 

the Cockpit. 
Flying Instruction. Flights to any part of 

the Country. Technical Assistance 

on Productions. 

Phones: Santa Monica 21005 and GRanite 

4274, Clover Flying Field or 
933 Eighteenth Street, Santa Monica, Calif. 



SUBSCRIBE 

FOR THE 

American 
Cinematoqrapher 



J 



m 



September, l!)2 ; 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



Cause No. 4. Too much or too strong 
a cement. We say "splicing" the film, when 
it is more correct to say "welding" the film. 
The cement attacks the celluloid base of the 
film and when the pressure is quickly applied, 
the two pieces of film are welded together. 
When too much or too strong a cement is used, 
the whole celluloid base is softened, instead of 
only the surface, causing the film to cup, or 
buckle, after drying. 

Cause No. 5. Not enough cement or ce- 
ment in bad condition. If too little cement is 
used, it will not soften the celluloid sufficient- 
ly to make the splice hold. Film cement 
evaporates rapidly if left uncorked and will 
cause the mixture to lose its proper propor- 
tions. Cement in this condition will not hold 
the splice. 

Cause No 6. Uneven scraping. It is 
necessary to remove every particle of emul- 
sion to make a good splice. (See Cause No. 
3). However, great care must be taken not 
to thin down the culluloid base for the reason 
stated in Cause No. 4. 

Improper tools, careless handling of the 
film, or dirty hands will also result in poor 
splices. Covered hands or taped fingers will 
not permit the best work. 

So far this paper has dealt with hand- 
made splices. Now let us examine some of 
the results of improperly made splices. The 
fact that every film passes through two or 
three different makes of projectors, and that 
each of the three most widely used make 
threads differently from the others, it does not 
make any difference whether the splice is 
lapped left or right. 

Bad Splices 

Certain tests show conclusively that the 
film invariably runs off at the take-up 
sprocket, and ninety-nine times out of a hund- 
red the run off is caused by a bad splice. The 
reason for this is that the film at the top 
sprocket is kept taut by the tension on the 
reel in the top magazine, and the film is kept 
taut at the intermittent by the tension at the 
aperture. The film feeds on to the bottom 
sprocket out of a loop that is constantly 
slapping back and forth, and a slight imper- 
fection in a splice will cause the film to run 
off and become damaged. 

Not only has a great deal of damage re- 
sulted from improperly made splices, but 
oftimes the presentation of a picture is greatly 
marred. A bad splice also constitutes a fire 



GOERZ 

Negative Raw Stock 



— more definition — no grain — 
also in special daylight loading 
spools for BELL & HOWELL 
"EYEMO" CAMERAS and 
other cameras using 100-foot 
spools. 

IS 

Sole Distributors: 

Fish -Schur man Corporation 

45 West 45th St., New York 
1050 Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, Calif. 

IN CANADA: 

John A. Chantler & Co. 

200 Bay Street, Toronto, Ont. 



BRUSSELS 



VIENNA 



ROME 



MADRID 



LISBON 



JERUSALEM 



LONDON 



RENE 
GUISSART 

Atmospheric Shots in Any 
Part of Europe 



Taken according 
to your own in- 
struflwns in an 
artistic manner to 
match the pho- 
graphy of your pro- 
durllon. 



OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENT IN 
EUROPE FOR: 

American Society oj 
Cinematographers ; 
Frank D. Williams 



118 Avenue des Champs-Elysees 

PARIS 

Cable Address: 

LOUVERANDE-PARIS 



BERLIN 



BUDAPEST 



GENEVA 



CAIRO 



ATHENS 



ALGIERS 



ETC. 



■TC. 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



September. 1926 



hazard. Exhaustive experiments and re- 
search have proven conclusively that the best 
splices cannot be made by hand. 

First: It must be narrow enought in 
width to conform to the perriphery of the 
sprocket wheels. 

Second: It must be uniformly scraped. 

Third: Perforations must be in perfect 
register. 

Fourth : Cement must be quickly and 
evenly applied. 

Fifth : Uniform pressure must be quick- 
ly applied. 

The answer to this is, to properly splice 
film, it must be done automatically. 

It certainly is the duty of exchanges to 
properly inspect and splice the film served 
to the theatres. It is also the duty of the pro- 
jectionist to make as good splices as possible, 
and a little more thought and pains on the 
part of the projectionist in making splices 
will greatly add to the life of the film and re- 
act in better service from the exchanges. 

The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, as 
well as this writer, is ready and willing at all 
times to co-operate with the projectionist for 
improvement in projection and the eradica- 
tion of film damage. 



Goerz Markets Negative On 

Special Spools for "Eyemo" 

Negative raw stock, par speed, in spec- 
ial daylight loading spools, is being marketed 
by the Fish-Schurman Corporation, sole 
distributors of Goerz motion picture raw 
stock. 

The spools may be obtained at both the 
New York and Hollywood offices of Fish- 
Schurman, as well as from the Bell and How- 
ell Company in Chicago. 



New Condensers Made From 

Heat-Proof Optical Glass 

Details of the manufacture of "S. O. G. 
Condensers" were divulged this month by the 
Fish-Schurman Corporation, agents for the 
condensers. 

The product is made from an optical and 
heat-resisting glass, known as "Ignal" glass, 
which has a low co-efficient of expansion, 
.0000040 between 32 and 320 degrees F. While 
the usual run of optical condensers with- 
stand changes to temperature to 120 degrees 
F., this form of glass is impervious to changes 
to 350 degrees and more, it is said. 



Helping you to 

"get it on film" 

GET it down on paper ! " is the slogan 
of the business man — and the poet. 
With directors and cameramen, the phrase 
becomes "Get it down on film!" 

And "the Coops" help you to do that. 
For under their constant, uniform, de- 
pendable light cameramen can take each 
scene at its very best. 

Any lighting problem we can work out 
for you? Just get "Mike" Shannon on 
the job! 



COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office —7207 Santa Monica Blvd. 
KEESE ENGINEERING CO., John T. "Mike" Shannon, Mcr. 

147 ©C. H. E. Co.. 1926 



Roy Davidge 
Film Laboratories 

The Little Laboratory 
with the Big Reputation 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
HOLLYWOOD 1944 




IfALTEH J. VAN RpSSEM 

6049 Hollywood Blvd. 
Phone HO. 0725 
COMMERCIAL PHOTOGRAPHY 

Still Developing and Prinlino^ 
fcHo^lCaroaas-FOR. RENT— Still 




September, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGR APHER 



Twenty-one 



Cinematographer Is Key Factor 

In Film's Success, Says Writer 



By Joseph L. Kelly 

Jerome N. Wilson, well-known author, 
regards the cinematographer as the most 
valuable ally which the writer may have in 
transferring a scenario to the screen. 

Wilson, who, it is reported, has just sold 
to First National the original story, "It Could 
Have Happened," which will be a forthcom- 
ing Colleen Moore starring vehicle, is a pio- 
neer screen author, having more than a decade 
ago written, at the outbreak of the great war, 
the renowned screen story, "Sweetheart of the 
Doomed," which, starring Louise Glaum, 
was one of the first of the late Thomas H. 
Ince's outstanding photoplays. He is also 
author of "Dum Dums," which was produced 
on the New York stage, "Under the Skin," 
"Sunshine Harbor," and other stories. 
Writer's Creation 

"The world recognizes," Wilson states 
concerning the cinematographer, "that the 
writer of screen plays 'starts something' when 
he creates a story that eventually is to serve 
as entertainment for millions of people. But 
he cannot finish his job without the help of 
many aides in the course of the production of 
a motion picture. There is no factor in 
film making which has more to do with giv- 
ing the finished product a life-like touch than 
the man behind the camera. It is a well es- 
tablished fact that the cinematographer can 
make or break, not only the author, his story 
and its director, but the players as well. 
Author's Efforts 

"An author can turn from his typewriter 
the most marvelous of dramatic incidents; he 
can picture Elysian fields as backgrounds for 
these incidents; the technical director can 
duplicate these fields in all their grandeur and 
beauty, but if the cinematographer doesn't 
picture them with the finesse that is his, the 
Elysian fields may as well be a cow-pasture 
that has run to weeds instead of clover. 
Emphasized Art 

"Ask yourself the question: 'Why did 
Douglas Fairbanks place such emphasis on 
the cinematographer's art in giving to the 
screen his 'The Black Pirate'?' And why 
do you hear so many people exclaiming when 
this picture is mentioned : 'The photography 
and its color are simply marvelous'? There 
is only one answer to that question — 'the cine- 
matographer'." 



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FRED HOEFNER 

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GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Cal. 



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American Cinematographer 

1219 20 2122 Guaranty Bldq. 
Hollywood, Calif. 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 1926 



Maude Adams Engaged In 

Colored Photography Work 



Maude Adams is following her long- 
established interest in color photography with 
renewed vigor, according to reports coming 
from the East. 

The process which is commanding Miss 
Adam's attention is known as "Kodachrome." 
Robert T. Flaherty is a co-worker on the mak- 
ing of a picture with the process. Work is 
being done, it is reported, at the Eastman 
Kodak Company laboratories at Rochester, 
N. Y. 



Employment Exchange Founded 

By Junior Cameramen's Club 

A well attended meeting was held by the 
Junior Cameramen's Club at Brandstatter's 
Picadilly on the evening of August 3rd. 

Every studio in Hollywood was repre- 
sented by members present. 

An employment exchange for members 
was organized by David Ragin, president. 
With this exchange in operation, the unem- 
ployment of club members will be taken care 
of in an efficient manner. 

Ira Hoke, the secretary, gave a short talk 
on the operation of the combination Akeley — 
Bell and Howell camera designed by John 
Boyle, A. S. C, and with which Ira Hoke is 

freelancing for Boyle. 

* * * 

Billy Reinhold and Ted Reese are back 
from location at Jungo, Nevada, where they 
have been working on "The Winning of Bar- 
bara Worth." Billy is assisting George 
Barnes, A. S. C, and they have turned out 
some very notable work during the ten weeks 

on the Nevada location. 

* * * 

Roland Piatt, Curtis Fetters and Griffith 
Thoumas have returned from a prolonged 
stay in Colorado and Wyoming, where they 
were on location with the Tom Mix com- 
pany. The trio are on Dan Clark's camera 
staff. * * * 

Burnett Guffy is somewhere at sea on 
"The Yankee Clipper," where he is assisting 
John Mescal. 

Stanley Horsley has just returned from 
an extended trip around the United States. 
On his return, he started work with Gold- 
stone Productions. 



E. Burton Steene 

Freelance 

Akeley Camera 
Specialist 



GRanite 
1622 



Care of American Society of 
Cinematograph era 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 

Holly wooi I, Calif. 



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FOR RENT! 

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CAMERAS 

F 2. 3. - F. 2. 7. - F. 3. 5. Lenses 
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COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 

J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 North Orange St. 
Phone Glendale 3361-W Glendale, California 



CRECO 



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PROJECTION 

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HARRY D. BROWN 

Cinema Studios Supply Corp. 
1438 Beachwood Drive - - - HOIIy 0513 

HOIIy 0514 

Carbons, and Other 
Studio Equipment 



Brown-Asheraft 
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September, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-three 



Chinese Cinematographer 

Studies American Methods 




Left to right: Frank B. Good, A. S. C.) 
Z. E. Shih, visiting Chinese cinematographer ; 
and Perry Evans, A. S. C, on Jackie Coogan 
set where Shih observed American studio 
methods. 



studios where the visiting cinematographer 
also studied shooting methods on pictures be- 
ing photographed by Charles G. Clarke, Reg- 
inald Lyons and George Meehan, all A. S. C. 
members. 

Through special arrangements, Shih 
was given employment for a period of 
several days at the Fine Arts Studios, 
so that he could study more closely 
lighting and other effects in use on the cur- 
rent Coogan production, of which Frank B. 
Good is chief cinematographer. 

On his return to his native land, Shih ex- 
pects to enter into production of all-Chinese 
motion pictures which he hopes will eventu- 
ally find a market in countries of the Occi- 
dent. 

Shih is warm in his praise of the recep- 
tion accorded him by the American Society 
of Cinematographers and its members. 



U. S. Signal Corps Pictures of 
World War Offered For Public Use 



Z. E. Shih, Chinese cinematographer 
from Shanghai, is in Hollywood to observe 
cinematographic methods as practiced in 
American studios. 

Shih has been identified with motion 
picture production in Shanghai for some 
time. He hopes to embody the knowledge, 
which he is acquiring during his visit to the 
world's film capital, in Chinese productions 
which he is scheduled to make in the future. 

Studies A. S. C. Members' Efforts 

Through the courtesy of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, Shih has been 
given the opportunity to observe the cine- 
matographic activities of various A. S. C. 
members. 

Among those who have extended him the 
courtesies of their sets are Alfred Gilks, A. 
S. C, who has just completed the filming of 
"Old Ironsides"; Frank B. Good and his as- 
sociate, Perry Evans, both A. S. C. members, 
who are photographing Jackie Coogan in 
in "Johnnie, Get Your Hair Cut"; and Rollie 
Totheroh, A. S. C, chief cinematographer 
for Charles Chaplin. 

George Schneiderman, A. S. C, pres- 
ented Shih the opportunity to observe labora- 
tory and photographic practices at the Fox 



War action motion pictures, taken by cine- 
matographers on battlefronts during the 
world war, as a part of the activities of the 
Signal Corps of the United States Army, have 
been offered for film production usage by a re- 
cent federal ruling. 

It is said that some two million feet of 
negative are included in the archives of the 
United States government, and that but 10,- 
000 of this footage has ever been given gen- 
eral exhibition. 

Positive prints only may be procured of 
the films, negatives remaining at all times a 
part of the government records. However, as 
many prints as required will be furnished un- 
der the direction of the Signal Corps. 

Preceding release, a finished print of the 
picture in which the department's material is 
used must be brought to Washington and run 
off before three officers designated by the 
Chief Signal Officer of the Army, who will 
determine whether the picture meets all the 
requirements of the department. It will not 
be necessary, however, to file a copy of the pic- 
ture with the department permanently. 

"The apparent revival of interest in his- 
torical films has resulted in many requests for 
scenes from historical films in order to lend 
color and historical accuracy to the scenes 
produced," it is stated in the department's an- 
nouncement. "In the case of a few pictures, 



Twenty four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 192fi 



the producers have been inclined to take un- 
usual liberties with the titles for the scenes in 
order to preserve the continuity of their story, 
thus resulting in the use of scenes in a man- 
ner far different from the real historical evi- 
dence recorded by the picture. It is to avoid 
any such erroneous presentation in the future 
that the present policy has been adopted. 

"No exclusive rights for the use of War 
Department motion pictures will accrue to 
any other purpose than to depict the history 
or graphic events for which such pictures 
were originally intended; the complete pic- 
tures into which any portions of War Depart- 
ment films are incorporated must not depict 
the military service in an erroneous manner; 
the War Department films must not be used 
in the promotion of propaganda through the 
changing of original titles, addition of new 
titles, or the inclusion as part of other sub- 
ject matter in a manner so designated as to 
mislead the public to erroneous views." 



Laboratories Arrange For 

Reciprocal Representation 



A recent laboratory consolidation has 
been effected between the National Aeromap 
Company, 861 Seward street, Hollywood, Los 
Angeles and the Nathan Saland Film Labora- 
tories of New York City. 

All product shot in the West will be 
handled by the Hollywood company while 
the Eastern company will take care of all 
business in their section. In other words, they 
will be respective agents of each other. 

The deal, which, it is said, involves over 
a million in footage, was closed by Ralph M. 
Like, president of the Aeromap Co. and Na- 
than Saland, of Saland Laboratories, on the 
former's recent Eastern visit. 



David Abel, A. S. C, is filming "My Of- 
ficial Wife," a Paul Stein production for 
Warner Bros. Irene Rich and Conway 
Tearle have the leading parts in this picture. 



* * 



Henry Sharp, A. S. C, is shooting "The 
Mysterious Island" for Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer. 




WHETHER for in- 
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shots, Zeiss Lens equip- 
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insures results. No 
matter how thorough 
your methods, how 
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how elaborate your 
settings, the final re- 
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employed. 



CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

153 West 2jrd St. 
New York 
[Formerly H. M. Bennett] 



A NEW LENS 

"That has made good" 
Large aperture F:2.3. To a large extent responsi- 
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subject on the screen. 

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A portrait lens In short focal lengths 

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Price is reasonable 

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A trial will be satisfying 

ASTRO-GESELLSCHAFT, mbh., Berlin 

FOR SALE BY 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. - - Los Angeles, Calif. 

■ * 



a 



September. 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-five 



CLASSIFIED 

ADVERTISING 



Rales: Four cents a word. Minimum charge 
one dollar per insertion. 

All copy must be prepaid and must reach us 
before the 15th of the month preceding publication. 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

American Cinematograph er, 

1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, California 



WANTED: MOTION PICTURE CAMERA 



WILL PL'T you in touch vvilli ou> ers Cor Bell & Howell cameras 
and equipment. Phone or write the A. S. C, 1222 Guaranty 
Bldg. Granite 4274. Hollywood. California. 



FOR SALE — CAMERAS 



BRAND new Eyemo camera, complete with extra magazines, carry- 
ing case, etc., $300.00. . .Also almost new Universal camera. 

built-in dissolve, carrying case, extra magazines, and new 
Burke and James tripod. $325.00. Frank King, 36 Crestwood 

Avenue. Buffalo, N. Y. 



FOR SALE: LENSES 



ONE three-inch Dahlmeyer F.l:9, mounted for Mitchell; one 
two-inch Bausch & Lomb F.2:7; one Dahlmeyer Pentac 37 
mm. F.2:9. George Benoit. 845 Crescent Heights Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 

CARL ZEISS, F. 2.7, 50 mm. Dan Clark, care American Society 
of Cinematographers. 

NEW 40 mm. Goerz Hypar f. 3. 5. lens in Bell & Howell mount 
price $50.(1(1. Write Charles Clarke. 1222 Guaranty Building, 
Hollywood. California. 



FOR RENT: CAMERAS 



FOR RENT — Bell & Howell studio equipment complete. 170-De- 
gree Shutter. Liberal coniniiss'on to cameramen. Call Mr. 
Smith, Metropolitan 4086. Evenings call Main 0047. (Dos 

Angeles). 

AKELEY and Bell & Howell cameras for rent. John Boyle, 1207 
Milton Ave. Phone Granite 2213. Hollywood. California. 

BELL & HOWELL. Victor Milner, 2221 Observatory Ave., Los 
Angeles, California. 596-944. 

MITCHELL, and Bell & Howell Cameras, F.2:3; F.2:7; F.3:5 
Lenses — 40-50*75 mm. Complete equipment. J. R. Lock- 
wood, 523 North Orange St., Glendale, California. GLendale 
336 1-W. 

E. BURTON STEENE, Bell & Howell, and Akeley. Complete 
Camera Equipment. Latest models. Address American 
Society of Cinematographers, Hollywood, Calif. 

BELL & HOWELL. Frank M. Cotner, 6273 Selma Ave., Holly- 
wood, California. Hollywood 5046. 

BELL & HOWELL, 170, with 30, 40, 50 and 75 lens equipment. 
Baby Tripod. Also. B. & H. Cine Motor. Charles Stumar. 
GRanlte 9845. 1201 Vista Street, Hollywood. 

FOR RENT — One Eyemo camera, co-miplete with all accessories. 
Bert Glennon, 5 9 05 Carlton Way, Hollywood, California. 
Phone Hempstead 2743. 

FOR RENT: STELE CAMERAS 

WILL RENT still camera to local parties. Special arrangements 
to A. S. C. members. Geo. Meehan, Ph. GRanlte 3830 744 
Cur son Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

FOR RENT — One 4x5 Graflex Camera and one 4x5 Grafic. 
Bert Glennon. 5950 Carlton Way, Hollywood, Cal. Phone 
Hempstead 274 3. 



FOR RENT: ATRPLANES 



AIRPLANES equipped to carry cameras facilitating 1 the photo- 
graphing of stunts or other unusual action, for rent by the 
hour, day or week. Jerry Phillips. Professional Pilot, Clover 

Field, Santa Monica, California. 



WANTED: POSITION 



EXPERIENCED assistant cameraman desires position. One year 
with Carl Giegory in New York City; one year with Sunshine 
Productions. Good basic knowledge of cinematography. 
Phone Frank Dugas, Santa Monica 626-22. 



Dig nity 

i n 

Advertising 

Espousing the aesthetic as well as the practical 
progress of the art of cinematography, the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer has, through the prestige 
of its advertisers and contributors, gained an en- 
viable place in the realm of dignified advertising. 

The psychology of dignity in compelling at- 
tention which directly breeds the confidence of 
the reader is evinced in the high grade 'copy' 
which is the consistent characteristic of the ad- 
vertisers using the American Cinematographer in 
the field of cinematography. 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinematographer 

may be had on a special one year's club- 
bing subscription at a very substantial 
saving. Separately, the two publica- 
tions cost a total of $4.50 per year. By 
virtue of the clubbing offer, both may 
be had for $3.40. 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bids., 

6331 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood. Calif. 

Gentlemen : Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with the issue of 

lea 

Name 

Address 

Town 

State 

(Note: Camera Craft will be sent for a slight addi- 
tional sum. Consult the clubbing offer.) 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN C'INEMATOGRAPHER 



September, 1926 



Len Roos, A. S. C, Begins 

Work On Australian Film 



Len H. Roos, A. S. C, has begun work on 
his first film as chief cinematographer for 
Australasian Films, Ltd. The production is 
being made under the title, "For the Term of 
His Natural Life." It is being photographed 
at Australasian's "Bondi" studios in Sydney. 

Norman Dawn is' directing; the cast in- 
cludes Eva Novak, George Fisher, Katherine 
Dawn, Steve Murphy and other players 
well-known to American audiences. 

A new Akeley camera outfit has arrived 
for Roos' use in Australia, and, the A. S. C. 
member reports, is causing no little excite- 
ment in film quarters in that country. 



E 


y 


e 

(Con 


- St 


rain 

Page 6) 


• 


tinued frorr 



front of the center of the screen with the eyes 
on a level with the center of the picture. 

"Many producers of motion picture 
films today recognize the importance of util- 
izing every possible means to create good 
films. On the other hand, many old films 
that are still being presented in thousands of 
motion picture houses throughout the country 
fall short of coming up to present-day stand- 
ards. 

"The cheaper houses are forced to ac- 
cept films that are scratched and patched be- 
cause they have been shown so many times be- 
fore. Types of screens are found that are no 
longer considered proper; old type project- 
ing machines in need of repair should be re- 
placed by more modern equipment; careless 
operation is permitted by many managers. 

"Flicker and other evidences of faulty 
projection which cause eyestrain are the re- 
sult of such unnecessary conditions. They 
should not be tolerated and are not to be 
found where effort is made to cater to the 
comfort of audiences. 

"Finally, eyestrain may be caused by im- 
proper general illumination of the theatre. 
The glare is annoying from bright lights near 
the screen, over the piano or orchestra or in 
side brackets. It is not necessary to have 
theatres dimly lighted. 

"Lighting authorities of England recom- 
mend that the intensity of illumination should 



be gradually increased from the front to the 
rear. By following this practice the dim 
light under the screen does not interfere with 
the picture, at the same time the brighter light 
in the rear makes it less confusing for persons 
coming into the theatre from the bright light 
outside. 

"Comfortable illumination is possible as 
evidenced by the pleasing artistic effect pro- 
duced by architects and managers in the more 
modern buildings." 



John F. Seitz, A. S. C, Back 

From Two-Year Stay n Europe 



John F. Seitz, chief cinematographer for 
Rex Ingram productions and a member of 
the American Society of Cinematographers, 
has returned to Hollywood after spending 
two years in Europe photographing Ingram's 
features for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 

Most of this time was spent at Nice, 
France, where Ingram has purchased a 
studio on the Riviera. It was here that Seitz 
photographed both "Mare Nostrum" and 
"The Magician." 

Prior to his stay abroad just concluded, 
Seitz filmed, in a previous trip, Ingram's 
"The Arab," the locale of which was the 
Sahara desert. 



Veteran Still Photographer 

Passes Away In Los Angeles 



Charles Warrington, 49, still photo- 
grapher at the Douglas Fairbanks studios, 
died in Los Angeles last month, after having 
been operated upon for appendicitis. 

Warrington, who had been identified 
with the film industry for more than ten years, 
had photographed stills for Fairbanks in 
numerous of that star's productions. He 
bore no relation to Gilbert Warrenton, a 
member of the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers. 



John Arnold, A. S. C, is on location in 
Yosemite shooting Jack Conway's latest pic- 
ture, "The Understanding Heart," which 
features Joan Crawford. There will be some 
unusual shots of beautiful scenic backgrounds 
in this latest of Arnold's pictures for Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer. 



HOW TO LOCATE MEMBERS OF THE 

American Society of Cinematographers 



Phone GRanite 4274 



OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark ------------- President 

L. Guy Wilky ---------- First Vice President 

Frank B. Good --------- Second Vice President 

Ira H. Morgan --------- Third J' ice President 

George Schneiderman ----------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke ------------ Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Victor Milner Frank B. Good King D. Grav 

Daniel B. Clark Alfred Gilks Fred W. Jackman 

George Schneiderman Charles G. Clarke Reginald E. Lyons 

L. Guy Wilky Glen MacWilliams E. Burton Steene 

John Arnold Homer A. Scott Ira H. Morgan 

Abel, David — with Warner Brothers. Landers, Sam — 
Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. Lockwood. J. R. 

Barnes. George S. — with Henry King Samuel Goldwvn Prod. Lundin, Walter— with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropolis 

Beckway, Wm.— 'an Studios. 

Benoit, Georges — with Metropolitan Productions, Metropoli- Lyons, Reginald — with Fox Studios. 

tan Studios. 

Boyle. John W.— with Balboni. First National, Burbank. Marshall, Wm.— with Raymond Griffith, Famous Players- 
Brodin Norbert F. — Frank Lloyd Productions, Famous Play- Lasky. 

ers-Lasky. McCoid. T. D.— 

Broening. H. Lyman— with F. B. O. Studios. McGill, Barney— with Fox Studios. 

Brotherton, Joseph MacLean, Kenneth G. — with Mack Sennett Studios. 

MacWilliams, Glen — with Fox Studio. 

Clark, Dan — with Tom Mix. Fox Studio. Meehan, George — with Fox Studio. 

Clarke. Chas G— with Geo. Melford, Fox Studio Milner, Victor— with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Cowling, Herford T. Suffolk, Va. Morgan, Ira H. — with Marion Davies, Cosmopolitan, Metro- 

Cotner, Frank M.— with Bud' Barsky Prod. Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Crockett. Ernest — Musuraca. Nicholas. — 
Cronjager, Henry — with Cecil B. De Mille Studios. 

Norton. Stephen S. — 

Dean. Faxon M. — 

Doran Robert V Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studio. 

Dored,' John— Riga, Latvia. Perry, Harry— with Famous Players-Lasky. 

DuPont, Max B.— ? eTry < PauI P — „ „ 

DuPar. E. B— with Warner Bros.. New York City. Poluo, sol— with Chas. R. Rogers, First National. 

Dubray, Joseph A. — ■ _. _ , , 

Ries, Park J. — 

Edeson, Arthur— with First National, New York City. Roos - Len H.— Sydney Australia 

Evans. Perry— with Frank B. Good, Jackie Coogan Prod. * os f;' Jackson J.— with Universal 

Rosher. Charles — with t fa, Berlin. 

Fildew, Wm. — Schneiderman, George — with Fox Studio. 

Fischbeck, Harry A. — with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players Scott Homer A. 

Lasky, New York City. Seitz,' John F.— with Rex Ingram, Europe. 

Fisher, Ross G.— with Fred Thomson, F. B. O. Studios. Sharp, Henry— with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Fried, Abe — with Fox Studio. Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Steene, E. Burton — 

Gaudio. Gaetano — with Svend Gade. First National. Stumar, Charles with Universal. 

Gilks, Alfred — with James Cruze, Famous Players-Lasky. Stumar John with Universal. 

Glennon, "Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Good. Frank B. — with Jackie Coogan Prod. Tolluirst, Louis H. — producing microscopic pictures, for 

Gray, King D. — Pathe. 

Griffin, Walter L. — with David Hartford Produetions. Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studio. 

Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Haller. Ernest— with Robert Kane Prods., New York City. ,Y an B uren . N f d_ " 

Heimerl Alois G Enger, Charles — with First National Productions, Bur- 

bank. 
Jackman, Floyd— Fred W. Jackman Prods. V:ni Tre « s ' Jan ' es C ~ w ' th <-' olle <> n Moore, First National 

Jackman, Fred W.— directing Fred W. Jackman Prods. i ro tucuons. Bin Dank. 

Jennings. J. D. — with Buster Keaton. Warrenton. Gilbert — with Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — with Corinne Griffith Productions. 
Koenekamp. Hans F. — Whitman, Philip H. — with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario 

Kull, Edward— with Universal. Dept. 

Kurrle, Robert — with Edwin Carewe. Wilky, L. Guy — 

Edison, Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb, Arthur C. — Attorney. 

Meetings of the American Society of Cinematographers are held every Monday evening. On the first and the third Monday 
of each month the open meeting is held; and on the second and the fourth, the meeting of the Board of Governors. 

12 19-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 



HOLLYWOOD 



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i?n 



Vol. VII, No. 7 
25 Gents a Copy 



October, 1926 



'^s^^AZ&Z 



Published in 
Hollywood, California 




American 
Cinematographer 




By American Society 
of Cinematographers 





Sunset, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Reproduced from Series of Stills Presented 

by Daniel B. Clark, A.S.C., to Location Library of American Society of 

Cinematographers , Hollywood. 



IN THIS ISSUE : 
"Teaching Projection to Theatre Managers" — 
by John F. Barry; Pro jection — conducted by 
Earl J. Denison ; Amateur Cinematography ; 

"In Camerafornia" 




|N exceptionally long line 
of gradations combined 
with fine grain, high speed 
and excellent color separa- 
tion, makes 




Negative the better stock 



Ask the men who use it 



m 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 



35 West 45th St., New York 

and Aller, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 



1056 North Cahuenga Ave. 



GRanite 6669 



Hollywood, Calif. 



L 



Vol. VII OCTOBER, 1926 No. 7 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss, Editor and General Manager 



Table of Contents: 

Page 

The Editor's Lens 5 

Director Advocates Panchromatic Stock 6 

Rosher Returns to Photograph Murnau Feature ... 7 

New Tripod Head 8 

Cinematographer is Hero in Florida Storm 

By Paul Thompson 9 

(Reprinted by special permission of Motion Picture News) 

In Camerafornia 10 

Amateur Cinematography — Standard and Sub-standard 

Film for Amateurs — By H. Syril Dusenbery ... 11 

Projection — Conducted by Earl J. Denison 

Teaching Projection to Theatre Managers — 

By John F. Barry 12 

Notes of Junior Cameramen's Club During Past Month . 15 

Presentation Suffers from Bad Projection for "Ben Hur" — 

By H. Lyman Broening, A.S.C 18 

Classified Advertising 25 

Members of A. S. C. in Great Demand Among Film 

Producers 26 

A. S. C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Subscription: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies 25c. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, Calif. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographers , Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CI NEMATOGRAPHER 



Reliable Advertisers 




DVERTISERS in the 
American Cinematogra- 
pher are reliable. In their 
respective lines, they represent 
the strongest firms in the world. 
They have built up their repu- 
tations by fair dealing. They 
give service. They, like their 
products, are dependable. 



He who deals with those whom the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer is proud to number 
among its family of advertisers, does busi- 
ness with the world's best. 






October. 1926 



October, 1926 



AM ERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Five 



The EDITOR'S LENS 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



Reward of Merit 



\X/HILE the supply of cinematographers in Hol- 
lywood still exceeds the demand, it is a signifi- 
cant circumstance, as mentioned by Daniel B. Clark, 
president of the American Society of Cinematogra- 
phers, in other pages of this issue, that, during the 
past month, the point was reached where not one of 
the A.S.C. members who are freelancing was avail- 
able. 

* For the pictures that are "bigger and better," 
A.S.C. members are in demand — all of which shows 
sound production judgment on the part of studio 
officials. 



New Field for Fiction 



[^HE retrospect of another generation may be 

necessary to accomplish it, but the cinematog- 

rapher seems destined to become a romantic figure 

in fiction, either in literature or on the screen itself. 

If The exploit of Ralph Earle, Pathe News cinema- 
tographer, in the recent Florida hurricane, was an 
Odessey condensed in the characteristically modern 
short period of time. Once again it showed the 
cinematographer as the romantic figure that he is. 

1 Overland trail pioneers, railroad builders — yea, 
even the fireman, postman and policeman — and 
others who contemporaneously are acknowledged as 
leading a drab existence have been transformed, by 
the magic of screen stories, into heroic entities. 



1l Even as Hollywood has taken its own picture 
many times and looked at it, some day some author 
is going to write the story of the cinematographer 
for the screen. It may be a Florida hurricane, a 
Johnstown flood or a cinematographic dash around 
the world. The deeds of men like Earle and Her- 
ford Tynes Cowling will offer material enough. 
And there will be an author to write the story — 
one with a perspective as must be held by a news- 
paperman like Linton Wells, who himself has just 
established the record for "going around the world." 



Subservient Art? 



f Whatever may be the excellencies or the crudi- 
ties of the German-made motion pictures, they at 
least are centering attention on one long-neglected 
fact — that the cinema is an art distinct and complete 
in itself. However inanely simple such a statement 
may seem to be, it is still true that pictures are larg- 
ely literature, paintings, etc., as expressed in cinema- 
tography. It's been a case of "the play's the thing" 
rather than "the picture's the thing." 

11 As is well pointed out by John F. Seitz, A. S. C, 
it is a truism that when a subject finds perfect ex- 
pression in one art, it does not necessarily follow 
that such perfection can be duplicated in another. 
Hence the great themes of literature often "miss" 
in films. 

If The German idea, "The Big Parade" treatment, 
have pointed the way. Simple stories, deliberately 
told, attain a forcefulness which indicates what is 
still to come in the cinema art. 



Six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



Director Advocates 
Panchromatic Stock 



® 



Desirability of panchromatic film for gen- 
eral production usage is stressed by Henry 
King, who, a pioneer among directors in 
adopting this form of stock, has just complet- 
ed the direction of "The Winning of Barbara 
Worth," on which George Barnes, A.S.C., was 
chief cinematographer. 

As in "The Son of the Shiek," which, the 
last picture starring Valentino, likewise was 
photographed by Barnes, the "Barbara 
Worth" film, which is being produced by 
Samuel Goldwyn, was shot entirely on pan- 
chromatic. 

Popular 

"Panchromatic," King states in discussing 
the now popular stock, "is, to describe it in a 
lay way, a highly sensitive negative which en- 
ables the camera to register all colors in their 
true relationship with black and white. It is 
more sensitive than the ordinary negative and 
carries more gradation, permitting all shades 
between extreme white and black together 
with almost perfect detail. 

Prospects 
"I believe that the efforts of leading cinema- 
tographers to improve motion photography, 
as indicated in numerous big productions of 
1925, were made possible in no small degree 
by the use of panchromatic film. I believe 
also that the higher development in the use 
of this film, together with the experiments now 
in progress, will make the 1927 big picture at 
least twenty per cent better photographically." 

Pioneer 

Commenting on his early adoption of pan- 
chromatic, King said : 

"I hardly wish to pose as a Columbus in this 
matter. It is true, however, that I made the 
first big picture in which panchromatic was 
used for the entire production. That was in 
1923-24 when we filmed "Romola" in Italy. 
Up to that time panchromatic had been used 
for exteriors, but never generally for interiors. 

Proof 
"While I was making pictures in New York 
I became associated with Gustave Deitz, who 
is now in Hollywood and who is an experi- 
mentor in panchromatic lines. At that time 
I was very interested in this type of negative 
and had used it in various scenes in my pro- 
ductions. Deitz was enthusiastic and told me 



Henry King, Pioneer in Use 
of Stock, Urges Wide Appli- 
cation of Panchromatic Film 



that a photoplay filmed entirely with panchro- 
matic would be a sensation. We began at that 
time a series of tests, using negative in all sorts 
of difficult interior shots and the excellent re- 
sults obtained proved to us that the new nega- 
tive could be used successfully under condi- 
tions where the common stock of negative had 
formerly been used exclusively. With Roy 
Overbaugh, the chief cinematographer, Deitz 
went with us to Italy where we worked eleven 
months on 'Romola.' We were surprised at 
the little light needed, for while it was gener- 
ally supposed that panchromatic was slower 
than common stock, it proved a great deal fas- 
ter. 

Peculiar 

"I believe," King continued, "that pan- 
chromatic has a great future. It is proving an 
interesting field for experimentation in the use 
of the effects presented by the Nevada desert 
while we were making 'Barbara Worth.' The 
peculiar lighting of the desert presented var- 
ied problems, which were solved on 'the field 
of battle' and which gave us some new views 
on the use of panchromatic. The results were 
unusually excellent. 

"The popularity of panchromatic is shown 
by the recent drop in price quotations by the 
Eastman people. When I first used it for an 
entire production, it was expensive because it 
was not in general use. The signs seem to 
point to its eventual use throughout the indus- 
try and this general use will lead to the greater 
perfection of negative, and, it follows, to more 
photographically excellent results." 



President of A. S. G. Operated 

On at Hospital in Hollywood 



Daniel B. Clark, president of the American 
Society of Cinematographers and chief cine- 
matographer for Tom Mix, is confined to the 
Hollywood Hospital, where he underwent a 
minor operation last month. 

This is the first time in more than five years 
that Clark has been absent from his regular 
post. 

During this period he has photographed 
Mix in 46 features, for a total of almost five 
million feet of negative, without missing a 
dav's work. 



October, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHE R 



Seven 




Charles Rosher, A. S. C. (left) at camera on location at Old 
Heidelberg. The hat which Rosher has donned was purchased 
for the fabulous sum of seventy-five cents in American money 
from one of the German Wandervoegel (wandering minstrels) 
whom he met at Heidelberg. 



Rosher Returns/tfPhotograph Murnau Feature 

ff A. S. G. Member 
Comes from Germany 
where He Has Been Un- 
der Contract to "Ufa" for 
Past Year. 

# 

Charles Rosher, A.S.C., has 
returned to Hollywood from 
Berlin, where he has been un- 
der contract to "Ufa" for the 
past year, for the purpose of 
photographing the first Amer- 
ican production of F. W. 
Murnau, director of "The 
Last Laugh." 

With Fox 

Rosher comes back to Hol- 
lywood through arrangements 
effected between Ufa and the 
William Fox organization, 
which is producing the Mur- 
nau film. The A.S.C. member- 
ber has already taken up his 
duties on the feature, for 
which he is at present on lo- 
cation at Lake Arrowhead 
Another Contract 

Reports that Rosher had 
signed a cinematographic con- 
tract with British National, 
who, the producers of "Nell 
Gwyn," are to release through 
Famous Players-Lasky, were 
verified on the return to Sou- 
thern California of the A.S.C. 
member. However, the agree- 
ment with the English organi- 
zation does not call for the fa- 
mous cinematographer's du- 
ties to begin until a later date, 
before which, it is stated, he 
is to do the photography on 
the next vehicle for Mary 
Pickford, for whom he has 
been chief cinematographer 
in all of her greatest produc- 
tions. 

Rosher's stay in Germany 
was notable. As one of the 
outstanding members of the 
cinematographic profession in 
America, he was accorded sig- 
nal honors bv his fellow work- 




"Prosit," and Rosher — as a close inspection of his glass ivill 
reveal — drank in water! All of which shows that he is a law- 
abiding citizen, even when abroad. But in the "schooners" — 
well, that's different; they are being skippered by Heidelberg 
students. 



ers in the German studios. 

The trip just concluded was 
not the first made by Rosher 
to the continent. It was as a 
result of a jaunt to Europe last 
year that his contract with 



Ufa came about. Previously 
he had, through special ar- 
rangements with Miss Pick- 
ford, filmed an important pro- 
duction which was made by 
Italian producers in Italy. 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 








NEW TRIPOD 
HEAD 

Top: Dan Clark, A. S. C, 
inspecting Akeley type of tri- 
pod head for Bell & Howell 
or Mitchell cameras, etc., in- 
vented by A. Fried, (right), 
of the Fox Studios, which 
control the patents. 

Bottom: Shows a close-up 
of the device. 



4tr 



October. 1926 



A M ERICA N C I N RM ATOGR APHER 



Nine 



Cinematographer Is Hero in Florida Storm 

Ralph Earle, of Pathe News, By Paul Thompson Using Aeroplane, Automobile 
Braves Storm and Falling (Reprinted by special and Trains, Personally Takes 
Buildings to Get Pictures. ^XTr" News!'" Film North to New York. 



"Ralph Earle is as anxious to see Mr. 
Thompson as Mr. Thompson can possibly 
be to see him." This was the re-assuring tele- 
phone message relayed to me in his office by 
Emanuel Cohen, editor of Pathe News. It 
was through him I was trying to make an ap- 
pointment at the hospital with the cameraman 
who had photographed the Miami disaster 
and then by train and plane come north to de- 
liver in person his news-reels. This cordiality 
on the part of the man who had done a really 
exceptional bit of work to receive me in the 
guise of an interviewer was flatteringly based 
on his acquaintanceship with my own many 
years' work as one of the country's news pho- 
tographers. His being in the hospital was due 
to what he had gone through during the pe- 
riod of taking for his company the photo- 
graphs of the Florida hurricane and its work 
of devastation, and the mad dash north with 
the results. 

Curiously, my apprenticeship for interview- 
ing plucky Earle was served just prior to the 
interview by witnessing for review purposes a 
Pathe comedy. This was based on the idea of 
a copy boy in a newspaper office with ambi- 
tions to become a first-string reporter and the 
realization of these self-same ambitions. What 
better way to learn the reportorial art? 

"Can't Put Excuses on Screen" 

"You can't put excuses on the screen to ex- 
plain the absence of news-reel pictures; so 
whatever else you do, keep that camera dry." 
In that statement made to his garage-employee 
helper in carrying the tripod and camera to 
take scenes of the disaster is the summing up 
of the character of Ralph Earle, Pathe cam- 
eraman. 

Knowing that he was in Miami, Manager 
Cohen had no doubts about the quality of the 
pictures which his organization would get to 
send out. It was merely a question of what 
would be the earliest possible moment that 
they would reach Jersey City for copies to be 
made to rush to the theatres of the country 
supplied by his company. With the destruc- 
tion of the Sikorsky plane whichFonck was to 
drive- to Paris in the first non-stop flight, a 
news -story which was carefully and painstak- 



ingly to be covered by Pathe, the news-reel 
department on Forty-fifth Street had cause 
enough for worry without devoting too much 
thought to Florida and Earle. 

The faith was justified. The pictures came 
through hugged more or less closely to the 
chest of the man who had taken them, even 
though the cameraman's next stop was a priv- 
ate hospital on Fortieth Street. Here he was 
to have bruises and abrasions cared for, his 
shoes and stockings cut off and the lower parts 
of his body bathed and tenderly swathed in 
bandages. Complete rest and sufficient and 
the right kind of food were also prescribed 
with a few incidental shots of anti-toxin to 
make certain there would be no disastrous 
after effects from his Florida experience. And 
twenty-four hours after his admission to the 
hospital the news-reel man was begging the 
doctor to re-assure the boss that he was suffi- 
ciently recovered and healthy to justify his 
going to Philadelphia on Thursday for the 
Dempsey-Tunney fight. Granted the boon, 
he promised to return to the hospital on Fri- 
day for a longer stay. Of such stuff are the 
right sort of news-cameramen made, men with 
a reportorial sense and a knowledge of how 
and when to turn the crank and — most impor- 
tant — possessors of that inelegant but eloquent 
word called "guts." 

There was, according to Earle, prescience 
of the storm that was to come as early as Fri- 
day afternoon in Miami. Editors Leyshone 
and Irwin, of the Daily News, had published 
in that afternoon's last edition a notice to the 
effect that they would print extras that night 
of the progress of the storm when it arrived. 
It was in their office, where they were linger- 
ing long after their paper had gone to press, 
that Earle got his first advance dope on the 
coming cyclone or hurricane. The weather 
report, on the other hand, distinctly said : "Pay 
no attention to any pessimistic prophecies of a 
storm; there is nothing to it. It is merely 
newspaper publicity," but failed to explain 
just wherein any newspaper could profit by 
such dire forebodings. Incidentally, the Daily 
News did get out their extras, even though as 
late as four P. M. on Sunday the floor of the 

(Continued on Page 20) 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 




E. Burton Steene, A. S. C, has been retained 
to do the Akeley work in a number of forth- 
coming Paramount features which are now in 
the course of production at the Famous 
Players-Lasky West Coast studios. Steene, 
who has created a sterling reputation as an 
Akeley camera specialist, made Akeley scenes 
during the past month on "Hotel Imperial," 
of which, starring Pola Negri, Maurice Stiller 
is the director and Bert Glennon, A. S. C, is 
the chief cinematographer. Steene executed 
similar work on "Stranded in Paris," for 
which he went to San Francisco with William 
Marshall, A. S. C, the chief cinematographer, 
for location shots. Bebe Daniels is starred and 
Arthur Rosson is directing. 



Gaetano Gaudio, A. S. C, has completed 
the cinematography on "The Blonde Saint," 
a Sam Rork production, for First National. 
Lewis Stone and Doris Kenyon are starred. 
Svend Gade directed. 

* * * * 

Harry A. Fischbeck, A. S. C, is photo- 
graphing the concluding scenes in D. W. Grif- 
fith's Paramount production, "Sorrows of Sa- 
tan," on which Fishbeck is chief cinematog- 
rapher. 



Harold W enstrom, A. S. C, is photograph- 
ing "The Lady in Ermine," the latest Corinne 
Griffith starring vehicle. 

•* * -* * 

Frank B. Good, A. S. C, and Perry Evans, 
A. S. C, who is associated with Good on the 
camera work, have been in San Mateo and ad- 
jacent California locations during the past 
month for the photographing of race-track 
scenes for "Johnny, Get Your Hair Cut," 
which stars Jackie Coogan. 



Ira H. Morgan, A. S. C, has completed the 
filming of "Tell It to the Marines" a Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer production, directed by 
George Hill. 



E. B. Du Par, A. S. C, is engaged with new 
stages in Warner Brothers' Vitaphone system 
in New York City where, during the past 
month, he has photographed Elsie Janis, 
George Jessel, Al Jolson and Governor Al 
Smith for the latest presentation which will 
probably be used in conjunction with the pres- 
entation at the Colony of "The Better Ole," 
on which Du Par was chief cinematographer. 
Besides New York City, Vitaphone is now 
being operated in Chicago, St. Louis, Atlantic 
City and Boston, and it is said that it will soon 
make its Los Angeles debut. 

* * * * 

John W . Boyle, A. S. C, has gone to New 
York City, where he is to photograph a First 
National feature, to be made under the pro- 
duction management of Ray Rockett. 

^ "<^>" *n' ^ 

Philip H. Whitman, A. S. C, became a 
member of the proud fathers' class during the 
past month, when a son and heir came to join 
the Whitman family circle. Mother and son 
are reported as doing splendidly. > 

* * * * 

Charles Van Enger, A. S. C, has returned 
to New York City for a brief stay for the pur- 
pose of photographing Colleen Moore in 
"Orchids and Ermine," a First National pro- 
duction. Van Enger finished the photography 
on "Men of Dawn," starring Milton Sills 
before he left for the metropolis. The A. S. 
C. member spent several months of the present 
year in New York photographing features for 
First National, to which organization he is 
under contract. 

* * * * 

Jean Trebaol, who was engaged in the cam- 
era rental business in Palms, was killed in a 
railroad accident last month at Glendale. Mrs. 
Jeanne Trebaol, the deceased's mother, will 
conduct the camera rentals as heretofore. 

* * * * 

Georges Benoit, A. S. C, is photographing 
Priscilla Dean in "Jewels of Desire," a Metro- 
politan production. Paul Powell is directing. 



October, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



Amateur Cinematography 



Standard and Sub-standard Film for Amateur 



35 mm. Field Thrown Open 

to Amateurs by Practicing 

Simple Economies. 



By H. Syril 
Dusenberg 

(Chairman, Motion Pic- 
ture Committee, Califor- 
nia Camera Club.) 



Short-ends and Discriminate 

Gutting and Developing Keep 

Down Cost. 



The present widespread popularity of ama- 
teur cinematography is due, in a measure, to 
the introduction of the 16 mm. sub-standard 
film by the Eastman Kodak Company. The 
big drawback in past to the use of the 35 mm. 
standard film for non-professional use was its 
great cost. Few amateurs could afford to dab- 
ble in this branch of photography simply for 
their own amusement, when one finished print 
would cost from ten to twelve cents for every 
foot. With the advent of the 16 mm. sub- 
standard stock plus the reversal process of fin- 
ishing the film, cinematography at once came 
into the range of the amateur's pocket book 
and at the present time is threatening to sweep 
the old-time "snap-shot" still photographer 
off his feet. The economies brought about by 
the use of this film are so well known that 
there is no need to go into the matter here. 
The question now arises, what economies can 
there be applied to standard film? Is it really 
so much more costly than the 16 mm. sub- 
standard cine film? Do you know that there 
are a number of economies applicable to 35 
mm. film, which, if all are put into use, will 
bring down the operating expense of standard 
film so that the difference between it and the 
sub-standard film is almost negligible? 
Freely Used 

The professional cinematographer uses film 
freely. The actual cost of negative stock is 
one of the smallest items of the production ex- 
penses. Re-takes are frequent, perhaps far too 
frequent than they should be. The average 
amateur with his sub-standard film also shoots 
too much footage. He starts his camera too 
far ahead of his subject and runs it too long 
afterwards. With the more serious-minded 
amateur, however, the one who is using stand- 
ard stock, all this is changed. Every, foot 
means money out of his pocket and since the 
film is for his own personal use, there is little 
or no chance of his ever seeing the money 
back. Once in a great while, however, if he 
plavs in luck, he may be able to sell a few feet 
to a news weekly. This, by the way. is a big 



point in favor of using standard stock. At all 
events, he plans his shots carefully so that he 
can take them on the minimum amount of 
film. He avoids re-takes altogether and makes 
every foot count. He studies his exposures 
carefully and knows his limitations of the stock 
he is using, as well as those of his camera. He 
so trains himself that if he were given a pro- 
fessional assignment, he would in all prob- 
ability be able to cover it with a minimum of 
film, and at the same time, get all the interest- 
ing essentials of the scene in question. In 
other words, he holds down his expense by 
using less film per shot and by making every 
foot of film mean something. Therefore, let 
us put down in our book, economy number 
one, is to use the minimum amount of footage 
per scene. This will also reduce the amount 
of cutting necessary and is, therefore, really a 
double economy. 

Short Ends 
Next, by the use of short-ends, the cost of 
the film per foot can be reduced to an absolute 
minimum. Short-ends of negative stock are 
on the market at very low prices and should 
command the serious attention of the amateur. 
Nearly all of the larger film laboratories and 
some of the larger studios have shorts to dis- 
pose of in pieces from twenty-five feet to one 
hundred feet in length. These can be pur- 
chased very reasonably. It is ideal stock for 
amateur use. It is true that short-ends are not 
guaranteed. Often you will find a piece that 
has been carelessly handled and, as a result, a 
few frames are fogged on a hundred-foot 
piece. What does that matter? They can be 
cut out and hardly, if ever, missed. A little 
skillful editing will cover this defect. In 
proportion to the great saving in cost, the few 
bad spots that appear once in a while are of 
practically no importance. We may, there- 
fore, put down as economy number two: use 
short ends. 

Own Finishing 

The serious amateur will further economize 

■ ' on P \?e 1 ^ ) 



Twelve AMERIC A N 


CINEMATOGRAPHER 




October, 1926 


PROJECTION • 


Condu&ed 


by 


EARL 


J- 


DENISON 



Teaching Projection By John F. Barry 

to Theatre Managers 



(Director, Publix Theatre 
Managers' School) 



Theatre Manager Should Be 
Trained to Be Versed in all 
Phases of Film Projection. 



Because the readers of this magazine are in- 
terested in the attitude of theatre managers to- 
wards projection, it was suggested that an 
article be prepared indicating why the im- 
portance of projection is emphasized during 
the training given at the Publix Theatre Man- 
agers' Training School and how that training 
equips the manager for the efficient supervi- 
sion of projection. 

Every detail of theatre operation is planned 
according to its influence in attracting patron- 
age. It cannot be denied that the condition of 
projection in theatres today affects the sale 
of tickets. 

There was a time when motion picture thea- 
tre audiences were not as critical of projection 
as they are today. Then it was possible to run 
films through the projector with little consid- 
eration of speed, the condition of the film, the 
condition of the screen and the final result. It 
seemed that as long as the picture reached the 
screen the audience was satisfied. 
Condoned 

Defects were endured patiently because the 
very novelty of the entertainment kept atten- 
tion. Flickering, travel ghosts, unsteady pic- 
ture, poor focus, careless framing and defec- 
tive masking, were met patiently. They were 
accepted as inevitable. The slide which fol- 
lowed the break in the film "One Moment 
Please," was accepted without a murmur. 
Audience Critical 

Times have changed. Audiences are now 
critical and do notice the standard of projec- 
tion, even if they cannot discuss the matter in 
technical terms. They may suffer in silence 
and not make their displeasure evident. But 
they do not return to the theatre if there is any 
alternative. Very often they make their dis- 
pleasure very evident. 

On Broadway 
For instance, at a critical moment in the 
showing of a big photoplay to a Broadway 
audience this spring the film broke and a blank 
screen stared at the audience, dispelling the 
illusion and spoiling their pleasure. The audi- 
ence was not silent. There were hisses and cat 
calls and angry comment, loud enough to con- 



vince anyone that resentment was deeply felt. 
It made very clear that audiences can no 
longer be imposed upon, and that projection is 
important. Further proof of this can be 
found by listening to the comment of motion 
picture fans in communities where competi- 
tive theatres are striving for patronage. One 
of the factors that determine preference for 
one theatre rather than another is projection. 

Patrons will explain their attendance by 
some statement like: 

"I prefer this theatre because the pictures 
are always clear and the picture does not seem 
distorted, no matter from what seat in the 
house it is viewed." The importance of good 
projection is evident at the box office. 
Smaller Houses 

Excellent projection is not something that is 
limited to the larger theatres. There are small 
theatres where efficient supervision of projec- 
tion makes it practically perfect despite the 
absence of expensive equipment. There are 
large theatres in which the projection is 
shamefully defective, considering the equip- 
ment that is available. 

The Illusion 

Projection is important from the very na- 
ture of motion picture entertainment. If this 
entertainment is to give its full measure of 
satisfaction, the audience should feel that they 
are part of the story, living its action, fighting 
and loving and fearing and thrilling; and 
moving on and conquering with the characters 
of the action, just as though they were the 
characters themselves, or part of the action. 
In other words, they should never consciously 
realize that they are looking at a two dimen- 
sional surface, covered with light and shad- 
ows. Nor should they consciously realize that 
there is a projector above them throwing light 
that makes only shadows. In other words, 
they should lose themselves in the story and 
forget the medium, even forgetting that they 
are sitting in a theatre chair. They should be 
carried out of themselves and live through 
what can be called an illusion. 

Thwarting Effect 

Anything that prevents the motion picture 

(Continued on Page 16) 



October, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Thirteen 



Does justice to your skill 



Only Eastman Panchromatic Negative 
does full justice to the cinematographer's 
skill. 

For only this film combines Eastman 
photographic quality and complete color 
sensitiveness. 

Sensitive to blue, red, yellow, green, it 
enables you to render all colors in their 
correct tone relationship in black and white. 



Write for the booklet "Eastman Pan- 
chromatic Negative Film for Motion 
Pictures." Properties, uses, handling, 
development of the lilm are described. 



Motion Picture Film Department 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



'tVSSI^Ma 




This is the 

Bell & Howell 



MAKES MOVIES AS THE EYE SEES 




STANDARD AUTOMATIC 

PROFESSIONAL CAMERA 

FOR FIELD AND STUNT USE 

—equipped with the 
new doublespeed 
feature « •» <• ■♦ 

EYEMO is used by Pathe, International, 
Fox, Kinograms, Universal, and others to 
scoop the picture in NEWSREEL work 



THE PIONEER 

The Bell & Honvell Com- 
pany are pioneers in the 
motion picture industry, 
having by superior design 
and construction brought 
about the present standardi- 
zation of producing equip- 
ment. 

The illustration belovj 
shows one of the late model 
Bell & Hoivell professional 
studio cameras used almost 
exclusively by the foremost 
producers the world over. 
Eyemo standard portable 
camera is rapidly gaining 
the same reputation for 
superiority in its field. 



It is also used for professional production purposes by Famous 
Players-Lasky, Universal, Warner Brothers, Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer, Charlie Chaplin, Christie and others. 

Eycmo has been used in every recent exploring expedition of 
importance. 

Its most recent activity, "putting the neighborhood in movies," 
is coining money for local exhibitors. 

The new double speed feature per- 
mits taking motion pictures at 
either normal speed (16 exp. per 
second) or double speed (32 per 
second). The speeds are shifted in- 
stantaneously, simply by moving a 
lever. This new double speed me- 
chanism can be incorporated in any 
Eyemo now in use taking pictures 
at normal and half speeds. 



This shows how easy Eye- 
mo is to handle and operate. 
Simply sight through the 
spy -glass viewfinder and 
press the trigger. Eyemo 
uses standard film. 100-jt. 
daylight loading rolls or 120- 
't. darkroom load. Full spe- 
. ideations given in literature 
the coupon will bring. 





I 



Mail this for more information 

BELL & HOWELL COMPANY, 

1805 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

/~if> Please send me your special circulars 

rStil^U & MUWtilA. l^,U. I describing the fymo Camera and its uses. 

1805 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, 111. ' 



Mail the coupon for complete 



information 



Neve York, Hollywood, London 

Established 1907 



I 



Na m r 
Address. 



warn* 



October, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER 



Fifteen 



AMATEUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 



(Continued from Page 11) 



by doing his own finishing. If he will develop 
the film in short sections, he will find that it 
is really quite easy. Small racks holding 25 
feet or even 5 feet of film are easily made, or 
can bs purchased reasonably. Such racks or 
frames require a comparatively small amount 
of developing solution. Any standard refer- 
ence book on the subject will give detailed in- 
structions. By developing your own film in 
short lengths you have the added advantage 
of being able to give each scene the exact time 
of development that it requires. This will 
give you better results than sending your films 
to a professional laboratory, where they can- 
not afford to give your little order the indivi- 
dual treatment it needs. Therefore, economy 
number three is to develop your own negative. 

Editing Negative 
Once the negative is made and finished, it 
should be carefully edited before a positive 
print is made. Project the negative, if you 
wish, but you will find that after a little ex- 
perience that this is hardly necessary. Don't 
be afraid to cut. Take your time and you will 
be amply repaid in the long run. Learn to 
make neat splices. Special care must be taken 
when making splices on the negative so that 
the frames are in absolute register. Splices 
must be neat and carefully made so that they 
will pass through the ''printer" without any 
difficulty. Go over your film slowly and fol- 
low the movement carefully, then cut, CUT 
Cut and then cut some more! Remember that 
every foot of negative stock that you cut means 
a corresponding saving of positive stock. 
When you have reduced your negative down 
to its essential footage, then and only then, 
are you ready to make a print. It is recom- 
mended that a "step-printer ,1 be used in place 
of a "continuous 1 ' printer, especially if your 
negative contains many splices. If you can 
not conveniently obtain or secure the use of 
a good printer, this portion of your work may 
be given to the finishing laboratory. How- 
ever, there are many used printers on the mar- 
ket, discarded by professional laboratories as 
obsolete that are well suited for amateur use. 
Shop around a bit and you will doubtless be 
able to pick up a printer at a reasonable price 
that will answer your purpose. We may, 
therefore, note economy number four is to 



reduce the expense of positive stock by editing 
your negative carefully. 

If these economies are put into use, the fin- 
ished film as projected on the screen will be 
full of snap and action. All slow-moving sur- 
plus film will have been discarded. Members 
of the California Camera Club who have been 
practicing all of these economies and doing 
all of their own finishing with the equipment 
provided by the club, find that they can turn 
out standard film for very little more per 
screen minute of showing time than the aver- 
age "press-the-button" amateur using a sub- 
standard outfit. In addition to this there is 
the added advantage of being able to file away 
the negative so that more prints can be made 
if the future should require it. Thanks to the 
energetic camera manufacturers, there are on 
the market today a number of inexpensive 
cameras using standard film and the writer 
earnestly recommends that they be given seri- 
ous consideration before a new outfit is pur- 
chased. 



Notes of Junior Cameramen's 

Club News during Past Month 

Gregg Toland was the guest of honor at a 
dinner given by the Junior Cameramen's Club 
last month. Toland is an ex-president of the 
club and just returned after an extensive stay 
in New York City. While there he assisted 
Arthur Edeson, A. S. C, in the filming of two 
feature productions for First National. 

* * * * 

The Junior Cameramen's Club almost lost 
a member when the speedboat from which 
Eddie Cohen, second cameraman for First 
National, was photographing scenes, capsized 
off Laguna Beach. Fortunately for the club 
Eddie caught the keel of the overturned boat 
instead of the anchor. 

"Speed" Mitchell and Al Irving are both 
busy assisting on "Twinkletoes." The club 
hopes the director will quit working nights, so 
as to give Speed and Al a chance to attend 

club meetings. 

* * * * 

Ira Hoke is using John Boyle's Akeley — 
Bell & Howell combination camera on Col- 
leen Moore's picture, "Twinkletoes." Jim- 
mie Van Trees, A. S. C, is chief cinemato^- 
rapher. Ira and his Akeley camera are ~ 
busy as two bugs in a rug, and he has had I 
turn down several jobs. 



Sixteen 



AMERI C AN CINEMA TOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 




WHETHER for in- 
terior or outdoor 
shots, Zeiss Lens equip* 
ment on your camera 
insures results. No 
matter how thorough 
your methods, how 
good your lighting or 
how elaborate your 
settings, the final re- 
sult will be better — 
whenever and where- 
ever Zeiss Lenses are 
employed. 



CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

153 West tjrd St. 
New York 
[Formerly H. M. Bennett] 



A NEW LENS 

"That has made good" 

Large aperture F:2.3. To a large extent responsible 
for the Bas-relief, or solid appearance of the subject 
on the screen. 

Good definition over the entire field, yet not harsh 
or wiry. 

A portrait lens in short focal lengths 

40mm, 50mm, 75 mm- with full closing diaphragm. 

Price is reasonable 

40mm $40.00 

50mm 50.00 

75mm 55.00 

A Trial Will Be Satisfying 
ASTRO-GESELLSCHAFT, mbh., Berlin 

FOR SALE BY 

MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 

6025 Santa Monica Blvd. Los Angeles, Calif. 



PROJECTION 



(Continued from Page 12) 



theatre patron from slipping right into the 
story and living through its action spoils enter- 
tainment. Any disturbance that happens to 
jolt the patron out of the story, spoils the illu- 
sion and brings the realization that all this is 
just a theatre chair, a screen and the action is 
just shadow movement — all this spoils enter- 
tainment. Defective projection can do all this. 

Obstacles 

There is a certain parity in the entertain- 
ment that is sought from reading a novel or 
watching a stage drama. In both cases enter- 
tainment is bad only when an illusion is cre- 
ated, only when the make believe of it all is 
forgotten. But the reader of a novel, bothered 
by poor printing, or by dirty glasses, or by 
noisy surroundings finds it impossible to slip 
into the action of the story and get satisfactory 
entertainment. The disturbances spoil the il- 
lusion. So, too, at the legitimate theatres, 
glaring lights, back stage noises, inarticulate 
enunciation of the cast and defective scenery 
all act as annoying influences and prevent en- 
tertainment from being satisfactory. These 
two comparisons make clearer just why it is 
that defective projection can spoil a patron's 
entertainment. 

Efficient Manager 

At the Publix Theatre Managers' Training 
School, no attempt is made to train projec- 
tionists. The objective is to develop motion 
picture theatre managers. However, the effi- 
cient manager should be able to supervise 
every detail of operation. He cannot super- 
vise effectively without an understanding of 
details. For instance, to supervise projection 
effectively, the more he knows about projec- 
tion and the problems of the particular theatre 
and its equipment, the better. An expert like 
Mr. Earl Denison has stated that defective 
projection in many cases can be traced to the 
theatre manager. In such cases the theatre 
manager is either a blunderer who tries to in- 
terfere without knowing "what it is all.about," 
or one with no knowledge of projection who 
permits the projectionist to go on without any 
supervision. This latter course may not lead 
to disastrous results, when the projectionist is 
thoroughly reliable and conscientious, but 






October, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



"The projectionist with his pro- 
jection equipment is largely 
the master of our photographic 

destinies 91 

Richard Barthelmess 



International Projector Corporation 

90 Gold Street, New York, N. Y. 

SIMPLEX POWER'S ACME 

Motion Picture Projectors 



even then, it is not an ideal condition. The 
proper co-operation does not exist. Moreover, 
the excellent work of a very capable projec- 
tionist is not fully appreciated, because the 
manager has not the basis of knowledge to ap- 
praise it. 

Same Language 
The ideal condition exists when the theatre 
manager is familiar with projection problems 
and can talk the language of the projectionist, 
and the projectionist is thoroughly capable 
and conscientious and interested in the welfare 
of the theatre. When this condition exists the 
manager and the projectionist can intelligently 
discuss problems, each making suggestions 
and each confident in the practical, common 
sense of the other and in the other's interest 
in the general welfare of the theatre. 

Allies 

A capable, conscientious, sympathetic pro- 
jectionist is the theatre manager's strong ally. 
So, to a manager with knowledge of projection 
plus tactful, common sense supervision is a 
projectionist's strong ally. 

It is evident that the manager cannot know 
too much about projection and the handling of 
film. Consequently at the Publix Theatre 



Managers Training School the importance of 
projection is emphasized. 

Subjects 

During the course in projection, some of the 
subjects, in which practical training was given, 
are: Optics of Projection; Light Sources — 
Maintenance and Possible Economies of 
Each; Operation and Maintenance of the 
Various Projectors; Handling of Film; Co- 
operation with Exchanges; Maintenance of 
the Cine-Booth, Fire Hazards, etc.; Selection 
and Maintenance of Screens; Stereopticon 
Effects; The Cause and Remedy of Projec- 
tion Defects such as Flicker, Travel Ghosts, 
Unsteady Picture, Breakage, Distortion, etc. 
The practical training includes inspection 
reports of projection at theatres of different 
sizes and types. 

A noticeable improvement in projection is 
evident almost everywhere. Its importance is 
now realized as it should be. The theatre 
managers of the future can be relied upon to 
do their part in keeping this important detail 
of theatre operation up to the high standard 
that the public, the producer and distributor 
demand. 



Eighteen 



AMERICAN CI NEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



GOERZ 

Negative Raw Stock 

par speed 

# 

— more definition — no grain — 
also in special daylight load- 
ing spools for BELL & 
HOWELL "EYEMO" GAM- 
ERAS and other cameras 
using 100-foot spools. 

Sole Distributors: ; . 

Fish-Schurman Corporation 

45 West 45th St., New York 
1050 Cahuenga Avenue, Hollywood, Calif. 

IN CANADA: 

John A. Chantler & Co. 

200 Bay Street, Toronto, Ont. 



Presentation Suffers from 

Bad Projection for "Ben Hur" 



By H. Lyman Broening, A. S. C. 



PARIS 


RENE 


BERLIN 


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GUISSART 


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BRUSSELS 


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BUDAPEST 


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Atmospheric Shots in Any 


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Part of Europe 


GENEVA 


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Taken according to 


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ROME 


your own instruc- 
tions in an artistic 


CAIRO 


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manner to match the 




photography of your 


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production. 


ATHENS 


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OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENT IN 


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EUROPE FOR 


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American Society of 


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Frank 1). Williams 


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1 1 8 A venue cles Champs-Elysees 
PARIS 


to 


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LOUVERANDE PARIS 





After many months of anxious waiting, 
"Ben Hur" finally made its appearance at the 
Biltmore Theatre. For weeks before its com- 
pletion we all wondered where this spectacle 
would be booked. Grauman's Egyptian was 
the logical supposition, with the result that, 
after some differences, it found its way into the 
Biltmore, Los Angeles. 

The Biltmore Theatre, while a very modern 
and attractive "playhouse," should remain just 
that, or make some effort at better picture 
presentation. Certainly a picture of the col- 
losal magnitude of "Ben Hur" is worthy of 
far better treatment in bringing it before the 
audiences of the film capital. Disregarding 
all other shortcomings, the matter of projec- 
tion has been horribly mis-carried and re- 
minds one of the early days along Fourteenth 
Street in New York. The very idea of placing 
the projectors in the second balcony of a shal- 
low theatre is unforgivable and its evils have 
long since been discussed. 

In the instance of "Ben Hur" the characters 
have acquired an out-of-proportion and dis- 
torted effect, which is quite unfavorable, to 
say nothing of the beautiful and massive sets, 
also sadly on the bias. The elongated heads 
and necks of our screen favorites is indeed hor- 
rible to behold. 

To the average patron or fan, this glaring 
defect may not be so obvious, due to the ab- 
sorbing qualities of "Ben Hur" as a picture. 
Nevertheless, such methods in this day and 
age are all wrong and whoever is responsible 
for this condition of affairs should take observ- 
ance of the presentations of D. W. Griffith or 
Lyman H. Howe. These gentlemen, from the 
very beginning, have taken cognizance of the 
importance of proper projection and placed 
their booths upon the main floor, disregarding 
the few chairs thus eliminated. Regularly 
constructed moving picture theatres have 
taken this into consideration and placed their 
machines accordingly. 

Nothing injures a picture more than dis- 
torted angles of projection. When the aperture 
of one by three-quarters proportion becomes 
very nearly a square upon the screen, the result 
is quite obviously unsatisfactory, to say noth- 
ing of the optical difficulties involved in at- 
tempting to reach a correct focus. A part of 

(Continued en Page ' 



■tti 



October, 1926 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T G R A P H ER 



Nineteen 



the top or bottom is bound to be off focus, ex- 
cept on an exceedingly long throw, which the 
Biltmore does not have. At times the camera 
is necessarily placed at odd angles and distor- 
tion in the negative is unavoidable. This is 
made worse by projector distortion. The 
former can hardly be corrected, but the latter 
has no reason for being, except, for commer- 
cial gain (in the few seats thus saved), rank 
indifference, or ignorance. 



San Antonio, Texas, Is Center 

of Cinematographic Activity 

Quaint old San Antonio, Texas, is proving 
a mecca for members of American Society of 
Cinematographers. 

Harry Perry, A. S. C, is in the Lone Star 
town as chief cinematographer on "Wings," 
Paramount's epic of the air. Associated with 
Perry, there are now in San Antonio on this 
production, Paul P. Perry, L. Guy Wilky, 
Faxon Dean and Frank Cotner, all A. S. C. 
members. They are the stars of a cinematog- 
raphic staff to which has been entrusted the 
adventurous task of capturing the air exploits 
of the battle planes used in the film. 

Alfred Gilks, A. S. C, has returned to 
Hollywood from a location trip of several 
weeks in the border city, where he was chief 
cinematographer on Paramount's "Rough 
Riders," directed by Victor Fleming. 

In Service 

To complete the equation, C. K. Phillips, 
well known to A. S. C. members, is now quar- 
tered at the flying station at Brooks Field, near 
San Antonio. Phillips, who served in the air 
force during the war, resigned last month as 
special representative on the American Cine- 
matographer, when orders came from the War 
Department taking him back to the air serv- 
ice. He has already enjoyed the unique ex- 
perience of having his friends among the A. 
S. C. members "shooting" in front of the bar- 
racks at which he is stationed. Having often 
stood behind cameras of members of the So- 
ciety, Phillips now faces the possibility of ap- 
pearing before the instruments, as, during the 
time he owned and flew planes in Southern 
California, he did special aviation work in dif- 
ferent productions. 



Cliff Schirpser has charge of all the film 
and loading of magazines at the Fox studios. 
In the future if any panchromatic film gets 
fogged at Fox's it's just too bad for Cliff. 



Now! 




A Professional 

Movie 

Camera 

at an 
Amateur 
f*. V T Price 

DeVry 

Standard Automatic 

Movie Camera 

The De Vry Corporation, world noted 
makers of motion picture projectors, an- 
nounces a new movie camera holding 100 
feet of standard film at the amazing low 
cost of only $150.00. 

This remarkable new camera weighs 9 

pounds and is 8 , /2x6 l /2x3%. Handsome 

all-metal, grained-leather finished case. 

Accurate, automatic footage meter. Three 

view finders: 1 — direct 

on the film, 2 — direct 

on the scene, 3 — right 

angle view finder in 

upper right corner. F 

3.5 anastigmat lens on 

micrometer mount. 

Any standard lens can be fitted to the camera includ- 
ing telephoto. Focusing range— 2 feet to infinity. 
Instantly removable aperture. 

Amazingly Low $1 J?A 




oo 



Price 



Only 



The low price of the De Vry docs not mean a sacri- 
fice of quality of material or workmanship. It is due 
entirely to the quantity produition machines con- 
structed by De Vry to avoid the expense of assemble J 
and handwrought jobs. This movie ci.nera must be 
seen by professional cameramen to be appreciated. It 
has all the features of other cameras and features the 
others do not possess. 

AH other standard film automatic mov'e cameras sell 
for $350.00 and up! We welcome a cimparison of the 
De Vry at the k>w price of only $150.00 with that ai 
higher priced cameras. 

Ask Your Dealer 

Your dealer will gladly show you the Dc Vry. H 
your dealer cannot give you this information, write ut 
direct. A postcard will do. 

THE DE VRY CORPORATION 

1111 Center Street Dept. 8-X Chicago, Illinois 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMA TOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



Lighting— the key 

to atmosphere 

A SINGLE scene— yet skilful lighting 
can make from it a thousand scenes ! 
For each new lighting effect calls up a 
different mood, a different atmosphere. 

Imagine how difficult distinctive results 
would be if light were not always under 
control! But no need to worry, for "the 
Coops" have been able — year after year 
— to answer every lighting need. 

If bothersome lighting problems come 
up, "Mike" Shannon is always ready to 
assist in ferreting out the solution. 




COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC CO. 

HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY 

Hollywood Office — 7207 Santa Monica Blvd. 
KEESE ENGINEERING CO., John T. "Mike" Shannon, Mgr. 

148 © C. H. E. Co., 1926 



Roy Davidge 
Film Laboratories 

The Little Laboratory 
with the Big Reputation 

• 6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
HOLLYWOOD 1944 




HHM J- VAN RpSSEM 

6049 Hollywood Blvd. 
Phone HO. 0725 
COMMERCIAL PHOTOGI^PHY 

Slill Developing and Printin^f 
DHoicDCamcras-rlOa RENT— Still 




(Continued from Pairc 9) 



city room, three flights up, was six inches in 
water. 

What Happened in Miami 

Things started happening late Friday night 
and early Saturday morning and continued 
with no cessation for a long time to follow. In 
the garage where Earle was quartered, win- 
dows and doors started blowing in. Taking 
charge of the camp, Earle got busy trying to 
barricade the doors with automobiles and 
planks as though an invading army of humans 
rather than the elements were attempting to 
storm the refuge. His assistants were unwor- 
thy of the name for the most part. One stood 
helpless with a plank to be used for propping 
a door. He didn't know whether to lay it 
down or merely continue holding it until 
Earle profanely grabbed it and put it in place. 

Protected for the moment, the news instinct 
became operative. Under bed cover he load- 
ed his camera and waited. He did not have 
long to wait. First one section of the roof, 
then a second fell in. A few seconds later a 
door gave way and Earle and Jerry, one of the 
garage men, were swept out into the street. 
His description suggests Harry Langdon in 
the hurricane scenes in "Tramp, Tramp, 
Tramp," but this was not a comedy but dire 
reality. Jerry clung terror-stricken to Earle's 
legs. A stiff punch freed the operator tempor- 
arily. They worked their way back into the 
garage, and with the approaching dawn Earle 
made his first picture. This was through a 
crack in the door of the garage. The second 
was through a broken window, the jagged 
edges showing in the news-reel positive on the 
screen. The third exposure was in the kitchen 
back of the firehouse, through a torn-out 
screen. The wind was blowing so hard (only 
about one hundred and twenty miles an hour) 
that setting up the tripod was out of the ques- 
tion. Leaving the garage after the first two 
pictures, Earle's helper fell into a hole. And 
then came a stream of profanity, according 
to the operator himself, directed toward his 
luckless helper that would have been worthy 
of a cattleman or longshoreman. Incidentally, 
the advice mentioned above about the inability 
of theatre screens to publish, with any success, 
excuses for news-reels which were not being 
unreeled. 

But He Got the Pictures 

mSo great was the force of the wind that 

Earle would focus his camera as he felt it 

should be approximately with his back to the 

wind and then turn holding the instrument 



. 



October, 1926 



A M ERICAN CINEMA TOGRAPHER 



Twtnty-one 



and shoot into the face of the gale to get his 
desired pictures. Not a chance for the usual 
stability a tripod guarantees. Now ventur- 
ing out into the open, everywhere the operator 
found wreckage, but people, mostly in bathing 
suits, trying to be cheerful. None of the im- 
portant buildings, especially those of steel con- 
struction, were affected, but the wooden one- 
story buildings, booths, etc., were completely 
wrecked. Palm trees that have stood for 
generations were the great sufferers. The ship- 
ping of the port also suffered even more than 
the buildings on land. On the causeway were 
steamers and autos which were complete 
wrecks. There were at least fifty boats, oil 
burners and others, ranging from twenty to 
two hundred feet in length, which were blown 
from the bay two and three blocks from the 
water-front. At least one hundred motor 
house-boats were cast on land or completely 
wrecked. They were lined up around the 
band-stand, where Arthur Pryor's band held 
forth last year, as though in expectancy of a 
concert about to start to make them forget 
their battle with the elements. 

Martial law having been declared, Earle 
saw one lone traffic policeman holding at bay 
on the causeway at least five hundred autoists 
anxious to cross to where their own property 
was located; not tramps, but the solid, conser- 
vative business men of Miami. And not a 
chance to defeat the efforts of that one repre- 
sentative of the law. All this time no gas, 
electricity, water or lights. Food of the canned 
variety, but that was all. Storekeepers gener- 
ous in handing out food and not wishing to ac- 
cept money for the same. Two nights of sleep- 
ing on floors, meals of near-beer, canned milk, 
some fruit and that was about all. And all the 
time whenever there was light, grinding, 
grinding, grinding with the moving picture 
camera for the rest of the world to see, and see- 
ing, realize the extent of the catastrophe and 
then contribute to the cause of their fellow- 
beings in distress. 

And always at his heels his faithful dog 
"Toots." Anxious, but unresponsive to ca- 
resses or occasional attentions during the storm 
and stress period, but once bound for the sta- 
tion seemingly with a realization that the first 
part of his master's work was completed, he 
jumped up with both forepaws to lick the 
face and hands of Earle as though in congratu- 
lation for "Well done, good and faithful 
servant." 

Seemingly the worst part of the task was 
over. Forgotten were the boots and socks and 



Announcing a new price, now 

made possible by $JL4^ 

increasing inter- Ww 

est in this Re- 

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Speed 




Lens 



We 

also make 
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GUNDLACH-MANHATTAN OPTICAL GO. 
900 Clinton So., Rochester, N. Y. 



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American 
Cinematographer 



4 in. Iris Combination and Sunshade 

Trueball Tripod Head 

FRED HOEFNER 

Cinema and Experimental Work 

5319 Santa Monica Blvd. (rear) 
GLadstone 0243 Los Angeles, Calif. 



SCHEIBE'S PHOTO-FILTER 
SPECIALTIES 

Are now popular from coast to coast, and in some 
foreign countries. 

If my many varieties do not always fill the bill, tell 
me your wants and I will make them on special order. 
Always at Your Service 

GEO. H. SCHEIBE 

1636 Lemoyne St. DUnkirk 4975 Los Angeles, Cal. 



FOR RENT 



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AKELEY CAMERAS 

With or Without Cameramen 



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Bryant 3 95 1 



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CLUBBING OFFEB 

Subscribed for separately, Camera Craft, and 
the American Cinematographer will cost a total 
of $4.50 per year. As a special clubbing offer, 
both magazines may be had at a total price of 
$3.40 per year. 

American Cinematographer 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 
Hollywood, California 



Twenty-two 



A M F-RICAN CI NEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



E. Burton Steene 

Freelance 
Akeley 



and Eyemo 



Camera 



GRanite 
16 2 2 



Care of American Society of 
Cinema tographers 

1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg. 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 



GRanite 

4 2 7 4 



CRECO 



HARRY D. BROWN 

Cinema Studios Supply Corporation 
1438 Beachwood Drive HOlly 0513 

HOlly 0514 
Brown-Ashcraft Carbons and Other 

Studio Lamps Studio Equipment 



FOR RENT 

xMitchell and Bell & Howell 

Cameras 

F 2.3; F 2.7; F 3.5 lenses; 40, 50, 75 mm. 

Complete Equipments 

Now Available in 

Hollywood at 

Cinematograph Film Laboratories 

861 Seward Street HOllywood 0764 

J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 N. Orange Street Glendale, Calif. 

Phone Glendale 3361-W 



clothes never removed during the two days 
and nights of the fatigue. But within fifty 
feet of the depot the second physical accident 
came. (The first had been from a missle pro- 
jected by the wind, which had caught Earle on 
the temple in the garage, and, inflicting a deep 
gash, had knocked him out temporarily). This 
second disaster was a truck smashing against 
his hip as the operator stood on the running 
board of his requisitioned car. He couldn't 
escape. Credit Miami with damage to Earle's 
hip and to the photographer wound stripe 
number two. 

A Mad Dash North 

Miami was fast disappearing in the distance 
as the train sped toward Jacksonville. In the 
latter city at 6 a. m. Monday, the next problem 
was a plane to Atlanta. Three hundred and 
fifty dollars demanded, two hundred and fifty 
of this cash in hand, was the modest price 
asked by an altruistic sportsman named Price 
for the use of one of his planes. To him of no 
interest whatsoever that the rest of the United 
States should see these pictures, and their 
hearts and purses being touched would contri- 
bute assistance to his fellow Floridians. Busi- 
ness is business. Even when the money had 
with the greatest difficulty been raised by 
Earle, then the beggar went back on his agree- 
ment. 

He preferred to fly to Miami anyway rather 
than carry him and his pictures to Atlanta. 
Thus eight precious hours lost (and only a 
newspaper man or news-reel manager or oper- 
ator knows how precious they can be) , and the 
regular air mail plane shoving off at 2:30 
Monday afternoon on the Florida Airways 
line was the only alternative. From Atlanta, 
Doug Davis in a Baby Ruth machine took off 
with Earle, but had to come down at Green- 
ville at five-thirty that afternoon on account of 
darkness. In the latter town the flying news- 
cameraman just missed the train for Washing- 
ton, D. C, on which a section had been re- 
served for him. Ultimately Washington any- 
way. Again a plane with the terminal at Jer- 
sey City between three and four o'clock Tues- 
day afternoon. To the Pathe laboratories 
there and copies of the news reel were soon on 
their way to every part of the United States 
and abroad by steamer and Earle's work was 
done. 

As Pepys would have put it in his diary, 
'And then to bed in a hospital in New York" 
and the story was told as far as the cameraman 
is concerned. But not entirely. 






October, 1926 



A M KR1C AN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-three 



The public will never know the rest. They 
will have seen the pictures on the screen and 
wonder mildly how they were gotten. But they 
will not know that the man who took them, 
forgetting everything else, hunger, cold, dis- 
comfort, physical pain, loss of sleep and all 
the incidental tragedies of working under such 
conditions, had just seen the loss of a year's 
work with a valuation of approximately 
thirty-thousand dollars worth of pictures. 
Gone never to be replaced and by the same 
hurricane that was to add to his stature and 
reputation as a daring operator. For almost 
one year Earle has been working in Miami on 
a series of pictures for the Chamber of Com- 
merce of that city and for Pathe. Now he must 
start the work all over again. But in the hos- 
pital with the bulliest pluck in the world, he 
merely said: "Oh, well; it's all part of the 
game; it might be worse." 

That's all. Part of the tradition of the 
craft and why they make good. The Japanese 
earthquake did the same thing to his work of 
a year in the land of the Mikado, destroying 
one of the finest laboratories the Far East has 
ever seen, only a few days after it had been 
completed. By now, Earle's philosophy is not 
a temporal thing; it is part of his make-up. 
"It might be worse," as a slogan, might fitting- 
lv be borrowed bv some of the rest of us. 



Robert Kurrle, A. S. C, is finishing the 
cinematography on the Fox production, "On 
the Wings of the Storm." 

Henry Sharp, A. S. C, is hard at work 
on the Metro-Goldwyn-Maxer production, 
"Mysterious Island." 

* * * * 

George Schneiderman, A. S. C, has left 
for New York City, where he will photograph 
a Fox production, directed by Al Green, at the 

William Fox New York studios. 

* * * * 

Due to a typographical error, the name 
of the author of the story on amateur cine- 
matography appearing on page eleven of 
this issue — H. Syril Dusenbery — is mis- 
spelled. 



LEITZ DISTANCE METER 
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Completely solves the biggest difficul- 
ty in hand camera work. 
"A necessity for the Cinematog- 
rapher." 
For hand cameras, $11.00. For 
Motion Picture Cameras, 
$15.50, in genuine leather 
case. 




1. "FODIS" is 

the only reliable 
Photo Distance 
Meter. Absolutely 
accurate. 

2. Determines d i s - 
tance of objects auto- 
matically. Simple in use. 



Write For 
Pamphlet 
No. 2090 



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East 



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E. LEITZ 
NE^ORK 




10th 

Street 



Western Agents — Spindler & Sauppe 

86 Third Street 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho 

Utah, Montana and Arizona 



FOR RENT 

Two Bell & Howell Cameras — 40, 50, 75 mm. lenses. 
Thalhammer Iris. Jeanne Trebaol, 10042 Stilson Ave., cor- 
ner of Clarington, Falms, Calif. Phone: Culver City 3243. 



SAVE MONEY 

BY INVESTIGATING 

AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER'S 

Clubbing Arrangements ^ 

with 

CAMERA CRAFT 

and 

PHOTO-ERA 

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Twenty- four 



AMERICAN C INEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



CINOPHOT 

The Automatic Exposure Meter 
for the Movie Camera 

Patented by Dr. Emil Mayer 



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Automatic — scientifically 
exact under all light con- 
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sun and twilight, out- 
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The CINOPHOT saves 
film waste and disap- 
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Chas. G. Willoughby , Inc. 



110 West 32nd Street 



New York, N. Y. 



Bureau of Mines Assembles 

Films on Nation's Industries 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Bldg., 
6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with 
the issue of 

, 192... 



Ns 



Address 



Town 



State 



(Note: Camera Craft or Photo-Era will be sent for a 
slight additional sum. Consult the clubbing offers.) 



The largest collection of educational mo- 
tion picture films depicting the mining, 
treatment, distribution and utilization of the 
numerous essential minerals ever compiled is 
in the possession of the Bureau of Mines, De- 
partment of Commerce. At present, the bu- 
reau's motion picture library comprises more 
than fifty subjects visualizing the operations 
of the mineral and allied industries of the 
nation. 

The more than 2,000,000 feet of motion pic- 
ture film now possessed by the bureau repre- 
sent an expenditure of almost $1,000,000. The 
entire expense of making the films has been 
borne by private industrial enterprises who 
have co-operated with the Bureau of Mines 
in this work. 

Oil 

A number of highly interesting films depict- 
ing the production, refining and distribution 
of petroleum have been made by the bureau. 
"The World Struggle for Oil," a seven-reel 
feature, visualizes the story of petroleum in all 
parts of the globe, from the earliest use of the 
material, as pitch, smeared on Noah's ark. The 
"Story of Petroleum," in four reels, begins 
with the location of a new well by the geol- 
ogist, and carries the story to the distribution 
of gasoline by service stations. "Mexico and 
its Oil," "The Story of a Mexican Oil 
Gusher," and "Through Oil Lands of Europe 
and Africa," are other films depicting graph- 
ically the story of the development, by Ameri- 
can capital and enterprise, of the oil fields of 
foreign lands. 



A. S. 



G. Members Shoot Fleet 

Maneuvers for Lasky Studios 



Maneuvers of the fleet between Los Angeles 
and San Diego were shot by a staff of cinema- 
tographers for Famous Players-Lasky for use 
in the Paramount production, "You're in the 
Navy Now," which features Wallace Beery 
and Raymond Hatton. 

Among the A. S. C. members who photo- 
graphed the action were Victor Milner, Jos- 
eph Brotherton and William Beckway. 



October, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-five 



CLASSIFIED 

ADVERTISI NG 



Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge 
one dollar per insertion. 

All copy must be prepaid and must reach us be- 
fore the fifteenth of the month preceding publication. 
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 
American Cinematographer, 
1222 Guaranty Building, 
Hollywood, California 



WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERA 



WILL PUT vou in touch with buyer? for Bell & Howell cameras and equipment. 
Phone or write the A. S. C, 1222 Guaranty Bldg. Granite 4., 4 
Hollywood. California. 



FOR SALE— CAMERAS 



BRAND new Eyemo camera, complete with extra magazines, carrying case, 
etc.. #300 00 . . . Also almost new Universal camera, built-in dissolve, 
carrying case, extra magazines, and new Burke and James tripod. $325.00. 
Frank King. 56 Crestwood Avenue, Buffalo. N. Y. 



FOR SALE— LENSES 



ONE three-inch Dahlmever K. 1:9, mounted for Mitchell; one two-inch Bausch 
& Lomb F.2:7; on Dahlmever Pentac 37 mm. F.2:9. Georges Benoit, 845 
Crescent Heights Blvd.. Hollywood. Calif. 

CARL ZEISS. F. 2.7, 50 mm. Dan Clark, care American Society of Cinema- 
tographers. 



NEW 40 mm. Goerz Hypar f. 3. 5. lens in Bell & Howell mount: price J? 50.00. 
Write Charles Clarke, 1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

FOR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR RENT — Bell & Howell studio equipment complete. |70-Degree Shutter. 

Liberal commission to cameramen. Call Mr. Smith, Metropolitan 4686. 

Evenings call Mai n 0947. (Los Angeles.) 

AKELEY and Bell & Howell cameras for rent. John Boyle, 1207 Milton Ave. 

Phone Granite 2215. Hollywood. California. 
riFLL & HOWELL. Victor Milner. 

California. 596-944. 



2221 Observatory Ave., Los Angeles 



MITCHELL, and Bell & Howell Cameras. F.2:3; F.2:7; F.3 :5 Lenses— 
40-50-75 mm. Complete equipment. I. R. Lockwood. 525 North Orange 
St.. Glendale, California. Glendale 3 361-W. or HOlly 0764. 

E. BURTON STEENE. Bell & Howell, and Akeley. Complete Camera Equip- 
ment. Latest models. Address American Society of Cinematographers, 
Hollywoo d, California. 

HELL i HOWELL. 170. with 30. 40, 50 and 75 lens equipment. Baby Tripod. 
Also B. & H. Cine Motor. Charles Stumar. GRanite 9845. 1201 Vista 
Street. Hollywood. 

FOR RENT — One Eyemo camera, complete with all accessories. Bert Glennon, 
5905 Carlton Way, Hollywood. California. Phone Hempstead 2743. 

FOR RENT— STILL CAMERAS 

WILL RENT still camera to local parties. Special arrangements to A. S. C. 

members. Geo. Meehan. Ph. GRanite 3830, 744 Curson Ave., Hollywood, 

California. 
FOR RENT — One 4x5 Graflex Camera and one 4x5 Grafic. Bert Glennon, 

5950 Carlton Way, Hollywood. California. Phone Hempstead 2745. 



FOR RENT— AIRPLANES 



AIRPLANES equipped to carry cameras, facilitating the photographing of 
stunts or other unusual action, for rent by the hour, ch\ or week. Jerry 
Phillips, Professional Pilot, Clover Field, Santa Monica. California. 



WANTED— POSITION 



AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHER will give services in return for practical experi- 
ence. W. T. Henry. 963 M'gnnlii Ave.. Los Angelc. Calif. 

FOR RENT OR FOR SALE: CAMERA 



BELL & HOWELL, 170. Six magazines, four lenses — 52. 40. 50 and 75 mm. 
Also 6-ihch len~. Prism, built in camera. Fred W. lackman, 5336 
Virginia Ave, Hollywood. Calif. HOlly 2895, 

FOR SALE OR TRADE 



ONE Universal Camera, (400-foot model); 8 magazines, cases and trunk. 
Masks. Lens. Bausch and Lomb. 2-inch focus. Two Kliegl lights. 100 feet 
of ruble and spider box Wanted: an Eyemo camera. Chas. E. Carruth, 
Denton. Texas. 



Dignity 



in 

Advertising 

Espousing the aesthetic as well as the 
practical progress of the art of cinema- 
tography, the American Cinematogra- 
pher has, through the prestige of its ad- 
vertisers and contributors, gained an en- 
viable place in the realm of dignified 
advertising. 

The psychology of dignity in compel- 
ling attention which directly breeds the 
confidence of the reader is evinced in the 
high grade 'copy' which is the consistent 
characteristic of the advertisers using the 
American Cinematographer in the field 
of cinematography. 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinematographer 

may be had on a special one 
year's clubbing subscription at 
a very substantial saving. Sep- 
arately, the two publications 
cost a total of $4.50 per year. 
By virtue of the clubbing offer, 
both may be had for $3.40. 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



October, 1926 



Announcing 



a new 



Clubbing Arrangement 
between 

Photo- Era and 

American 

Cinematographer 



To serve its readers, this publication 
has effected a clubbing arrangement 
with Photo-Era on the following basis: 

Regular Rates per Year: 

Photo-Era $2.50 

A merican Cinematographer 3.00 

Total for Both $4S0 

By virtue of the new clubbing offer, 
both publications may be had, for one 
year, for 



$4.15 



Members of A. S. G. in Great 

Demand among Film Producers 



( The following story was written by the editor of this pub- 
lication for the studio section of the Exhibitors' Herald,) 

Recognition of the activities of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers is indicated 
in the record demand for the services of A. 
S. C. members, according to Daniel B. Clark, 
president of the Society and chief cinematog- 
rapher for Tom Mix. 

"Because of the high standards which the 
A. S. C. has consistently maintained over a 
period of years," Clark states, "its members 
have always been sought for the outstanding 
cinematographic connections in the motion 
picture business. No man is ever admitted to 
membership in the American Society of Cine- 
matographers unless his work proves that he is 
an unfailing artist of the highest calibre, with 
the added faculty of being practical commer- 
cially to the extent that it is a part of his quali- 
fications to save his producer production cost 
wherever possible. Therefore, membership 
in the A. S. C. has not only stood as a badge of 
honor on the cinematographer on which it is 
bestowed, but, to the producer, it means de- 
pendability and superiority in the cinematog- 
raphic calling. 

Great Results 
"The program instituted by the A. S. C. 
officers at the beginning of the current fiscal 
year," Clark continued, "was one of the most 
ambitious ever undertaken by this Society. It 
entailed widening the scope of the A. S. C, 
and working closer in co-operation with pro- 
ducers. That this program has borne results 
and has achieved widespread recognition 
where the motion pictures of the world are 
produced is shown in the following significant 
fact : 

"At the present time, not a single member 
of the American Society of Cinematographers 
is available!" 

"Considering the fact that a considerable 
percentage of the membership comprises free- 
lance cinematographers, this record is indeed 
remarkable. And the officers of the American 
Society of Cinematographers feel that there 
is no better occasion than this to renew their 
pledge that their ranks will always be filled 
with men who are leaders in their profession, 
for it is only by adhering to such a policy that 
the enviable prestige of the A. S. C. may be 
continued to be maintained." 









Hoic to Locate Members of the 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Telephone: GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark President 

L. Guy Wilkv -------- First Vice President 

Frank B. Good - - Second Vice President 

Ira H. Morgan -------- Third Vice President 

George Schneiderman - - - - Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke - - Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Victor Milner 
Daniel B. Clark 
George Schneiderman 
L. Guy Wilky 
John Arnold 



Frank B. Good 
Alfred Gilks 
Charles G. Clarke 
Glen MacWilliams 
Homer A. Scott 



King D. Gray 
Fred W. Jackman 
Reginald E. Lyons 
E. Burton Steene 
Ira H. Morgan 



Vbel, David — with Warner Brothers. 

Arnold, John — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Barnes, George S. — with Henry King, Samuel Goldwyn Prod. 

Beckway, Wm. — 

Benoit, Georges — with Metropolitan Productions, Metropolitan Studios. 

Bovle.'john W. — with First National, New York City. 

Brodin, Norbert F. — with Frank Lloyd Productions, Famous Players- 

Lasky. 
Broening, H. Lyman — 
Brotherton, Joseph — 

Clark, Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studios, 

Clarke, Chas G. — with Geo. Melford, Fox Studios. 

Cowling, Herford T. — Suffolk. Va. 

Comer. Frank M — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 

Crockett, Ernest- — 

Cronjager, Henry— with Cecil B. De Mille Studio*. 

Dean, Faxon M — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 

Doran, Robert V. — 

Dored, John — Riga, Latvia. 

DuPont. Max B — 

DuPar, E. B. — with Warner Bros.. New York City. 

Dubray, Joseph A. — 

Edcson. Arthur -with First National. New York City. 

Evans, Perry — with Frank B. Good, Jackie Coogan Productions. 



Grifhth, Famous 
F. B. 0. Studios. 



Players-Lasky. 



Fildew, Wm. — 

Fischbeck, Harry A.— with D. W. 

New York City. 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, 
Fried. Abe — with Fox Studios. 

Gaudio, Gaetano — with Svend Gade, First National. 

Gilks, Alfred — with James Cruze. Famous Players-Lasky. 

Glennon, Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Good. Frank B. — with Jackie Coogan Productions. 

Grav. Kinp D. — 

Griffin, Walter L. — with David Hartford Productions. 

Guissart, Rene — Paris, France. 

Haller. Ernest — with Robert Kane Productions, New York City. 
Heimerl, Alois G. — 

Jackman, Floyd — with Fred W. Jackman Productions. 
Jackman, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Productions. 
Jennings, J. D. — with Buster Keaton. 

Koenekamp, Hans F. — 

Kull. Edward — with Universal. 



Kurrle, Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Landers, Sam — 

Lockwood, J. R. — 

Lundin, Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropolitan Studios. 

Lyons, Reginald — with Fox Studios. 

Marshall, Wm. — with Raymond Griffith, Famous Players-Lasky. 

McCord, T. D.— 

McGill, Barney — with Fox Studios. 

MacLean, Kenneth G. — with Mack Sennett Studios. 

MacWilliams, Glen- — with Fox Studios. 

Meehan, George — with Fox Studios. 

Milner, Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan, Ira H. — with Cosmopolitan, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Musuraca, Nicholas — 

Norton, Stephen S. — 

P.-lmer, Ernest S. — with Fox Studios. 
Perry, Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Perry, Paul P.— with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Polito. Sol — with Ken Maynard, First National. 

Ries, Park J.— 

Roos, Len H. — Sydney, Australia. 

Rose, Jackson J. — with Universal. 

Rusher, Charles — with F. W. Murnau, Fox Studios. 

Schneiderman, George — with Fox Studios, New York City. 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — 

Sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Steene, E. Burton — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Stumar, John — with Universal. 

Tolhurst, Louis H. — producing microscopic pictures, for Pathe. 
Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studios. 
Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Van Bui en, Ned — 

Van Enger, Charles — with First National Productions, New York City. 

Van Trees, James C. — with First National Productions, Burbank. 

Warrenton, Gilbert — with Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — with Corinne Griffith Productions. 

Whitman, Philip FI. — with Mack Sennett Studios, Scenario Department. 

Wilky, L. Guy — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 



Edison, Thomas A. — Honorary Member. 
Webb. Arthur C. — Attorney 



Meeting! of the American Society of Cinematographers are held as called on Monday evenings in the A. S. C. assembly rooms — 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



LOYALTY 



PROGRESS 



ART 



Ml 









Mi 



Oeaj- 51r . 

**• *'«, M „ y «* r. c . , cenee 

, *■» gives ns ., " *i»e ji. n „ 
«Uy. "• »i«ere ,1,^" »«^ or 4.,,.. 






— «««.-« -. 



*"■ 'T/ tru ly . 



--X-.';---. 



■■WH 



Vol. VII, No. 8 
25 Cents a Copy 



November, 1926 





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1056 North Gahuenga Ave. 



GRanite 6669 



Hollywood, Calif. 



-. 



Vol. VII NOVEMBER, 1926 No. 8 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss, Editor and General Manager 



Contents : 

Page 
Alvin V. Knechtel Is Elected to A.S.G 4 

The Editor's Lens . 5 

Projection — Conducted by Earl J. Denison 
Build Theatres Around Projection — 
By Daniel B. Clark, A.S.C 6 

In Gamerafornia 7 

Amateur Cinematography — 

A Professional's Notes for Amateurs — 

By Joseph A. Dubray, A.S.C 8 

How to Edit the Amateur's Films — 

By H. Syril Dusenhery, A.S.C 9 

Motion and the Art of Cinematography (In Two Installments) 
By Slavko Vorkapich 10 

A Cinematographer's Capita! Investment .... 12 

Trueball Tripod Head for Professional Cameras 

Invented 26 

A. S. C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Subscription: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies 25c. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, Calif. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographer s, Inc.) 



Four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



Alvin V. Knechtel 
Is Elefted to A. S. C. 




Membership Is Bestowed on 
Distinguished Cinematog- 
rapher of Varied Career 





Alvin V. Knechtel, A.S.C., and Knechtel, left, and Gene Tunney, heavyive'ujht champion , reviewing 
Tunney's "fighting forms." Still was taken while the A.S.C. member was photographing "The 
Wallop Works" for Pathe. 



Alvin V. Knechtel has been elected to mem- 
bership in the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers, the A.S.C. Board of Governors 
announces. 

Knechtel, who joined First National on 
contract during the past month, has had a long 
cinematographic career, varied as well as in- 
teresting. 

He started in the profession in Detroit in 
191^ in a small commercial laboratory. He 
was almost immediately assigned to the cam- 
era, and was obliged to develop and print his 
own work. He continued in this line for four 
vears, during which time he photographed 
several Detroit-made five-reelers. His regu- 
lar work in the course of this period, however, 
consisted chiefly in making commercial and 
educational pictures, such as "The Manufac- 
ture of the Buick Car," in seven reels, and the 
like. 

With Paramount 

In 1919, Knechtel received an assignment 



from Famous Players-Lasky to make a trip 
to the South Seas by boat from Boston through 
the Panama Canal, north of Honolulu, and 
then south to Samoa. On this expedition, he 
made nine pictures for the "Paramount Mag- 
azine." In addition, he filmed "Some More 
Samoa" and "South Sea Magic," together 
with numerous short subjects and educatio- 
nal. 

Freelance 

On his return to New York, Knechtel work- 
ed two years with Baumer Productions, Inc., 
and then launched into freelance work, pro- 
ducing his own short subjects and selling the 
negatives outright to the releasing organiza- 
tions. His chief sales were to Pathe with the 
result that he eventually joined the staff of 
that organization. For Pathe, he toured the 
United States by automobile, assembling ma- 
terial for short subjects, and later made an- 
other trip to Honolulu, after which he was 

(Continued on Page 24) 



- 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Five 



The EDITOR'S LENS 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



An Example Close at Home 

AN INTERESTING booklet, "The 
Home of Kodak," just received 
from Rochester, tells one of the 
most romantic stories of modern indus- 
try — that of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany. 

The publication recounts the early 
efforts of George Eastman, how he was 
dissatisfied with the u wet plate' 1 type of 
photography in vogue in the late seven- 
ties, and how he eventually evolved the 
"dry plate" method. There came the 
steady growth of his business until, with- 
in a few years, there was laid the foun- 
dation of what is now the gigantic insti- 
tution at Rochester. 

* Eastman was not slow to realize the 
potentialities of the motion picture busi- 
ness, and set his organization to work to 
perfect the raw stock so necessary to the 
unprecedented new business. 

' For the film industry, there is a very 
definite moral in the career of George 
P^astman and in the history of the firm 
that bears his name. If Eastman had 
been content to accept the old u wet plate" 
type of photography as final and to dab- 
ble around in the manufacture thereof, 
he would have been bound around by the 
limits of the primitive stages of a new 
science. 

* Even though photography in any form 
still seemed nothing short of a miracle at 
the time Eastman began his life's work, 
he was not disposed to regard it as a mat- 
ter of the ultimate, but, instead, with that 
daring and imagination which charac- 
terizes all great men, insisted on perceiv- 
ing its weaknesses and then set about to 
improve them. In this excursion into the 
realm of the industrial and scientific un- 
known, he not only profited himself, but 
he made the world at large profit — by vir- 
tue of his activities in motion pictures 
alone. 

The moral is that those within the pro- 
fession can never allow themselves to look 
upon their calling as having reached a 
point of saturation, and thus to permit 
their imaginations to become satiated. 
What film workers in all lines need is a 



highly developed sense of values and pro- 
portions — which, is it not, closely akin to 
a deep-seated sense of humor? 

In the Making 

NEW camera angles and photogra- 
phic effects bring new kinds of 
photoplays. The camera is an in- 
strument to conjure with, and, like the 
Phoenix, rises, for a new life, out of the 
ashes of what previously may have been 
regarded as its own insufficiency. It has 
come to pass that novel cinematographic 
treatments invariably are the basis of the 
plaudits of the critics in heralding the 
triumphs of those films which are looked 
to as ushering in a new era in the cinema. 
But, in the efforts to merit these very 
plaudits, a strained condition is reached — 
which makes ridiculous that which was 
intended to be sublime. 
"I The engulfing wisdom that belongs to 
some directors and writers might well 
benefit from consultations with none other 
than the cinematographer when these 
new and novel film treatments are de- 
sired. 

H After all, it is the business of the cine- 
matographer to know such things ; and, to 
say that he is able to respond when called 
on, is merely to make a matter-of-fact 
statement. 

1 The writer should find in him a close 
consultant while the script is being writ- 
ten. How much better this would be 
than arbitrarily to finish a scenario 
wherein certain inflexible "effects" are 
tersely specified, with the cinematogra- 
pher left to work out the results without 
having the benefit of, or the time in 
which to gain a thorough understanding 
of just what the writer is trying to express. 
The same applies to directors. 

The most successful of the foreign- 
made films have recognized the foregoing 
principles, and, as a result, have enjoyed 
triumphs which even Americans have 
tried to emulate. 

The basic fact must be recognized 
that the cinematographer is not solelv a 
medium of expression, but that he like- 
wise is a medium of creation in motion 
pictures. 






Six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



PROTECTION * ConduBed by EARL J. DENISON 



Projection Room Should 
Be Reserved Best Location 
when Plans Are Drawn 



Build Theatres By Daniel B. Clark, 

Around Projection A.S.C. 

If good projection is to be desired, the time house's interior. They come to see a picture — 

to begin to provide for it is when an architect a good picture. And they cannot see such with 

first begins to draw the plans for a new mo- imperfect projection. And there cannot be 

tion picture theatre — or legitimate house for perfect projection, if the projectors must do 

that matter. all but. walk around corners to get the images 

Gone is the era when an orthodox theatre on the screen - 

was converted into a cinema palace by tack- Architect's Duty 

ing up a screen and finding a hole in the wall Motion picture theatre architects have a 

in which could be thrown the projection duty that is greater than the mere designing of 

"booth." But do our theatre builders give edifices that are pleasing to the eye. Their 



ample consideration to the room that is to 
house the projectors? 

Bad Throw 
In last month's issue of the American Cine 



task is to design a structure in which motion 
pictures may be seen to the greatest advan- 
tage — which means nothing more than that it 
must be possible to project films at the great- 



matographer, H. Lyman Broening, A.S.C., est advantage, 
called attention to the bad throw in a Los An- Should Consult 
geles theatre, to which fell the honor of pre- If it is not a part of the equipment of such 
senting the important production "Ben Hur, architects to know where and how to place 
to the film capital. It so happens that this is ?uc h projection rooms, then it should behoove 
a comparatively new house, only a couple of them to consult some competent projection en- 
years old. While it presumably was primarily gineer who is fortified with the necessary 
designed for a legitimate theatre, it is reason- knowledge. In a word, the cinema house 
able to believe that the exhibition of motion should be built around the projection appoint- 
pictures in an establishment, located as this is, ments, rather that the latter's being built into 
was well within the thoughts of those respon- the theatre. 



sible for the erection and planning of the 
house. That an imperfect projection arrange- 
ment was created is lamentable. 
Afterthought? 



All Are Concerned 
All of this represents an exceedingly deep- 
seated matter, of interest to all those identified 
with a given motion picture — whether it be the 



Yet this condition exists throughout the projectionist, exhibitor, producer, star, direc- 

country today. Projection rooms are put in tor or cinematographer. We all need the best 

as more or less an afterthought. They are projection — for by projection we place our 

placed in a part of the house most agreeable wares before the ultimate consumer, the thea- 

to other considerations whether it be the gen- tre-goer 

eral style of interior architecture which can- Those who erect theatres are in the key posi- 

not be marred under any conditions or what tion. It is they who may insist not only that 

not their houses have the best projection equip- 

. ment obtainable, but that, in addition, this best 

Come to View Ficture equipment be provided that place in the house, 

But patrons do not come to a theatre to feast most suited to maximum results. Mr. Theatre 

their eyes exclusively on the beauty of a Builder, tell that to Mr. Architect! 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CIN EM ATOGR APHER 



Seven 




L. Guy Wilky and Frank Cottier, both 
A.S.C. members, have returned to Holly- 
wood from San Antonio where they spent sev- 
eral weeks photographing for "Wings," a 
Paramount feature, on which Harry Perry, 
A.S.C, is chief cinematographer. Among the 
other A.S.C. members shooting with Perry 
on this production are Paul Perry and Faxon 

Dean. 

* * * * 

William Marshall, A.S.C, who is photo- 
graphing Paramount's "Stranded in Paris," 
starring Bebe Daniels, had his staff augment- 
ed, for extra set-ups, with the services of Ste- 
phen S. Norton and Perry Evans, both A.S.C. 
members, during the past month. With Mar- 
?hall, Norton and Evans filmed location 

scenes. 

* * * # 

E Burton Steene, A.S.C, did the Akeley 
work on "Stranded in Paris," most of his film- 
ing having been in interiors. This circumstance 
indicates the revolutionizing of Akeley cine- 
matography, which in the past was confined, in 
the minds of production officials, to exteriors 
only. The present practice is to specify Ake- 
ley shots for interiors as well as exteriors; in 
fact, many scripts have been known to have 
Akeley shots written into them by various 
scenarists. The widespread use of Akeley 
scenes is said to be due in no small measure to 
the professional efforts of Steene, whose con- 
centration on this type of activity has not only 
set him up as the foremost man in this particu- 
lar calling but has created a demand for Ake- 
ley shots generally. 

Vp "5J." 7t»" ^ 

Charles Van Enger, A.S.C, has returned to 
Hollywood from New York City and is pho- 
tographing "Easy Pickings," a First National 
production, starring Anna Q. Nilsson with 
Kenneth Harlan as the lead. George Archain- 
baud is directing. 

Victor Milner, A.S.C, is filming Adolphe 
Menjou in "Blonde or Brunnette," a Para- 
mount production directed by Richard Ros- 
son. 



H. Lyman Broening, A.S.C, is filming 
"Father Said No," an F.B.O. production di- 
rected by Sam Wood. The cast includes 
Danny O'Shea, Kit Guard, Al Cooke and 
Mary Brian. 

Reginald Lyons, A.S.C, has finished the 
filming of "Desert Valley," starring Buck 
Jones for Fox. The feature carries plenty of 
thrills. Location scenes were shot by Lyons 
in Red Rock Canyon, in the Mohave Desert. 
Reggie has already begun work on "War 
Horses." Jones' next starring vehicle for Fox. 

Gilbert Warrenton, A.S.C, is filming Uni- 
versal 's "The Love Thrill." Laura La Plante 
is starred. 

Tf? «]? 7J? 7|? 

Ira Morgan, A.S.C, is photographing 
"The Taxi Dancer" at the Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer studios. 

George Schneiderman, A.S.C, is back in 
Hollywood from New York City where he 
filmed metropolitan location scenes for Fox's 
production of "The Auctioneer." Blase New 
York was so enamoured of George's camera 
that he was forced to camoflage the instru- 
ment behind a canvas tent arrangement as 
used only by the electric companies. The ruse 
worked so effectively that one sophisticated 
New Yorker walked up to George Sidney, 
who was simulating a peddler among the un- 
suspecting crowds on the sidewalks, and in- 
formed the actor: "You ought to be in the 
movies " Ask either of the Georges if this 
isn't true! 

Bert Glennon, A.S.C, is photographing the 
Paramount production, "Barbed Wire," star- 
ring Pol a Negri. Rowland V . Lee is direct- 
ing. 

vfr 7ff ~7[: 'Tfr 

Joseph A. Dubray, A.S.C, has concluded 
ihe cinematography in a current Tiffany pro- 
duction, directed by Louis Gasnier. The cast 
includes Raymond Hitchcock, Theodore von 
Eltz, Majorie Daw, Vivian Oakland and 
Buddy Post. 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 



A Professional's 
Notes for Amateurs 



By J. A. Dubray, 
A.S.C. 



First of Series of Articles 
Presented in a Manner Easy 
for Amateur to Comprehend 



The study of "optics" in general has been 
the source of the publication of a great quan- 
tity of excellent works dealing with this sub- 
ject. The different branches of this science, 
of which photographic optics is one, have 
been the cause of further augmenting of the 
number of these publications. 

The work of research in the maze of infor 
mation thus given is so laborious that the be- 
ginner is rarely able or willing to put forth 
the necessary time involved. 

It is the aim of the writer of this series of 
articles, of which this is the first, to give the 
reader a clear understanding of "How Light 
Works," eliminating as much as possible the 
confusion of too many technical expressions 
a? found in the text books. 

To the members of the "Junior Camera- 
men's Club" and to the sincere amateur in 
photography are these articles cordially and 
fraternally dedicated. 

"Light is God, God is Light/" said the mys- 
tic, and that was all. 

"Hail Holy Light/ Offspring of Heaven's 
First Born," said the poet, and that was all. 

"Light is a Stimulus that Acts on Organisms 
and Causes a Sensation/" said the philosopher, 
and that was about all. 

"Light is the Agent or Force, by the Action 
of Which Upon the Organs of Sight Objects 
from Which it Emanates are Rendered Vis- 
ible!" said the lexicologist, and that also was 
all. 

"Light, is all of that!' said the scientist, but 
for him, that was not all. It was merely the 
starting point from which to wrestle from it 
its secrets, the reasons for its behavior, to un- 
derstand it, so that through this understand- 
ing he could make use of its properties for the 
benefit of mankind. 

The origin of things is, at times, of secon- 
dary importance to the scientist. 

"When the thing exists, study it!" science 
says. "Studv it; learn to know it; and through 
this knowledge you may approach the origin, 
but even if this origin shall forever remain 
in the realm of the metaphysical conception 



of things, you will have made use of the thing 
- -you will have put it to the work for which it 
was originated." 

And so, considering light as a thing, science 
set to work. 

The different sources of light are : the sun ; 
the fixed stars; heat; electricity; chemical 
combinations; meteoric phenomena; phos- 
phorescence. 

The origin of the light of the sun and stars 
is unknown, but it is assumed that these bodies 
are enveloped by ignited gases, whose tremen- 
dously high temperature produces light. 

This being true — and the comparison of 
light eminated by the sun and stars with light 
produced by heat corroborates this supposi- 
tion — if this be true, we say, we shall class 
their light with the light produced by heat. 
Increased 

It has been ascertained that non-luminous 
bodies, placed in the dark, begin to become 
visible when their temperature is raised 500 
to 600 degrees, and their luminosity increases 
with the increasing of the temperature. 
Chemical 

Light, produced by chemical combinations, 
is also due to the degree of temperature de- 
veloped and temperature is the factor of most 
of the electric lights used for illumination. 

As these are the sources of light most used 
in photography, we will pass with silence the 
)ther sources and refer the reader to numer- 
ous and special literature on the subject if he 
desires to extend his knowledge that far be- 
vond our present scope. 

Motion Of Light 

The sources of light being established, var- 
ious attempts have been made to explain the 
motion of light, that is, to explain the way in 
which light travels from the luminous body 
to our eye, whether this body be the most dis- 
tant visible star, the sun, or a small incandes- 
cent splinter of wood. 

Of all the suppositions advanced as an ex- 
planation of this phenomena, the "undulatory 
theory" announced by the Dutch mathema- 
tician, Huyghens, in 1678, is generally acceot- 

(Continued on Page 161 






November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Nine 



How to Edit the 

Amateur's Films 



By H. Syril 
Dusenbery 

(Chairman, Motion Picture 

Committee, California 

Camera Club) 



Repeated Projection and Elim- 
ination of Static Matter 
Make Interesting Subjects 



In amateur cinematography, the cinema- Second Projection 

tographer, the editor, and the cutter are usu- This done, immediately rewind the film and 

ally one and the same person. Much has been while its memory is still fresh in your mind, 

said as to what to take and how to take it but project it again. Have a pad of paper and a 

very little has appeared on what to do to im- pencil before you during this second projec- 

prove the film once it has been returned from tion Start the film the second time. Stop it 

the finishing laboratory. While the sugges- immediately after the first scene is finished 

tions that follow are primarily written with and make a few notes on your pad. If it can- 

16 mm. cine film in mind, they hold good for not be improved upon in your estimation, jot 

standard film as well. down Scene Number 1, O.K. Start the projec- 

Eager to See Results tor again and view the next scene and continue 

The average amateur, when he receives his this procedure scene by scene throughout the 

film back from the laboratory, is in feverish reel. Stop the projector after each scene, 

haste to project it. Once he has seen it, his whether or not you believe you can improve 

friends are invited in to see it in a rush and it. Consider each scene carefully. It is a bit 

little or nothing is done in the way of editing too long? Does it contain any dead spots 

or cutting the film. By the time it dawns upon wherein no action takes place. Take the time 

Mr. Amateur that his film could be improved to think each scene over before starting the 



upon, all concerned have seen the picture and 
it has been consigned away with hundreds of 
feet of other film where it is allowed to dry 
out and become brittle and perhaps be for- 
gotten Such is the fate of the average ama- 
teur reel. 

The Difference 
But the Exceptional Amateur, the one that 
gets the "interesting" pictures, the one whose 
pictures have snap — tempo as it is often call- 
ed — the one whose pictures are viewed over 
and over and are carefully rewound and filed 
away in humidor cans, what does he do? He 
edits his film! 

Min i m um Eq u ip tnent 



next scene. If there is any doubt in your mind 
at all, run the scene over again. 
Sub Titles 
Doubtless, during this procedure, certain 
sub-titles will suggest themselves to you. Jot 
these down indicating in your notes just where 
you think they belong. Also perhaps after 
you have viewed the reel for the second or 
third time, you will realize the order in which 
the scenes appear on the screen is not the best. 
Some particular scenes will be more effective 
if they follow a certain scene instead of ap- 
pearing before that scene. This fact must be 
entered in your notes also. It is very neces- 
sary to project the film enough times so th it 



The only piece of equipment necessary for you become perfectly familiar with it as the 
successful editing is a good splicing block. 16 mm. film is so small that it is not easy to 
The Bell & Howell Company have a com- follow the action on the film itself unless you 
bination rewind and splicing outfit that is ex- know what it is all about. Once you become 
cellent for this sort of work. Learn to make familiar with every little movement and mo- 
neat splices and make them quickly and then tion, you are ready to begin cutting, 
you are ready to start. Let us examine a typi- Action 

Transfer your film to your rewind and splic- 



The film is received from the finishing lab- 
oratory. It is first projected just as it is re- 
ceived so that you may get a general idea of 
what it contains. As the film is projected for 
the first time, note mentally the bad spots. Are 
there any spots under-exposed or over-expos- 
ed or out of focus? Which scenes are too long? 
Which scenes lack action and therefore don't 
mean anything? These are a few of the things 
that should flash through your mind when you 
view your own picture for the first time. 



ing outfit and look Scene Number One over 
carefully. Do not keep more than two frames 
previous to where action starts. In most cases 
one frame is enough. By this I mean, for ex- 
ample, suppose you have a scene showing ni 
automobile drive up, come to a stop and some 
people step out. You will doubtless have a 
foot or so of film before the auto puts in its 
appearance. Look over the film carefully and 
note the first frame in which the auto appears. 

(Continued on Page 18) 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEMA TOGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



Motion and the Art 
of Cinematography 



Startling and Novel Ideas 
By Slavko Vorkapich on Motion Picture Treat- 



(Slavko Vorkapich, celebrated Hollywood artist, deliv- 
ered the following address before a recent open meeting 
of the American Society of Cinematographers :) 

As foreword, I must tell you, that in this 
address the subject of Motion Pictures will be 
treated from a purely artistic point of view. 

Therefore, the more practical side of it, the 
commercial value and the understanding by 
the public in general will be completely over- 
looked. 

I will ask you, if I may, to forget, for a 
while at least, the business side of films, the 
box office and the appeal to the audiences, al- 
though we feel that, even among the public, 
there is an evident demand for "something 
different." And, who knows, perhaps the ideas 
here expressed, if properly realized, might 
some day prove even financially valuable. 

However, a real artist works to satisfy his 
own taste first. And, if his work is sincere, the 
discriminating ones among the public will 
deeply enjoy the product of his effort. 

Now to come to our problem : 

Can a motion picture be a real work of art? 
By "work of art" I mean — an achievement 
comparable to masterpieces of all other arts; 
a motion picture that could compare, in its 
artistic value, to an Egyptian temple, to a 
Greek statue of Venus or Apollo, to Dante's 
Inferno, to Shakespeare's Hamlet, to the 
poems of Byron, to Mona Lisa, to Michael 
Angelo's frescoes, to Beethoven's Ninth Sym- 
phony, and so forth. Can we name one motion 
picture that has approached those master- 
pieces? 

"Is it possible to make such a masterpiece 
in motion pictures, and how?" is the problem 
I should like to discuss with you tonight. 

To know an art, we must know its tools, its 
material, its proper characteristics, its field of 
activity and its limitations. For that reason, 
we have to examine the possibilities of our 
new medium, the cinema. 

From Photography 

Cinematography has evolved fro mphotog- 
raphy. That is, maybe, why many have made 
the mistake to think of cinema in terms of 
photography. But still a greater mistake is. to 
judge the cinema from the point of view of 
drama or literature. Why is it, that the people 
won't grant an absolute independence to this 
recent human achievement? This has been 



ment Advanced by Student 

puzzling me, and I was unable to find an an- 
swer. Or, is the cause to be found in the well- 
known difficulty of the humans to adapt them- 
selves to anything new? 

Work of Art? 

In order to clear the path to our investiga- 
tion, I am going to make a radical statement: 
A photograph can never be a real work of art. 
A photograph can be pretty, pleasing, decora- 
tive, even beautiful to a certain extent, but 
never really artistic. 

If you don't agree with me, make the fol- 
lowing experiment: 

Take the best photograph you can find and 
try to look at it for a long time, let us say, for 
half an hour. In the beginning you will be 
pleased with its appearance; but, the longer 
you look at it, the emptier it will appear to 
you. 

Exhausted 

You will realize that the first impression 
was only superficial. You will discover its lack 
of substance and of feeling. At the end of a 
few minutes, its contents, artistically speaking, 
will be completely exhausted. 

Studying Old Masters 

Now take a good painting by an old master, 
even a black and white reproduction of it, and 
look at it as long as you please. The experi- 
ence will be the opposite to the previous one. 

The longer you look at it, the more interest 
you will discover in it. In fact, a real master- 
piece will begin to live and reveal its worth 
only after a certain time of observation. (This 
is the best way to test the value of any work or 
art). This is also true of good literature and 
good music. The oftener you re-read certain 
passages from Shakespeare or Goethe, the 
more you discover in them. Real art is like 
life and nature: inexhaustible in its contents. 
Different 

This experiment has convinced me that it 
is useless for photography to try to compete 
with art. 

But cinematography, if properly under- 
stood, can become an art. We shall see, pres- 
ently, why and how. 

Most of you, here, being cameramen — (I 
don't like that name — cameraman. Another 
name should be used by those in pictures: like 
cinematographer, camera-artist, cinegraphist, 
or something like that) — being camera artists, 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Ele 



I presume you have the gift to visualize in 
your minds something that is described to you 
in words. 

Now, visualize in front of you a blank 
screen. Suppose we project upon it any sort of 
still picture; be it a street, an interior, an in- 
sert or a close-up. 

Only With Eyes 

Look at the screen only optically, regard- 
less of what the picture represents. If you look 
at it optically only, that is, with your eyes 
alone, and not with your minds, what will you 
see — different grades of light and darkness, 
spread over the surface of the screen. 

Now, what would make this differently 
shaded surface beautiful — a perfect arrange- 
ment of these different patterns of white, gray 
and black, into a harmonious whole. 

But can you realize such an arrangement on 
the screen just the way you would want to? 
No. An artist can do this on his canvas, be- 
cause he can touch every square inch of it di- 
rectly with his brush, pencil or hand. He can 
change, improve, correct, rearrange at will, 
until he obtains a satisfactory result. 

But a camera has no feeling for selection. 
It cruelly registers everything it sees. You 
cannot put yourself between the lens and the 



film in order to eliminate or to soften only cer- 
tain rays and to emphasize the others. 

To a certain extent you are able to dominate 
the arrangement of light and shade before 
taking the picture, but to a certain extent only. 
Artist Has Advantage 

An artist is a hundred times more the mas- 
ter of his manipulations. He is free to select, 
to modify, to emphasize according to his feel- 
ings and inspiration. That is why his final re- 
sult is satisfying. It vibrates with life, it al- 
most moves. 

But a photograph, at its best, is still lifeless, 
compared to, let us say, a painting by Rem- 
brandt. 

Now let us return to our mental screen. We 
had projected on it, a while ago, a still pic- 
ture — optically speaking, an immobile ar- 
rangement of light and darkness, in different 
degrees and in different shapes and patterns. 
Begin to Move 

Suppose now that these patterns begin to 
move. Our eyes will welcome the change. The 
shapes, the patches of light and shade, are 
traveling across the screen, they are growing 
or dimishing, they are melting into each other, 
they are disappearing and new ones appear- 
ing. 

(Coniinued on P:ige 19) 




One of the largest cinematographic staffs in the industry on the field of action on a Western loca- 
tion. Left to right: Dan Clark, A.S.C., chief cinematographer on Tom Mix features for Fox, 
and the other members of his staff — (third from left) Curtis Fetters, Roland Piatt, Clay Crapnel, 
Griffith Thomas and Normal Duval. Clark was caught instructing his aides in the details of a 
scene that zvas just about to be taken. 



Twelve 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



A Cinematographer' s 
Capital Investment 



(The following interview, reported by the editor of 
the American Cinematographer, appears in the stu- 
dio section of a current number of the Exhibitors 
Herald,) : 

Progress shown by representative cinema- 
tographers in immediately adopting improve- 
ments in motion photography equipment is a 
decided factor in the steady advance in the 
refinement of the cinema, according to Daniel 
B. Clark, president of the American Society 
of Cinematographers. 

"The cinematographer," Clark states, "never 
loses his imagination to newer or better things 
in the way of cinematographic paraphernalia. 
Our history shows that we have readily adopt- 
ed and encouraged all meritorious devices that 
have presented themselves to our attention. 
This has meant much more than is apparent 
on the surface of things. Manufacturers of 
cinematographic equipment necessarily are 
not dealing in volume insofar as this particu- 
lar trade is concerned. Hence, if the cinema- 
tographer had been content to follow the line 
of least resistance, if he had been content with 
old-line equipment and the results that such 
would obtain, we not only would have failed 
to bring about this wonderful progress in mo- 
tion pictures; but, on the other hand, those 
creators of lenses and other items would have 
been discouraged in their efforts and would 
have had no incentive to spur them on to keep 
abreast of the ever-improving requirements 
of the cinematographer. 

Expensive 

"While this foresighted attitude has proved 
a boon to the art as a whole, it has, at the same 
time, worked a great expense on those cinema- 
tographers who are not fortunate enough to be 
identified with studios whose policy is to ob- 
tain improvements in equipment once they 
have proven themselves. Such cinematogra- 
phers, in order to follow the natural bent for 
their calling, find it imperative to purchase, 
out of their own pockets, such new parapher- 
nalia as they may find they need in order to 
give expression to the novel effects they have 
conceived for a given picture. While an era 
of admirable stability long since has been 
reached in the matter of the professional mo- 
tion picture camera, expenditures on the part 
of the cinematographer for new types of len- 
ses, irises, and the like, form a considerable 




Cameras, Lenses and Special 
Equipment Represent Capi- 
tal of Several Thousands 



portion of his salary — a portion that, in a 
couple of years, amounts to practically a dead 
loss. The reason for this is that the momentum 
of the progress which the camera artist has en- 
gendered in this profession is so great that the 
rapid changing of demands makes a type of 
lens, for instance, that is 'the thing' as of to- 
day is obsolete in a couple of years. 

Capital Investment 
"In the case of the freelance cinematogra- 
pher especially," Clark concluded, "his salary 
covers not only his artistry, skill and service, 
but really covers an investment as well — an in- 
vestment which, comprising cameras, maga- 
zines, lenses and so on, amounts to several 
thousands of dollars. Therefore he has a right 
to expect to be reasonably rewarded for his 
services. Fortunately, the larger studios long 
ago recognized the economic wisdom of main- 
taining their own cinematographic equipment, 
and, in addition, in always ascertaining the 
cinematographers' recommendations so that 
their outfits mav alwavs be kept up to date." 






Junior Cameramen's Club Members 

Swap Jobs; Go Away on Locations 

Ira Hoke and Cliff Shirpser have left for 
San Antonio, Texas, on location for Lasky's 
forthcoming production, "Wings." Ira is 
cranking John Boyle's patented Bell and Ho- 
well — Akeley combination camera while 
Shirpser is assisting. It is expected that both 
of the boys will put in a lot of time in the air. 

Billy Reinhold and Gregg Toland have 
traded jobs. These two popular members of 
the Junior Cameramen's Club are considered 
the foremost and highest salaried assistants in 
the business. George Barnes, A. S. C, now 
has Gregg Toland as assistant and Arthur 
Edeson, A. S. C, has Billy Reinhold. 

'*h *r «fr "%• 

It is said on the Fox lot that Frank Powol- 
ney is turning out one of the best set of stills 
that has ever been accredited to a production 
for a forthcoming Fox picture, "Mother Ma- 

chree." 

* » * * 

David Ragin and Max Cohen have return- 
ed from location at Carmel, Calif. Dave says 
the spot is very romantic. Max says "Uh-hu." 



November, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Thirteen" 



Eastman Panchromatic 

Negative Film for 

Work in Black and White 

Even at its former price of 5 cents per 
foot, the sales of Panchromatic Negative have 
trebled in a year because many users found 
that those very qualities of color sensitiveness 
that made it an essential in color work made 
it also the most desirable for black and white. 

At the new price, 4 cents per foot, it 
is our belief that Panchromatic Negative, 
because of its perfect rendering of the finer 
color values, is bound to take the place of 
ordinary negative for practically all classes of 
work. 

The results are apparent on the screen — 
and that's what really matters. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 





Greater fl^i 

the action in clo 



Sept. 11, 1926. 
Bell and Howell Co., 
Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sirs: 

I am sure you would be interested to know 
the important part that the EYEMO Standard 
Automatic Camera played in the photographing 
of the motion picture, "One Minute to Play," 
featuring "Red" Grange. Many of the most 
thrilling scenes of the football game were made 
with the EYEMO, as well as the mobile and 
stationary shots throughout the picture. 

Mr. Sam Wood, the director, was particular- 
ly pleased with the results obtained. Its use 



gave him 
the action 
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The pho 
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Full specifications given in literature the coupon 
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Mail this for more information 

BELL & HOWELL COMPANY, 
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Please send me your special circulars 
describing the Eyemo Camera and its uses. 



Name.. 




Address. 



.J 




BELL & HOI 



1805 LARCHMCv 
NEW YORK- 
I 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Fifteen 



ibility in photographing 



shots"— Read this letter! 



For making personal movies which 
are fully up to professional standards, 
use the Bell & Howell 



flexibility in photographing 
shots, without the actors be- 
ifinite places. 

c quality matches the scenes 
000.00 professional camera of 
and a few of the unusual un- 
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All this, beside its simplicity 
refined workmanship surely 
ents of the most exacting. I 
id it. 
my EYEMO on my current 
x films, "Going Crooked." I 
under-sea scenes and some 
Bessie Love swimming — the 



camera held just above the surface preceding 
her as she swam. These were only possible 
with this type of camera. 

The industry is indebted to the Bell and 
Howell Company for creating a tool that so 
broadens the scope of picture telling. Still 
greater is the fact that everyone can now make 
good motion pictures with this instrument, and 
in addition to the scenes of a personal nature 
that will be made by the amateur, a great many 
will be made of historical record and that have 
general interest to the public, and can be prof- 
itably marketed. 

Wishing you every possible success, 

CHAS. J. CLARKE. 



Photographing "Red" Grange 

in 
ONE MINUTE TO PLAY'' 




m 




Motion Picture Camera 
and Projector 

THE PIONEER 

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Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 




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AMATEUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 



(Continued from Page 



ed because of the number of optical phenom- 
ena that can be explained by it. 

Science is very exacting in its definitions 
and Huyghens' explanation is still called a 
theory, or supposition, because its truth has 
not been proven by material facts. 

According to the undulatory theory, all 
spaces and bodies within and without the 
earth's atmosphere, are filled with an ex- 
tremely elastic fluid called ether. 

Ether, supposedly pervades all interstellar 
spaces, and exists between the molecules of all 
substances, from the rarest of gases, to the den- 
sest solid in existence. 

A luminous body communicates to the ether 
the extremely rapid vibrations of its mole- 
cules, and these vibrations are propagated in 
all directions by ether, in an undulatory mo- 
tion, very similar to the ripples produced on 
the surface of stagnant water, by a rapid shock 
or disturbance, as caused for example by a 
pebble or stone thrown in a calm pool. 

The rapidity of the ether luminous waves is 
prodigious, and the length of the undula- 
tions or vibration is infinitesimally small. 

ft is of great interest, to compare the ether 
undulations producing light, with the undu- 
lations producing other physical phenomena. 

Sound, for instance, is produced by undula- 
tions produced in the air, very similar in their 
deportments to the ether undulations. 

This similarity is, in fact, one of the strong- 
est arguments brought forth in the discussion 
of the truth of the undulatory theory. 

When striking the legs of a diapason, or 
tuning-fork we actually see the rapid vibra- 
tions of the instrument. 

These vibrations transmitted to the sur- 
rounding air produce a sound. If we touch the 
legs of the diapason with the hand, we stop 
the vibrations of the instrument, and sound 
ceases. 

As the amplitude of the sound waves pro- 
duces a difference in the intensity of the sound, 
so the difference of amplitude in the light 
waves produces a difference in color. 

Apparently, light of all colors, is transmit- 
ted at the same velocity in vacuo, even in air, 
the difference of velocity in these two media 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN' C I N E M A T O G R A P H E R 



Seventeen 



being so small that it cannot be detected by 
man, but this difference of velocity is readily 
visible in denser media, which fact will be 
thoroughly investigated in the course of this 
study. 

The velocity and length of undulations, 
being greater for the red light, correspond to a 
deep sound, while coming down through the 
series of visible colors to the violet, we find 
these shorter and slower undulations, to cor- 
respond to a sound of high pitch. 

The phenomena of heat is also very closely 
related with the phenomena of light, and we 
speak of a caloric ray, in the same manner and 
with the same meaning as we speak of a ray 
of light. 

Heat, is, as light, theoretically transmitted 
by undulations of the ether and the greater 
the velocity of heat undulations, the greater 
is the sensation of heat. 

A remarkable, palpable evidence of the 
possible truth of the undulatory theory, 
is given by the fact that if we decom- 
pose white light into its composing colors 
(Rainbow) and with a delicate thermopile we 
ascertain the difference of heat produced by 
each colored light, we find the thermopile 
scarcely affected by the Violet, but gradually 
indicating an increase of heat in the Blue, 
Green, Yellow, Orange respectively, up to the 
Red, at which color the temperature is great- 
er, indicating thus a greater velocity of the 
heat undulation, just as a greater velocity of 
the light undulations has been proven to exist 
for the red than for all other colors. 

Ether undulations, producing different phe- 
nomena, have been measured with great ac- 
curacy, and their length varies from the long- 
est known radio waves, having a length of 40,- 
000 meters, to the recently discovered cosmic 
rays whose length has been measured by Prof. 
Millikan of the California Institute of Tech- 
nology and found to be 0.000,000,000,040 
millimeters. 

According to the undulatory theory, a dis- 
turbance, originated at any point of the ether 
by a luminous body, is propagated as a spheri- 
cal wave in all directions around that point, 
and its velocity is uniform. 

Now, if we consider one point of the eye or 
of an optical instrument, turned towards the 
origin of the disturbance, we can visualize the 
particular part of the light-wave that strikes 
that point, and call it a ray of light. 

Tt is of great importance for the student to 
have a correct conception of what we call a 

(Continued on Pace 20) 



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Eighteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



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EDITING AMATEUR 
FILMS 

(Continued from Page 9) 



Leave one or two frames before this and cut 
the balance way. After the car comes to a 
stop there will be a brief pause before the 
people alight. If this pause amounts to more 
than two frames, cut the balance away. Con- 
tinue this procedure for each scene cutting 
away every inch of film that lacks action. 
This is slow work but the results will amply 
repay you for the time and trouble that you 
made during the projection of the reel. Bear 
in mind that you only do your cutting and 
editing once — after that you will show your 
films many many times. 

Sequence 

Scenes that are out of their proper order 
should be bodily cut away, and after carefully 
editing they should be spliced back into their 
correct position. Make your scenes follow 
each other in a logical sequence even if they 
were not taken that way originally. 

Photographical defects such as under-ex- 
posure and over-exposure should also be edit- 
ed out. Blurred scenes caused by too rapid 
motion close to the camera should also be cut 
away Remember it is far better to show a 
short pleasing reel than it is to show a long 
reel full of waits and delays and photographi- 
cal defects. 

After you have completely gone through the 
reel, you are ready to project it once more. 
Note the improvement. It will surprise even 
yourself. Perhaps in the editing process you 
skipped a scene. Stop your projector at once 
and cut it properly right then and there. Don't 
slop through this work and think that a par- 
ticular scene will get by without editing. Rar- 
ely is a scene so perfect that you can project 
it just as it comes out of the camera. Editing 
at best is slow tedious nerve-racking work. 
Take your time, be patient and you will find 
the results well worth while. 



David Abel, A.S.C., is photographing 
"Wolf's Clothing," a Warner Bros, produc- 
tion starring Monte Blue. 









uu^ 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMA T OGRAPHER 



Nineteen 



Lighting and Posing Exhibition 

Held by Institute of Photography 



Inaugurating a series of free lectures and 
demonstrations for the public, a highly inter- 
esting and successful exhibition of artistic 
lighting and posing was recently given in the 
large portrait studios of the New York Insti- 
tute of Photography at 10 West 33rd Street, 
New York, N. Y, The demonstration was 
given personally by J. C. Neely, who is on the 
staff of the Eastman Kodak Company. The 
seating capacity of the big double studio was 
taxed to the limit and despite the fact that a 
large number of late comers were compelled 
to stand, every member of the audience was 
held to the very end. 

Neely not only showed how modern light- 
ings are done, but also revealed many secrets 
in the use of draperies, panels, shadow and 
spot lightings and artificial flowers to obtain 
unusual and striking background effects. A 
number of specimen negatives weremadewith 
attractive living models and will be used for a 
later demonstration on developing and print- 
ing methods to be held at the New York Insti- 
tute of Photography. 



Motion and the Art of 
Cinematography 

(Continued from Page 11' 



The screen seems to have become, optically, 
alive. Evidently, a new element of life has 
been introduced. What is the name of this 
new element? Motion. 

Still, optically speaking, this mere change 
of pattern in front of your eyes possesses now 
something that even a painting by Rembrandt 
does not possess: Actual motion, a moving 
play of light and darkness upon the screen. 
Well, this is cinematography. 

Here we have found the key to the under- 
standing of our new medium. Motion is what 
makes it different from photography or paint- 
ing. A photographer thinks in terms of static, 
immobile, composition, but a cinematogvayhtv 
must think in terms of motion. 



Bromide? 

You will say: this is nothing new. Every- 
body knows that the moving pictures move. 

But let us again return to our imaginary 
screen. The patterns of light and shade upon 
it are moving now. If they were moving in a 
confused and meaningless fashion, would that 
make them artistic? 

Synchronizing 

No. It would be like sitting by the piano 
and pounding at the keys in any old way. Con- 
sequently, motions, like the sounds, have to be 
selected and then harmonized or synchron- 
ized, in order to produce a pleasing effect. 

I hope I am making my meaning clear, 
when I say that photographing any action at 
random is not cinematography, as long as its 
motions are not optically satisfying, when 
shown on the screen. 

No matter how good-looking the actor or 
the actress is, and no matter how wonderful 
his or her acting, it will still be only a photo- 
graph of the actor and his acting, if at the 
same time there is no motion that has cine- 
matographic value. 

I wish I were a master of words to make 
you realize the immense difference between 
photography and cinematography. 

But let me give you a concrete example: 

You all have, I hope, seen ''The Last 
Laugh." Take the very first scene of the pic- 
ture. The camera, evidently, represented one 
of the hotel guests. It was placed in the de- 
scending elevator and looked down into the 
lobby. The descending motion of the elevator, 
the people coming in and going out of the 
hotel, the revolving doors in the middle dis- 
tance, the people walking on the wet pave- 
ment outside, the cars and busses passing in 
the background. 

Cinematography 

It was a real symphony of motions. It was 
not confusion. There were five or six distinct 
motions, very well synchronized. Optically 
speaking, rhythmically moving and changing 
patterns on the screen were pleasing and in- 
triguing to the eye; mentally speaking, the 
picture gave a living, pulsating impression of 
a hotel. The atmosphere was expressed in 
terms of motion. It was eloquent and artistic- 
ally true. 

(Continued on Page 22) 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



More to it than 

the public realizes — 

THE public knows a good picture when 
it sees one — you can bet on that! 
What it doesn't know is the technique, 
photography, and lighting that makes it 
what it is. 

But we who are "behind the scenes" 
know! We see the Cooper Hewitts work- 
ing day and night alike. We see outdoors 
moved indoors. But even we are inclined 
to forget that the "Coops" first made it 
possible. The " 3oops" are always ready 
to serve you. Call up "Mike" Shannon 
and he'll see that they do. 




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ray of light. 

When the light of the Sun is permitted to 
pass through a minute orifice, drilled in the 
wall of a dark chamber, and a thin cloud of 
smoke is formed in the chamber, a streak of 
light is made visible, which streak we com- 
monly call a ray of light. 

In fact, this streak, no matter how small the 
orifice may be, is composed of a number of 
rays, limited by the size of the orifice itself, 
and it may readily observed that these rays 
diverge from each other, forming on the wall 
of the chamber, opposite to the opening, a sun- 
spot larger in size than the orifice. 

These rays, may be made to take a course 
parallel to each other, or to converge to one 
point, by forcing them to pass through lenses 
of suitable form. 

Such an agglomeration of rays, is called a 
"beam" or "pencil" of light, and may be 
parallel, divergent or convergent, according 
as to whether the rays composing it are paral- 
lel to each other, or if they separate from each 
other, or converge to a same point. 

A "ray of light," is then an imponderable, 
immeasurable entity of light, representing the 
direction in which light is propagated, in re- 
ference to the observer or optical instrument; 
and marking the shortest distance between the 
luminous point and the receptive point. Now, 
the shortest distance between two points being 
a straight line, we can conceive this direction 
as a "geometrical straight line." 

As the undulatory theory infers the exist- 
ence of undulations, we shall conceive them as 
having a bearing on the velocity of light, but 
none on its direction. 

It has also been ascertained that the velocity 
of light varies with the wave-length, this velo- 
city being greater for the red rays and grad- 
ually diminishing for the rays of the different 
colors from red to violet. 

It is evident that it becomes necessary to 
consider the velocity of light and its color, be- 
side the "geometrical conception" of a ray of 
light; we can arrive at the definition of a ray 
of light as "the direction in which monochro- 
matic light is propagated from one luminous 
point to a given receptive point." 






.. 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-one 



"Monochromatic' 1 is a word derived from 
the Greek words monos, sole, and chroma, 
color, that is to say: light of one color. 

Substances that readily permit the trans- 
mission of light are called transparent. Sub- 
stances that do not permit the transmission of 
light, are called opaque. 

Perfectly transparent, as well as perfectly 
opaque bodies, do not exist. Consider, for 
instance, water as a highly transparent body. 
A sufficient quantity of water is quite impene- 
trable by light, and on the other end, if we 
reduce gold, the most ductile of opaque bod- 
ies, to a very thin leaf, we notice that it trans- 
mits green light. 

These facts are well in accord with the un- 
dulatory theory, which states, that ether exists 
between the molecules of all substances. 

Other substances such as ground glass, por- 
celain, etc., transmit light, but are not trans- 
parent in the common sense of the word, as 
one cannot see objects through them. These 
substances are called translucent and the phe- 
nomena is caused by the diffusion and scatter- 
ing that light undergoes in the interior of 
these substances. 

Calling media the subtances that transmit 
light, we can readily understand, that the velo- 
city of light within them, is regulated by their 
molecular composition. We can then con- 
clude that "A ray of light travels in a straight 
line in a medium whose composition is equal 
in all its parts, but its velocity varies accord- 
ing to the density of the medium/' 

A ray of light, will then travel at its maxi- 
mum velocity in the medium vacuo. Its velo- 
city will be less in the medium air, still less in 
the medium glass, less yet in the medium dia- 
mond, which is the densest of all transparent 
media. 



l r^ . sr% r~\ r\ 


\ h \ y J \ J 


W 4 R 


Fig. 1. 




L equals Luminous point. 




R equals Receptive point. 




Straight line LR equals geomi 


•trical conception of 


ray. 




Curved line LR equals wave 


undulation. 


Direction . from left to right as pointed by arrozus. 



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Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER 



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(Continu.'d t,om Page 19) 



This, I call cinematography. 

Now, for contrast, take any average picture 
showing a hotel lobby. The camera is fixed in 
a corner to take in a long-shot of the whole 
set. The pillars, the stairway, the desk, the 
furniture, everything is there, very well com- 
posed, if you will, but static. Some people are 
seated, some are walking across the lobby, 
some are going up or down stairs. Everything 
looks true to life, yet something is lacking. 
The set is beautifully lighted, there is plenty 
of action, but they were done without thinking 
of the optical moving pattern, or considering 
whether those movements in all directions will 
synchronize when shown on the screen. 

This is still only photography, and not cine- 
matography. 

I hope that I have made clear the difference 
between these three things: 
First, Still photography; 

Second, Photography of actions and acting; 
and, 

Third, Real cinematography. 

(And I hope also that you have, with me, 
come to the conclusion that, if cinematog- 
raphy is going to be an art at all, it will be 
primarily an art of motions). 

The very name of your profession indicates 
its real function: motion pictures. 

Knowledge is acquired through study. An 
original artist draws his knowledge from life. 
The subject of our study being motion, let us 
open our eyes to the motions we see around us 
in everyday life. 

Suppose you let a friend take you for a ride 
through Hollywood. While your friend is 
driving, you watch out for all the motions, 
seeming and actual. Seeming, or apparent, 
motions would be: Buildings, trees, telephone- 
poles coming toward you and growing at the 
same time; distant skyscrapers showing first 
one of their sides, then, as you approach them, 
gradually growing and revealing their fronts, 
as if revolving around their vertical axes, then 
suddenly disappearing from the field of your 
vision, unless you turn around, which would 
give a novel and interesting combination of 
motions. 

Jf you tell your friend to turn to left or 
right, you will see at least two of the corners 
of the street gracefully swinging around you, 
until you come to face a new street. 






November, 1926 






- 



November, 1926 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

Actual Motions — 



Twenty-three 



Now watch out for all the actual motions: 
The people on sidewalks going in opposite di- 
rections and in different tempos, the cars and 
street-cars going ahead of you and almost 
keeping their relative proportions, while 
those coming toward you are doubly growing, 
through their own effort and because of your 
approach . . . the cars at intersections going 
in different tempos in directions perpendicu- 
lar to your own, or turning the corners and 
thus changing their directions by describing a 
quarter of a circle, perhaps a man disobeying 
the traffic rules and crossing the street diago- 
nally, in the meantime rolling a spare tire 
. . . the policeman in the center of the crossing, 
revolving around his vertical axis, barber- 
poles doing a similar motion but without 
pause, an organ-grinder cranking the handle 
around its horizontal axis, a page of a news- 
paper, blown by the wind, going in unex- 
pected directions and revolving around unex- 
pected axes ... a door or a window opening 
or closing, a revolving hotel entrance, less ca- 
denced than the traffic policeman and more 
varied than the barber-pole in the tempo of its 
motions, and above the street the smoke, the 
clouds and perhaps a bird, much freer and 
more graceful in its movements than the 
creeping things below. 

If you are not dizzy, take a ride on the 
beach and you will behold many more mo- 
tions: of the waves, boats, hydroplanes, swim- 
mers, seagulls, and then those diabolical de- 
vices made for "amusement. 1 ' If you have 
the nerve, take a ride on one of those unnam- 
able three-dimensional curves and watch how 
the world will look to you. Why, the thing 
is symbolical of life itself, with its pleas- 
ant going-ups, its suicidial going-downs and 
the final: "Thank God, it's all over now" . . . 
Well, this should have been a great lesson in 
many ways. 

(Continued Next Month) 



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Twenty-four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



CINOPHOT 

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Patented by Dr. Emil Mayer 



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AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 
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6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign 
rates additional), for one year's subscription to the 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, to begin with 
the issue of 

, 192 



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(Note: Camera Craft or Photo-Era will be sent for • 
slight additional sum. Consult the clubbing offers.) 



ALVIN KNECHTEL 
ELECTED /* A. S. C. 

(Continued from Page 4) 



stationed in Los Angeles for permanent head- 
quarters. 

Notable Work 
While with Pathe, Knechtel evolved a me- 
thod of producing multiple image and trick 
novelty photography which has been featured 
by Pathe during the past two years, in which 
period the new A.S.C. member has been con- 
centrating on this particular type of work 
which, by special arrangement, will be con- 
tinued by Pathe who have acquired the cine- 
matographer's rights thereto. 

Subjects 
Among the subjects which have been pho- 
tographed by Knechtel are: "The Mysterious 
Browning," "The First Woman" and "Is 
Money Everything?" for Hammond Produc- 
tions in Detroit; "Beneath the Southern 
Cross," "The Dream Isle," "The Deep Sea 
Harem," "The Eighth Art," "The Wiggle 
Works." "The Hook Hunters of Hawaii," 
"The Silk Moth," "Flying over Hawaii," 
"The Pets of the Pacific," "Growing Cherry 
Coffee in Hawaii," "Speak-easy Speed," "The 
Phantom Ballet," "The Pearl of the Mid-Pa- 
cific," "The Pride of the Plantation," "Hot 
Dog." "The City of the Angels," "Magic Min- 
nie." "Sea and Sundown," "The Last of the 
Hawaiians," "The Sweetheart of Hawaii," 
"The Mystic Menagerie," "Acrobatics a la 
Mode," "The Two-legged Horse Race," 
"Spartan Sports," "The Cauldron of Kila- 
uea," "Twinkling Toes," "Our Gang at 
Home," "Fact and Figure," "The Sylph of the 
Sea," "Making Over a Metropolis," "Circus 
Secrets," "On Thin Ice," "Springboard 
Fever," "The Wallop Works," "The Scram- 
bled Scrapbook," "Beyond the Purple Pool" 
and "Steps from the Steppes." 

Carl Zeiss, Inc., Move to 

Larger New York Headquarters 



Carl Zeiss, Inc., have moved to newer and 
more modern quarters at 485 Fifth Avenue, 
in New York City. 

The change comes as a result of the con- 
tinued growth of the firm, which does a 
world-wide business in photographic, cinema- 
tographic and kindred lines. 



i 



November, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-five 



CLASSIFIED 

A D V E R T I S I N G 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge 
one dollar per insertion. 

All copy must be prepaid and must reach us be- 
fore the fifteenth of the month preceding publication. 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

American Cinematographer, 

1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, California 



WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERA 

WILL PUT <'ou in touch with buvers for Bell & Howell cameras and equipment. 
Phone or write the A. S. C, 1222 Guaranty Bldg. Granite 4274. 
Hollywood. California. 

FOR CASH, t sed Bell & Howell camera and tripod. Lenses and mounts not 
essential. Low price and good mechanical conditions are chief require- 
ments. Jay Falk, 10 West 3?rd St., New York, N. Y. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS 

BRAND new Eyerr.o camera, complete with extra magazines, carrying case, 
etc., £300 00 . . . Also almost new Universal camera, built-in dissolve, 
carrying case, extra magazines, and new Burke and James tripod, $3 25.00. 
Frank King. 36 Crestwood Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 



BELL & HOWELL. Eyemo Camera— 3.5 lens; Color Filter; Case; Six 100-ft. 
reels; Daylight Negative; Cost $400.00; Price $275.00. All Brand New. 
Cameron, Manhattan Beach. N. Y. 

■ FOR SALE— LENSES 

ONE three-inch Dahlmcyer F. 1:9, mounted for Mitchell; one two-inch Bausch 
& Lomb F.2:7; on Dahlmeyer Pentac 37 mm. F.2:9. Georges Benoit, 845 
Crescent Heights Blvd.. Hollywood. Calif. 

CARL ZEISS, F. 2.7, 50 mm. in Bell & Howell mount. Dan Clark, care 
American Society of Cinematoera phcrs. 

NEW 40 rr.m. Goerz Hypar f. 3. 5. lens in Bell & Howell mount; price $50.00. 
Write Charles Clarke, 1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

FOR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR RENT — Bell & Howell studio equipment complete. l70-Degree Shutter. 

Liberal commission to cameramen. Call Mr. Smith, Metropolitan 4686. 

Evenings call Main 0947. (Los Angeles.) 

AKELEY and Bell & Howell cameras for rent. John Boyle, 1207 Milton Ave. 

Phone Granite 2213, Hollywood, California. 



BELL & HOWELL. Victor Milner, 
California. 596-944. 



2221 Observatory Ave., Los Angeles, 



MITCHELL, and Bell & Howell Cameras. F.2:3; F.2:7; F.3:5 Lenses— 
40-50-75 mm. Complete equipment. J. R. Lockwood, 523 North Orange 
St.. Glendale, California. Glendale 3361-W, or HOlly 0764. 



E. BURTON STEENE, Bel 
ment. Latest models. 
Hollywood. California. 



& Howell, and Akeley. Complete Camera Equip- 
Address American Society of Cinematographers, 



BELL & HOWELL. 170, with 30, 40, 50 and 75 lens equipment. Baby Tripod. 
Also B. & H. Cine Motor. Charles Stumar. GRanite 9845. 1201 Vista 
Street. Hollywood. 

FOR RENT — One Eyemo camera, complete with all accessories. Bert Glennon, 
5905 Carlton Way, Hollywood, California. Phone Hempstead 2743. 

FOR RENT— STILL CAMERAS 

WILL RENT still camera to local parties. Special arrangements to A. S. C. 
members. Geo. Meehan, Ph. GRanite 3830, 744 Curson Ave., Hollywood, 
California. 

FOR RENT— One 4x5 Graflei Camera and one 4x5 Grnfic. Bert Glennon, 
5950 Carlton Way, Hollywood, California. Phone Hempstead 2743. 



FOR RENT— AIRPLANES 



AIRPLANES equipped to carry cameras, facilitating the photographing of 
stunts or other unusual action, for rent by the hour, day or week. Jerry 
Phillips. Professional Pilot. Clover Field. Santa Monica. California. 



WANTED— POSITION 



AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHER will give services in return for practical experi- 
ence. W. T. Henry. 963 Magnolia Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 



FOR SALE OR TRADE 



ONE Universal Camera, (400-foot model); 8 magazines, cases and trunk. 
Masks, Lens, Bausch and Lomb, 2-inch focus. Two Klieg lights, 100 feet 
of cable and spider box. Wanted: an Eyemo camera. Chas. E. Carruth, 
Denton, Texas. 



Dignity 



in 



Advertising 

Espousing the aesthetic as well as the 
practical progress of the art of cineana- 
tography, the American Cinematogra- 
pher has, through the prestige of its ad- 
vertisers and contributors, gained an en- 
viable place in the realm of dignified 
advertising. 

The psychology of dignity in compel- 
ling attention which directly breeds the 
confidence of the reader is evinced in the 
high grade 'copy' which is the consistent 
characteristic of the advertisers using the 
American Cinematographer in the field 
of cinematography. 



Camera Craft 

and 

American 
Cinematographer 

may be had on a special one 
year's clubbing subscription at 
a very substantial saving. Sep- 
arately, the two publications 
cost a total of $4.50 per year. 
By virtue of the clubbing offer, 
both may be had for $3.40. 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



November, 1926 



Announcing 



a new 



Clubbing Arrangement 
between 

Photo- Era and 

American 

Cinematographer 



To serve its readers, this publication 
has effected a clubbing arrangement 
with Photo-Era on the following basis: 

Regular Rates per Year: 

Photo-Era $2.50 

American Cinematographer 3.00 

Total for Both $5.50 

By virtue of the new clubbing offer, 
both publications may be had, for one 
year, for 

$4.15 




View of Hoef tier's true-ball tripod head for 
professional cameras. 



Trueball Tripod Head for Studio 

Professional Cameras Is Invented 



A new tripod head for professional mo- 
tion picture cameras, known as the "Hoefner 
Trueball Tripod Head, Model B," has been 
placed on the market by Fred Hoefner, well- 
known Hollywood precision mechanic 

The new head is a companion creation to 
Hoefner's "Model A," which, announced in 
the June issue of this publication, was design- 
ed for amateur cameras, among the users of 
which it has found a wide demand. 

Operating Principle 

As with the amateur type, the Model B 
works on the true-ball principle. 

"This is the only way," Hoefner states, 
"that more than one required motion can be 
made to move simultaneous, making the mo- 
tion continuous and the tension equally main- 
tained, for the following of a moving object — 
as there is only one side or surface to a ball. 

"Among the other features are: By turning 
a hand screw, the pan is locked and the tilt 
moved through a ninety-degree arc; and, by 
reversing the action of this screw, the tilt is 
locked and the pan action released. Also, the 
whole head may be instantly locked, making 
it more rigid. The drag tension may be ad- 
justed to suit the operator. The operating 
handle is removable and telescopic. It is ad- 
justable to any angle and length required." 






How to Locate Members of the 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Telephone: GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark. ---------- President 

L. Guy Wilky -------- First Vice President 

Frank B. Good -------- Second Vice President 

Ira H. Morgan -------- Third Vice President 

George Schneiderman --------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke ---------- Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Victor Milner 

Daniel B. Clark 
George Schneiderman 
L. Guy Wilky 
Frank B. Good 



Alfred Gilks 
Charles G. Clarke 
Glen MacWilliams 
Homer A. Scott 
King D. Gray 



Fred W. Jackman 
Reginald E. Lyons 
E. Burton Steene 
Ira H. Morgan 
Floyd Jackman 



Abel, David— with Warnei Brothers. 

Arnold, John— with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studio-. 

Barnes, George S. — with Henry King. Samuel Goldwyn Prod. 

Beckway, Wm. — 

Renoit, George — with Metropolitan Production-. Metropolitan Studios. 

Boyle John VV. -With Fir-t National. Burbank. 

Brodin, Norbcrt F. — with Frank Lloyd Productions Famous Players- 

Lasky. 
Broening, H. Lyman — 
Brotherton. Joseph — 

Clark, Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studio-. 

Clarke Chas G. — with Geo. Melford, Fo\ Studios. 

O wlin'g, Herford T. -Suffolk, Va. 

Cottier, Frank M. 

Crockett, Ernest — 

Cronjager, Henry — with Cecil B. De Mille Studio-. 

Dean, Faxon M. — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Doran, Robeit V. — 
Dored, John — Riga. I. itvia. 
DuPont. Max B - 
Dubray, Jo-cph A.— 

F.deson, Arthur— with I "irst National, New York City. 
Evans, Perry — 

Fildew. Win.-- 

Fischbeck Harrj A. with I >. W. Griffith, Famous Players-Lasky, 

New' York City. 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thomson, F. B. 0. Studio-. 
Fried. Abe — with Fox Studios. 

Gaudio Gaetano— 

Gilks Allied — with James Cruze. Famous Players-Lasky. 
Glennon, Beit — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

G I, Frank B — 

Gray, King D. — with Fox Studios. 

Griffin. Walter L. — with David Hartford Productions. 

Guiss.ut. Rene — Paris, France. 

Haller. Erne-t — with Robert Kane Productions, New Yoik City. 
Ilcimerl, Alois G. — 

Jackman, Floyd — with F'red W. Jackman Productions. 
Jackman. Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Productions. 
Jennings, J. D. — with Buster Keaton. 

Knechtel, Vlvin V with First National, Burbank. 
Koenekamp, Hans F. — 
Kuirle. Robeit. 



Edison, Thomas A. — 
Webb, Arthur 



Km tie. Robert- 
Landers, Sam — 
l.ockwood, J. R. — 

Lundin. Walter — with Harold Lloyd Productions, Metropolitan Studios. 
Lyons, Reginald — with Fox Studios. 

Mar-hall, Win. — with Raymond Griffith, Famous Players-Lasky. 

McCord, T. D.— 

McGill, Barney — with Fox Studio-. 

MacLean. Kenneth G. — with Mack Sennett Studios. 

MacWilliams. Glen-— with Fox Studios. 

Meehan, George — with Fox Studios. 

Milner, \ k tor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan. Ira H. — with Cosmopolitan, Metro -Goldwj n-Mayer Studios. 

Musuraca, Nicholas — 

Norton, Stephen S. — 

Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox. Europe. 
Perry, Harry — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Perry, Paul P.— with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Polito. Sol — with Ken M.iyn.ird, First National. 

Ries, Park J.— 

Roos, Len H. — Sydney, Australia. 

Roe, Jackson J. — with Universal. 

Rosher, Charles — with F. W. Murnau, Fox Studios. 

Schneiderman, George— with Fox Studios. 

Si ott, Homer A. — 

Scitz, John !•'. — 

Sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Snyder, Edward V. — with Pathe, line Art- Studio. 

Smith, Steve. Jr. — 

Steene, E. Burton — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

M umar. John — with Universal. 

Folhur-t. Louis II. — producing microscopic pictures, for Pathe. 
Totheroh, Rollie H. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studios. 
Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios. 

Van Buien. Ned — 

Van Enger. Charle — with First National Productions, Burbank. 

Van Trees, James C. — with First National Productions, Burbank. 

W.irrenton, Gilbert — with Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — 

Whitman, Philip It. — with Mack Sennett Studio-, Sienaiio Department. 

Wilky. L. Guy- 
Honorary Member. 
C. — Attorney 



Meeting! of the American Society of Cinematographers are held a called on Monday eveni 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 
Hollywood Boulevar'l and Iv.n Avenue 



in the A. S. C. assembly rooms 



LOYALTY 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

PROGRESS 



ART 



Vol. VII, No. 9 
25 .Gents a Copy 



December, 1926 




IN THIS ISSUE: 
Air Is Dared to Get Bombing Shot— By E. Burton Steene, 
A.S.C.; Duplication of Motion Picture Negatives— By J. 
G. Capstaf f and M.W. Seymour; A Professional's Notes for 
Amateurs [Part Two]— By Joseph A. Dubray, A.S. C. 



^^^9^<^J^^J^^^^S^>^J^^ 




N exceptionally long line 
oS gradations combined 
with fine grain, high speed 
and excellent color separa- 
tion, makes 




Negative the better stock 



''Ask the men who use it'' 



Dupont-Pathe Film Mfg. Corp. 

35 West 45th St., New York 

Smith and Aller, Inc. 

Pacific Coast Distributors 



1056 North Gahuenga Ave. 



GRanite 6669 



Hollywood, Calif. 



Vol. VII DECEMBER, 1926 No. 9 

American 
Cinematographer 



Foster Goss, Editor and General Manager 



Table of Contents: 

Page 

In Camerafornia 4 

The Editor's Lens 5 

Official Action Requested on Credit Title Situation . . 6 

Air Is Dared to Get Bombing Shots — 

By E. Burton Steene, A.S.C 7 

Duplication of Motion Picture Negatives — 

By J. G. Capstaff and M. W. Seymour .... 9 

Amateur Cinematography — 

Simple Hints to Aid the Amateur— 

By Hamilton Riddel 10 

A Professional's Notes for Amateurs (Part II) — 

By Joseph A. Dubray, A.S.C 11 

Scientific Author Has Wide Experience 12 

Motion and the Art of Cinematography (Concluded) — 

By Slavko Vorkapich 15 

Projection — Conducted by Earl J. Denison — 

Congress of Cinematography and Projection Suggested — 

By Daniel B. Clark, A.S.C 18 

Classified Advertising 24 

A.S.C. Roster 



An educational and instructive publication, espousing progress and art in motion picture photography. 

Subscription: United States, $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies 25c. 

Published monthly by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, Inc. 

Advertising rates on application. 
1219-20-21-22 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, Calif. Telephone GRanite 4274 

(Copyright, 1926, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc.) 



Four 



A M E R I C A N C I N E M A T O G R A P H E R 



December, 1926 




Nick Musuraca, AS.C. has 
finished photographing 
"Lightning Lariat," an F. B. 
O. production, which Robert 
Delacy directed Included 
in the cast are Dorothy Dun- 
bar, Tom Tyler and Frankie 
Darro. Musuraca filmed 
numerous location scenes at 
Victorville, which seems to 
have had a claim on the pres- 
ence of A.S.C. members dur- 
ing the past month. Dan 
Clark. A.S.C, shot the action 
of a Tom Mix feature at the 
same location during a large 
part of the fortnight just clos- 
ed. 



Joseph A. Dubray, A.S.C, 
has concluded the cinematog- 
raphy on "Easy Money," a 
Tiffany production. The cast 
included Helen Ferguson, 
Claire MacDowell, Helen 
Lynch, Pat O'M alley, Geo. 
Hackthorne, Laivford Da- 
vidson, Heinie Conklin and 
Max Davidson. Direction 
was in the hands of Oscar Ap- 
fel. 



Georges Benoit, A.S.C, is 
nappy that these are the days 
which are not preceded by al- 
coholic nights that bring "the 
morning after." For, if such. 
were the case, Georges might 
well question the accuracy of 
his sight — if he had imbibed 



too persuasively the preced- 
ing night — when he steps on 
the set for the filming of his 
current production at the 
Metropolitan studios. Be it 
known that it is the duty of 
Georges to shoot a banquet 
scene in which the guests par- 
taking of food are not only 
Harrison Ford and Phyllis 
Haver, who head the cast, but 
embrace, in addition, one 
lion, one Kangaroo, one horse, 
one cat and one dog. Fortu- 
nately, no pink elephants or 
ring-tailed leopards are in- 
cluded. The picture is "No 
Control." Harry Myers is 
also one of the principals. 



* * 



E. B. Du Par, A.S.C, has 
spent a busy month photo- 
graphing artists oj the musi- 
cal world for presentation 
through the medium of War- 
ner Brothers' "Vitaphone." 
Among these whom Du Par 
worked with were Vincent 
Lopez and his orchestra, 
Charles Hackett, "Whisper- 
ing" Smith, and Mischa El- 
man; and, in addition) Bruce 
Bairnsfather, originator of 
"01' Bill," the hero of "The 
Better Ole," on which, slar- 
ring Syd Chaplin and direct- 
ed by Chuck Reisner> Du Par 
was chief cinemalographcr. 



H. Lyman Broening, A.S.C, 
has been holding forth inter- 
mittently at Lake Arrowhead 
for location scenes for "Cali- 
fornia or Bust," an F.B.O. 
production which Phil Rosen 
is directing. In the cast are 
George O'Brien and Victor 
Potel. 






Charles J . Van Enger, A. 
S.C, is at Laguna Beach, 
Calif., for the filming of 
scenes for First National's 
"The R u n a w a y Enchan- 
tress." Milton Sills is star- 
red, with a cast including 
Mary Astor, Arthur Stone, 
Alice White and Larry Kent. 

* * * 

Gilbert Warrenton, A.S.C, 
is reveling in the task of film- 
ing a record all-star cast for 
Universal's production of 
"The Cat and the Canary." 
Paul Leni is directing. Before 
Warrenton's camera are ap- 
pearing Laura La Plante, 
Arthur Edmund Carewa 
Flora Finch, Gertrude Astoil 
Martha Mattox, Creighton. 
Hale, Tully Marshall, For- 
rest Stanley and George Seig- 

man. 

* * * 

Tony Gaudio, A.S.C, is 
filming First National's 
"Three in Love," under the 
production management of 
Ray Rockett. 



December, 19J6 



AMERICAN CINE M ATOGRAPHER 



Five 



The EDITOR'S LENS 



focused by FOSTER GOSS 



Concerning Make-Up 

OF LATE a great deal of carelesness has been 
manifest among screen players in the matter 
of make-up. Perhaps this peculiarity of mo- 
tion picture acting has become too matter of fact 
to warrant serious consideration from those whose 
popularity lias been established throughout the thea- 
tre-going world. At the same time, however, there 
is no excuse for some of the slovenly cosmetics that 
have been slopped on the faces of various film play- 
ers irrespective of their qoqnlarity. 
" Lately we have been noteing examples on this 
point in different pictures. To us, Jack Mulhall's 
make-up in "God Gave Me Twenty Cents" was 
atrocious. Reginal Denny's in "Take It From Me" 
appeared too light. Harry Langdon's in "The Strong 
Man" seemed likewise; in fact, Langdon's make-up 
has always appealed to us to be by far too white. 
% We do not know just what the object may be 
in attempting to make male stars appear so fair 
and ladv-like. Certainly it does not enhance the 
value of their appearance or even the immediate 
role at hand. Strangely enough, the tendency is 
to run to lightness rather than to darkness. Prob- 
ably it is an inherent desire to be the proverbial fair- 
haired boy. But the malady does not lie alone with 
male players. Actresses are just as culpable. To 
us, Clair Windsor ever has had a flair for make- 
up that is slightly too light, even in "Tin Hats," 
which, when we viewed it at Loew's State in Los 
Angeles, was severely criticized by the reviewers 
for the darkness of the screening. 
1 The simplest form of make-up is a matter of 
scientific study. It should not be relegated to vague 
approximation as to shade and the like; and, once 
this approximation has been arrived at, it should 
not be viewed as a set formula that never can be 
improved on. Aside from the advice from those 
who are experts in the intricacies of make-up, the 
player needs the consultation of his cinematographer. 
After all, it is how he is going to photograph in a 
given picture that counts. It is a practical matter, 
not a theoretical one. And we believe that the ac- 
tor will always find the cinematographer more than 
ready, willing and able to give the necessary co- 
operation. 

1 It seems evident that a person, who is not a star 
or a feature player who is the center of attention in 
productions, cannot adhere inflexibily to one shade 
of make-up in every picture in which he or she is 
cast. Take, for instance, the case of a blonde ac- 
tress who appears as a second lead in a film in which 
a brunette is the star. Naturally, all lightings and 
photographic treatment are keyed to the star — a 
brunette. It may well happen that in these scenes 
wherein the brunette star and the blonde second 
lead appear together, the latter will suffer from 



the fact that that which makes the former appear 
to best advantage scarcely is the right prescription 
for the latter. The thing to do, then, would seem 
to be for the secondary player to adapt her make-up 
to conform with the altered conditions at hand. No 
doubt she may have found, in past films, that one 
shade, when she appears alone or under less extreme 
conditions, presents her very favorably, but it should 
be borne in mind that the star in such a situation is 
the standard and that all others who appear with 
her should "point" their efforts, cinematographically, 
toward this criterion. 

IT Of course with those producers and directors 
who use panchromatic film where no make-up is ap- 
plied, the problem does not assert itself. The nat- 
ural colorings and shadings of the actors take care 
of themselves. However, make-up cannot be en- 
tirely eliminated — first, for character; and second, 
to cover up blemishes, or the lines of age bothering 
those players who still bask in the juvenile class. 
If The time for taking inventory for more con- 
sistent make-up is at hand. 



Honors for Arnold 

TO JOHN ARNOLD, A.S.C., goes the honor 
of having been the chief cinematographer on 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's "The Big Parade," 
which, during the past month, was awarded the 
Photoplay medal as the best picture made during 
the past year. While big things were expected of 
"The Big Parade," the production schedule did not 
allow for the time and deliberation that is conducive 
to superior cinematography. With no liesureness 
of shooting, Arnold turned out a photographic sub- 
ject that truly recorded and interpreted King Vi- 
dor's direction, Laurence Stalling's story and the 
acting of the incomparable cast. 



Cinematographic Subject 

FILM RIGHTS to "War Birds," the heroic 
non-fiction serial which was recently concluded 
in Liberty, have been purchased by Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer, it is reported, Like "Wings," 
now being photographed at San Antonio, this story 
presents an opportunity for extremely novel cinema- 
tographic treatment. To those who regard "War 
Birds" as probably the most forceful serial to run in 
a national magazine in recent years, it is a matter of 
hope that this subject may be presented atmospheri- 
cally, not only in photography, but in all its phases — 
even to the point of making the hero one who per- 
sonifies the spirit of the 24-year-old fighting flyer, 
rather than a "big name" actor who is creaking 
with the advance of age. 



Six AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER December, 1926 



Official Aftion Requested on 

Credit Title Situation 

o 

( The folloiving letter on the subject of cutting titles is self-explanatory, 
and was sent by Daniel B. Clark, president of the American Society of Cinematogra- 
phers, to Eli Whitney Collins, president of the Motion Picture Theater Owners of 
America.) 

Nov. 16, 1926. 
Mr. Eli Whitney Collins, President, 
Motion Picture Theater Owners of America, 
New York City. 

Dear Mr. Collins: 

For some time past, our attention has been called to the prac- 
tice of exhibitors in various theaters in different parts of the country 
in cutting credit titles from prints shown by them. These elimina- 
tions have included the names of the cinematographers; hence our 
interest. 

Since they are a basic and one of the most important factors 
in the making of a motion picture, the cinematographers feel that, as 
a reward for their artistic and practical efforts, they have the right 
to have their names remain on the credit titles. That the producers 
and distributors themselves are of the same opinion is indicated in 
the fact that these names were prominently placed there in the first 
place. With the cinematographer thus recognized by those who pro- 
duce motion pictures, we are not approaching the situation from the 
angle that the exhibitor is not vested with the authority to arbitrarily 
cut away these credit titles. Rather we would, officially through you, 
appeal to the exhibitors' sense of fair play to leave these titles intact. 
The only logical argument that has ever been advanced in defense of 
the practice is that the procedure is necessary to save time; yet when 
it is realized that but a few seconds are gained, such an argument 
obviously is fallacious. 

We have contributed so much to the general progress of films, 
and we have worked so long and hard in doing so, that we feel that 
we are justified in asking the exhibitors to preserve this screen recog- 
nition which, we believe you will agree, we richly merit. 

Trusting that you will receive this in the spirit in which it is ren- 
dered, 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) DANIEL B. CLARK, 

President, American Society of Cinematographers. 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seven 



Air Is Dared to «, £. «»r/™ *««, Thr J^ otSS' 

Get Bombing Shot A.S.C. j n Bomber for" Wings" 




Harry Perry, J.S.C., (at ca/nera), chief cinematographer, and William J I 7 ell man 

(left), director, on "II "inr/s," being produced by Paramount on an elaborate 

cinematographic scale at Sun Antonio, Texas. 



In 1 () 21 I was in Berlin and photographed, 
while there, an air picture the scenes of which 
were laid during the World War, and con- 
cerned Germany's supposed supremacy in the 
air at that time. The picture was intended for 
national release only and was not shown in 
any other country than Germany and her pos- 
sessions. I was making a trip through Cen- 
tral Europe, and by the merest chance signed 
up with the concern organized to make the 
picture, which took but five weeks in the 
making. I did all the aerial work. The big 
thrill of the picture was a scene showing a 
large French ship brought down in flames, 
and until that time the most thrilling shot 1 
had ever made from the air, although I have 
been flying since 1912 and have worked with 
Lincoln Beachy, Art Smith, General Chas. F. 
Lee. R. A. F. and many others. Beachy was 
killed at the S. F. fair in 1915 and Art Smith 
was killed at Weston-Super-Mere, England. 



after he had gone through the war. His ship 
fell 200 feet while taking a ride one calm and 
peaceful afternoon. 

Great Thrill Comes 

The greatest thrill of my life, however, has 
been while doing my present work with Para- 
mount's "Wings." Akeley cameras are always 
given the most difficult "set ups" when any- 
thing big is to be done. Not content with air- 
planes and balloons being crashed to the earth, 
a whole French village is wiped out by bombs 
released from a giant Martin bomber, painted 
and revamped to simulate an enormous Gotha 
bomber. Chief Cinematographer Harry 
Perry, A.S.C., assigned me and my Akeley 
to the bomb compartment containing twelve 
100-pound bombs of T.N.T. 1 was hoisted and 
squeezed in the remaining space in the "bom- 
bay" as the bomb compartment is called. My 
camera was mounted in such a position that 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEM ATOGR APIIEK 



December, 1926 



it was shooting straight down. Army regula- 
tions require every person going aloft to wear 
a regulation pack carrying an emergency par- 
achute, one of which I wore. We made sev- 
eral practice flights and dropped dummy 
bombs over the village to get the range. I soon 
found that the parachute pack was too cum- 
bersome and interfered with the proper han- 
dling of my camera. 1 then was forced to 
secure a model of 'chute that hung on the 
front, instead of the back; this gave me a tri- 
fle more room, as I was shooting from a kneel- 
ing position, at an altitude of less than 600 feet. 

Three Eyemos 

In addition to my Akeley, I had three Eye- 
mo automatic cameras shooting down, one op- 
crated by Art Lane, an assistant, and the other 
two by an electrical device. The call then 
came "This is the picture." Everything 
seemed safe and snug perhaps to those on the 
ground but with 1200 pounds of T.N.T. six 
inches away in a space so small that I could 
scarcely move my legs in my kneeling posi- 
tion, suppose something went wrong and we 
had to make a forced landing or perhaps crash 
with these twelve 100-pound missies, primed 
to go off in contact! 

Captain S. R. Stribling was pilot. Twice we 
circled the village, convoyed by two Fokker 
ships, while two Martin bombers and three 
smaller planes were at an altitude of about 
1200 feet with cameras mounted on them to 
show the three invading planes below bomb- 
ing the village. 

From Above 

Harry Perry, Faxon Dean and Paul Per- 
ry, all A.S.C. members, covered these shots 
from the bombers above. 

On the first two trips Captain Stribling 
dropped a "dud'' to get the range. A thin 
rope was fastened to my left arm which led to 
Captain Stribling's cockpit through the in- 
terior of the bomber from which he released 
the bombs. A signal of two sharp pulls was 
the word to tell me the bombs would be re- 
leased within fifteen seconds and to start 
cranking. 1 could sec nothing fore or aft, only 
a hole in the "bombay" directly in front of me, 
2 by 4 feet. I could not see what was coming, 
hence the signal. Naturally the scene would 
be a short one as the ship was doing 90 miles 
and I must get the explosions of all the bombs 
as they hit the village. 



Intense Interest 



By this time, I was so interested in mak- 
ing a successful shot that I forgot all about 
the T.N.T. and everything going on. I had 
to keep my eye glued to the finder eyepiece — 
the slightest jar would knock my eye away 
from it and a foot or two of film lost was not 
to be considered. Captain Stribling gave the 
two yanks. The moment had come! Looking 
through the finder, it was my job to grind and 
pick up the bombs as they dropped an inch 
or two from my cranking arm, keep them in 
the center of the picture until each one ex- 
ploded. There was dynamite planted in the 
village to augment the explosions. Down they 
went all in a row; they slipped out of the com- 
partment like grease for I did not hear or see 
them until I picked them up in my finder. 

Sure Shoolini) 

It was a wonderful sight to sec these death- 
dealing messengers speeding down — the ter- 
rible explosions took place right on schedule, 
due to the unerring eye and hand of Captain 
Stribling. 

I do not know how far the concussion lifted 
the ship, but for several seconds it shook and 
trembled with each explosion until I thought 
it might possibly be out of control which of 
course it was not. The sensation of being 
rocked and thrown about in the air in a giant 
bomber a scant 600 feet above the ground 
while dropping 1200 pounds of T.N.T. is a 
thrill not often given to a man. In my cramped 
quarters it would have been very difficult if 
not impossible to get away with my para- 
chute, but my confidence in the pilot kept me 
in repose. 

Destruction Complete 

The village was totally wrecked by this 
German invader and the scene was a great suc- 
cess and will be incorporated in the picture 
"Wings," along with the thrilling shots of the 
three ships, bomber and two escorts, from 
above. There were nine planes; it must have 
been a beautiful sight but J for one did not 
see it, until the rushes were shown. All I saw 
was straight below. It will be a long time be- 
fore I could get a thrill that this stunt gave me. 
It took about an hour to do the stunt. I was 
confined so tightly in my cramped quarters 
that I had to be lifted out as my legs were to- 
tally numb below the knees. 



th( 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN C1NEMATOGRAPHER 



Nine 



Duplication of Motion Picture Negatives 

Fine Grain and High Resolving By J. G. Capstaff High Maximum Contrast Not 
Power Are among Requirements and Desired for Duplicating Emul- 

for Material Used. M. W. Seymour* sion; Many Defects Involved. 









The making of a first class duplicate nega- 
tive calls for greater skill and makes greater 
demands upon the materials than appears at 
first sight. 

A perfect duplicate negative would be one 
which would give prints identical in every 
respect with those obtainable from the origi- 
nal. This means that the duplicate negative 
should have perfect tone reproduction and de- 
finition or sharpness and should appear no 
more grainy than the original. The essential 
requirements thus placed on the printing ma- 
terial are: sufficient latitude to reproduce cor- 
rectly scale of tones likely to be met w T ith in 
an original negative; extremely high resolving 
power; and fine grain. To these must be add- 
ed the practical requirement of sufficient 
speed for contact printing. It may be said 
that no one emulsion excels in all of these char- 
acteristics. If an emulsion has the finest pos- 
ble grain it cannot also possess the greatest lati- 
tude obtainable combined with the maximum 
speed, and so on. 

Particular Purpose 

Each type of emulsion is made for a par- 
ticular purpose and consequently has the 
qualities most essential for that purpose even at 
the expense of other desirable, but less import- 
ant qualities. 

Motion picture negative film is especially 
designed for use in the camera. It has high 
speed to permit taking pictures when the light 
is not brilliant, great latitude to cover errors in 
exposure, and a medium value for its maxi- 
mum contrast. It also has sufficiently high re- 
solving power and fine grain to serve its in- 
tended purpose. Although it is an excellent 
negative material, it is not the best for making 
duplicates. Positive film, on the other hand, 
is intended for making prints for projection; 
it has latitude to cover the range of tones in a 
normal negative and the speed necessary for 
cuiitact printing. It also has fine grain, high 
resolving power, and sufficiently high contrast 



*Research Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany; this paper was read before the recent meeting of 
the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 



to give good prints from flat negatives. The 
best duplicating material, however, should 
have even higher resolving power and a lower 
maximum contrast. The reasons for this will 
now be considered. 

The Negative 
A motion picture negative under the micro- 
scope is seen to be made up of black silver par- 
ticles with clear interstices between. Whereas 
the function of the printing emulsion is to im- 
age these particles and interstices, no emulsion 
made has high enough resolving power to do 
so perfectly. The image of the granular struc- 
ture always appears more ill-designed and 
coarse than the original, with the result that 
the picture when enlarged on the projection 
screen appears more grainy than the negative 
from which it was printed. The increase in 
graininess is not serious in positive prints from 
original negatives, but unfortunately it can be- 
come painfully evident in prints from dupli- 
cate negatives, because in the operation of 
making a master positive, then a negative from 
this, and finally a positive print, the grain 
structure is coarsened three times. It is essen- 
tial then that if the graininess of the screen 
picture is to be kept at a minimum, the emul- 
sion used in making both the master positive 
and the duplicate negative should have the 
highest possible resolving power. 

No High Contrast 

It is desirable that a duplicating emulsion 
should not have a high maximum contrast, not 
only because high contrast is unnecessary, but 
because of development defects that occur 
when development is not carried to comple- 
tion, as would be the case were a high contrast 
emulsion used for duplicating. 

The defects produced with low develop- 
ment are termed the "Eberhard" effect and 
the u Mackie" line. Eberhard, a Danish as- 
tronomer, showed that the density of small ex- 
posed areas in a film differed from that of 
large areas which had received the same ex- 
posure, and that the inequality was greatest 
when development was incomplete. He 
found that under these conditions a small ex- 

(Continued on Page 21) 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 



Amateur Cinematography 



A 



Simple Hints to 

Aid the Amateur 



Proper Cataloging Prevents 
By Hamilton Riddel Confusion and Assembles Sub- 



WHEN buying a motion picture outfit 
by all means purchase a suitable 
screen. Few amateurs realize how 
important a screen is for the successful pro- 
jection of their movies, and are satisfied to 
project their pictures on a curtain, wall, or 
what not; this means of showing films is very 
poor and most times unsatisfactory. A proper 
motion picture screen increases the brilliancy 
of a projected film, has no annoying mass of 
creases, and properly "frames" your projected 
pictures. 

Home-Made Screens 
Many amateurs attempt to make their own 
screens, and of course this is possible; but it is 
far better to buy a screen, for you have the 
assurance of a perfect reflecting surface which 
is an art to duplicate. There are many good 
screens on the market, and in various sizes so 
that it is easy to find the one that is most suited 
to your special use and size of projected pic- 
ture. Count it a good investment, and buy a 
screen; you will be surprised and pleased with 
the results it will give you. 

Proper Mailing 

MAILING your exposed roll of film 
should have your proper attention. 
The writer has seen many rolls of film 
sent to the finishing laboratories packed most 
carelessly. It can not be too emphatically 
stated that the exposed roll of film must be 
encased within the metal container supplied 
with the film when purchased. Next, put the 
metal container in the little yellow carton, and 
print your name and address on it. Be s.ure 
that such notation is legible, as it's the one and 
only means for the laboratory to identify your 
film; naturally you should be as interested in 
this detail as the laboratory ; that is, if you care 
anything about seeing your film again. 
Utilizing Box 
The writer has found that the cardboard 
box, in which developed films are returned 
from the laboratory, may serve quite well as 
an additional container for sending your film 
to the laboratory to be developed. Place the 
yellow carton in the cardboard box after hav- 
ing removed the old address label and cancel- 
led stamp; then paste a new label on the card- 



jects under Kindred Heads 

board box, properly addressed to the nearest 
finishing laboratory, and securely tie the box 
with the string. 

Do not seal the box in any way as this is 
against postal regulations for parcel post pack- 
ages. Only when sending your film by first 
class mail is it permissible to seal the package. 

By packing your film in the manner describ- 
ed above you can rest assured that it will reach 
the finishing laboratory in good condition. If 
you are sending many films to be developed, 
a rubber stamp with your name and address 
can be bought for a nominal sum; this stamp 
is very handy for marking the yellow carton 
which contains your films. It is quicker and 
guarantees that the laboratory will always be 
able to identify your films. 

Cataloging Personal Films 

AS YOU obtain your personal movies, you 
will no doubt have films of many varied 
and interesting subjects. When you have 
six or more 100-foot rolls of film, it is time to 
catalog them according to subject. 

Family Subjects 

You will have many pictures of the family 
that you may not always care to show to all 
your friends as they are not altogether interest- 
ing to others as yourself and family. So you 
can start with reel number one, and only in- 
clude your family pictures on it. This reel 
will soon grow from one to many, as the years 
go by> and you will, by so cataloging them, 
have all your family pictures together. 

Pictures which you have taken while on a 
trip are always interesting to all your friends 
and are more suited to general showing; so it 
is well to include them under a separate pro- 
jection reel. All the pictures you take of your 
friends can usually be so cataloged as to go on 
another separate projection reel. These are 
only suggestions, and the amateur can, and 
will, vary them in cataloging his films. Hence, 
when it's "Family Night" at your own show, 
you have all your personal family pictures to 
show, all together on their respective projec- 
tion reels; or if it's "Friends' Night," you have 
your general pictures of your trips and movie 
experiences which they are bound to enjoy. 



at 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINE M A T O G R A P H E R 



Eleven 



A Professional's 
Notes for Amateurs 



Part II Fundamentals and Principles 

By Jos. A. Dubray, of Lens Construction Given 
A.S.C. Lucid Explanation 



Although light travels with an extreme ve- 
locity, human ingenuity has accomplished the 
seemingly impossible feat of measuring this 
velocity to a great degree of accuracy. 

It would be inconsistent with the scope of 
these articles to enter into a detailed descrip- 
tion of the means by which such measure- 
ments have been secured. 

Suffice to say that: 

Romer measured the velocity of light 
through astronomical observation of the re- 
spective positions of the earth and the first 
satellite of the planet Jupiter at six months' 
intervals. 

Foucault used a very ingenuous laboratory 
apparatus less than 14 feet long, through 
which a small beam of sunlight was submitted 
to a series of total and partial reflections and 
rotary deviation, which enabled him to de- 
rive a formula giving the velocity of light at 
a figure somewhat less but astoundingly near 
the results obtained by astronomical observa- 
tion. 

Fizeau obtained his results through terres- 
trial observation between two points situated 
at nearly 30,000 feet from each other. 

A method similar to Fizeau's has been re- 
cently used in the mountains of California by 
Professor A. Michelson of the University of 
Chicago. 

The following table gives some of the re- 
sults obtained:" 







Velocity per St 


cond in Vacuo. 


by 


In the Year 








Miles 


Kilometers 


ROMER 


1675 


190.000 


304,000 


FIZEA1 


1844 


196,000 


SI 1,600 


FOUCAULT 


1850 


1 S ; . 1 5 7 


296.257 


MICHELSON 


1880 


187,443 


209.908 


YOUNG & FORBES 


1 SS2 


188,314 


101.382 


NEWCOMB 


ISS2 


187,413 


299,861) 


CORM 


1900 


I87.7S0 


S00 401) 


MICHELSON 


1926 


186,300 


298,080 



These are not all the complete data avail- 
able on the results obtained in the solution of 
this captivating problem. 

We have chosen these, taking in considera- 
tion the precedence of effort, and the name of 
the scientist. 

These results obtained by different means, 
in a lapse of time covering a period of 251 
years, have a truly amazing significance if we 
consider the slight differences in the figures 
obtained in such a delicate undertaking. 



WE shall now consider the behavior of 
a ray of light, incident to the smooth 
and highly polished surface of an 
opaque body; that is to say, a ray of light ema- 
nated by a luminous body, and falling upon 
such a surface. 

A very small portion of this light is ab- 
sorbed immediately at the surface of the body 
or at a small distance from it, and is extin- 
guished. 

Another portion of the incident light is scat- 
tered, or irregularly reflected in all directions. 

This scattered light is the light that renders 
visible objects that are not lumnious. If this 
phenomena did not occur, our world would be 
a strange one, engulfed in total darkness, 
broken by intense patches of light, emanated 
by the lumnious bodies or regularly reflected 
under the formal condition which we will 
presently expound. 

It is the scattering of the light that strikes 
the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere be- 
fore sunrise and after sunset, that produces the 
well known phenomena of twilight. 

Remains that portion of light, which is reg- 
ularly reflected, according to well established 
laws. 

We may note here the difference between 
the expressions of theory and laws. A theory 
is an accepted, but not thoroughly proven 
statement. In other words, a theory is the best 
explanation found by man of the causes pro- 
ducing certain phenomena. 

The supposed existence of the ether and of 
Huyghens light-waves* upon which the un- 
dulating theory of light is based, are not ab- 
solutely proven, but only serve to explain most 
of the phenomena produced by light. They 
leave a field open for investigation and sup- 
position from which new theories arise, such 
as the electro-magnetic theory of light an- 
nounced by Clark and Maxwell, and the elec- 
tron theory of Lorentz. 

In opposition to a theory, is a law, which is 
an immutable proven fact, accepted beyond 
discussion, because in all cases in which the 
laic has been applied to practical uses it has 
completely agreed with the facts derived from 
observation. 

(Continue! on Page 23) 



Twelve 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 



Scientific Author 

Has Wide Experience 

In writing "A Professional's Notes 
for the Amateur," the second install- 
ment of which appears in this issue 
of the American Cine mat ographer , 
Joseph A. Dubray, A.S.C., draws 
from a wealth of cinematographic ex- 
perience that extends over a period of 
years during which time he has en- 
joyed an enviable reputation as a cine- 
matographer of the first magnitude. 

Panchromatic Expert 

Dubray is especially known among 
the profession for his pioneer work in 
the field of panchromatic film, having 
been one of the first to investigate 
this type of stock which is coming 
into an extremely wide vogue. In 
fact, the A.S.C. member is looked to 
as an authority in this line of work, 
in which he, now as heretofore, is 
conducting exhaustive experiments. 

Many well-known cinematograph- 
ers of today "broke in" the profession 
under the tutelage of Dubray, so that 
he is eminently fitted to write such 
an educational series as is appearing 
under his by-line in the current is- 
sues of this publication. 

Scientific Study 

Dubray's camera career was pre- 
ceded by a thorough education in var- 
ious institutions on the Continent, 
where he specialized in scientific stu- 
dies. He was born in France and 
educated at the School of Chemistry 
at Milano, Italy, of which place of 
learning he is an alumnus. 





He was initiated in the photogra- 
phic profession in his father's portrait 
gallery in France. Here he, at an 
early date, began specializing in ortho 
and panchromatic work, making re- 
productions of classics which even- 
tually found their way into the cele- 
brated galleries of France, Italy, 
Spain, Belgium and Holland. Other 
phases of scientific photography gain- 
ed his attention, and he devoted a 
great deal of time to X-ray, micro- 
photography and spectrophotography. 

Film Work 

His primary experience with mo- 
tion photography was as early as 
1898; in the following year, he at- 
tained his first commercial results. 
After several years of freelancing, he 
became affiliated with Pathe-Freres. 
With this organization he served un- 



Writer of Articles for 
American Cinematographer 
Is Authority in Profession 



til 1910, at which pioneer date he was 
given the signal of honor of being 
assigned to go to the United States to 
organize and take charge of the pho- < 
tographic department of the Pathe 
studios at Jersey City. 

Dubray continued this connection 
until 1913 when the call of free- 
lancing again caused him to visit Cu- 
ba, Mexico and the West Indies for 
travel and scenic material. Coming 
back to the United States, he joined 
the Wharton Studios at Ithaca, N. Y., 
and remained there until 1914 when, 
immediately at the outbreak of hos- 
tilities, he answered the call to fight 
for the tri-color and was at once off 
(or the field of battle in France. In 
June, 1918, he was assigned to the 
Fifth Division of the A.E.F., as in- 
terpreter, and served in this capa- 
city until the conflict closed. 

Back to Camera 

Following the armistice he hasten- 
ed to New York to resume his cine- 
matographic career. He became iden- 
tified with Famous Players-Lasky 
with whom he served for several 
months, at the end of which time he 
came to Southern California to be 
chief cinematographer for Louis Gas- 
nier. He photographed many of that 
director's efforts, including "Kismet." 
Then came a long engagement over 
a period of four years with Robert- 
son-Cole, after which he again took 
to freelancing in which he at the pres- 
ent is still engaged. 

Dubray is an accomplished linguist. 
Besides English, he speaks fluently, 
among other tongues, French, Spanish 
and Italian. 



December, 1926 AMERICAN CINEM ATOGRAPHER Thirteen 



Actually essential 

The Properties that make Eastman 
Panchromatic Negative Film indispensable 
for color work make it actually essential for 
black and white, as well. 

Sensitive to blues, reds, yellows and 
greens "Pan" film — and it alone — does full 
justice to your skill. 

All the finer color values are correctly 
rendered in black and white — screen results 
are decidedly improved. 



Eastman Panchromatic Negative 
is now the same price as ordinary 
negative. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 



Dominating Superiority 



/ 



BELL & HOWELL CAMERAS 




Take away from movie history all the master productions, 
all the famous stars, all the growth and public acceptance 
which have been created through BELL & HOWELL 
CAMERAS — and but little worth while would remain. Ask 
any veteran. 

Why is it that Bell & Howell Cameras are found on practi- 
cally every movie lot in the world? — now, as they have 
been for twenty years? 

The answer is SERVICE. And that means superior design- 
ing, dependability under all conditions, ruggedness, precision 
and the growing needs of the industry anticipated far in ad- 
vance. Your faith in a Bell & Howell will always be justi- 
fied by results. 



MAKES MOVtES AS THE EYE SEES 





THE B. &H. PIONEER 

Professional Standard 

The two cameras shown here work together beautifully. 
The heavy duty Pioneer Standard, of course, needs no 
introduction. It is the industry's own general purpose 
camera. But for stunt shots, news reels, special effects, 
locations and getting lightning-fast picture "scoops" you 
need the comparatively new EYEMO. It uses standard 
film and operates in the hand, automatically, without a 
tripod. Weighs but 7 pounds. 

Special informative literature is available for the asking 
on either of these cameras. Write for it. 

Bell & Howell Co. 

1805 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 
New York — Hollywood — London Established 1907 



.. 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Fifteen 



Motion and the Art 
^Cinematography 



Conclusion of Savant's 
By Slavko Vorkapich Lecture Expounding Rev- 



(Continued from Last Month) 

The next day, if you still have the ambition 
to study motions, take a similar ride and try to 
grasp all those motions, seeming and actual, at 
once, as a whole, as a continuity simultaneous 
and successive. Then go to Henry's, or to some 
other cafe, where they will let you sit for a 
while and watch people's motions. 

As you approach the door, you will see in it 
a transparent reflection of yourself, and the 
cars and people passing back of you, and at 
the same time the people and the waitresses in- 
side the cafe. As you enter, and, while closing 
the door, if you turn around, you will get just 
a flash of the boulevard once more, then, turn- 
ing back again, you will perceive a confused 
picture of the whole cafe. It will be out of 
focus for a moment. You will experience a 
feeling of strangeness, no matter how familiar 
the cafe is to you, because the arrangement of 
the people is always novel and unexpected; 
then you will perhaps look for a familiar face, 
and if you see one, you will focus on it more 
sharply (notice that even in focussing there is 
a very subtle motion taking place). While 
you are going or being led to your table, the 
counter is changing its perspective, as well as 
the rest of the room. You swing around the 
table and take your seat: the room turns 
around, then almost establishes its balance. 
While you read the menu, the middle parts of 
the people and waitresses pass beyond the far- 
ther edge of your table, out of focus, of course. 
A waitress stops, you raise your head and look 
at hers, against the ceiling. Give your order 
and now watch other people's motions. There 
is a chap, sitting opposite you, swinging on 
one side (inverse pendulum motion) so as to 
reach more comfortably for money or some- 
thing in his trouser-pocket. Just at that mo- 
ment, another "interesting type" is reaching 
for his hat, getting up and going in the oppo- 
site direction, describing a pattern of motion 
symmetrical but varied in relation to the 
swing just mentioned. Somebody is pouring 
cream in his coffee; somebody is shaking the 
salt-shaker, the former motion being more 
harmonious, the latter more rhythmical, "stac- 
cato." Somebody is letting the pages of the 
telephone directory flow from under his 
thumb, then lifting up the receiver and dial- 
ing the number. The electric fan is trying to 



olutionary Ideas on Films 

please everybody with its double motion: a 
fast vertical revolution and a slow horizontal 
swing. 

Now, there are three fellows coming in and 
approaching the round table in the center. 
There is something about their movements 
which tells you that they have sinned against 
prohibition. You cannot imagine how the cafe 
looks to them, unless you have commited the 
same crime. But watch their motions. They 
are broad, generous and at least 25 per cent 
slower than the average, all of which makes 
them more artistic. Watch them : how loving- 
ly and loiteringly they stir their coffee, how 
many variations they are able to add to the 
plain theme of cutting the steak, how dream- 
ily and tentatively the fork approaches its des- 
tination. There is a flourish of an orchestra- 
leader's movements in their attempts to strike 
a match. And the heavenward swing of their 
heads when they blow out a generous puff of 
smoke! All this is enough to make you realize 
that the whole world is nothing but an im- 
mense cacophony of motions. 

77 is up to you now, if you are an artist, to 
make a symphony out of it. 

And, by the way, I should prefer to see the 
scenarios look more like musical scores, with 
their andantes, largos, lentos, prestos, etc., than 
like the present apparent police-records: No. 
234; Long-shot of Mr. X coming through a 
french window, (one can almost see the cross 
that "marks the spot where the body fell"). 
So much for the physical motions. 

For the study of motions that appear in our 
thoughts, the following practice should be ad- 
vised : 

Mind's Eye 

After you have observed, studied, grasped, 
digested and mastered all these external mo- 
tions, turn to those of your imagination. In a 
preferably dark room, relax completely and 
close your eyes. Visualize a blank screen 
somewhere in front of your mind's eye. Now 
let your subconscious mind, your imagination 
play absolutely freely, but use your will only 
to compel your fantasy's improvisations to 
project themselves upon that screen; at the 
same time watch very carefully whatever ap- 
pears, no matter how nonsensical it may seem. 
Now, this practice of letting your imagination 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 




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matter how thorough 
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'whenever and where- 
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dream absolutely freely and at the same time 
keeping your projecting will and your atten- 
tion awake, requires a very fine mental coor- 
dination, but with practice it can be achieved. 
I must repeat: Let your imagination run riot, 
no matter how absurd its whims may appear; 
do not try to impose upon them some conven- 
tional continuity. Only this way you will come 
to see original and amazing things and you 
will learn that your subconscious mind is a 
greater artist than your conscious mind, 
trained perhaps for years. Someone said that 
in our dreams every one of us is a Shakes- 
peare. 

One cannot predict what you may see on 
your mental screen. It all depends on your in- 
dividuality, on your fundamental make-up. It 
is easy to point out happenings in the external 
reality; but the realm of dreams, that internal 
and higher reality, is so much more varied and 
unlimited; it is the very source of the original 
artistic creation. But you will notice one 
thing common to all of us: those mental pic- 
tures move perpetually, they do not stop for 
the fraction of a second; they appear suddenly 
or grow and take shape gradually out of an in- 
significant something; they transform, meta- 
morphase; they dissolve out and into some- 
thing else; they gradually fade out or sud- 
denly explode; they reappear but with varia- 
tions, and so on. Indeed, the wealth of moving 
pictures that appear in these conscious dreams 
is immense. 

(The above suggestions should not be taken 
as recipes how to make street-scenes, cafe- 
scenes, dream-scenes, etc.; they should merely 
lead to the training of observation. Original 
artistic creation cannot be taught). 

Language of Motions 

So far, we have made only one step in our 
investigation. But this first step was the most 
important, because we discovered the funda- 
mental principle of the cinema-art: its lan- 
guage must be, first of all, a language of mo- 
tions. 

We have solved the problem optically only. 
But a real work of art does not please the eye 
alone. Besides that, it must mean something; 



_ 



■life 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



it must express something of deep human in- 
terest. 

That leads us to the problem of expression 
of thoughts and emotions by means of the cin- 
ema. But to investigate this and the psycho- 
logical value and meaning of differentmotions 
would take us more than one evening like this. 
For tonight, we shall pass, in a very sketchy 
manner, one or two points of the problem. 

Today's Titles 

To my way of thinking, the titles, as they 
are used today, are a sign of cinematic impo- 
tence. It might sound radical but it seems 
logical, nevertheless, to state that, as soon as a 
picture needs a title, and if a cinematic sub- 
stitute could not be found, the subject is not 
good screen material. 

A thought, a feeling should always be ex- 
pressed in motion pictures. Those white, glar- 
ing letters have no cinematographic value. 
They are cold and lifeless. And it is a shame 
to notice that, after a very good tempo and 
rhythm have been imparted to a scene they are 
suddenly killed by a static title. 

To Peer in Soul 

I also believe that, very often, it is not 
enough to have an actor express a thought or 
an emotion by his mimicry alone. A way 
should be found to picturize his thoughts and 
his feelings. Figuratively speaking, the cam- 
era should be able to look within a man's soul. 

When we achieve the mastery of our tools 
and find a way to express our joys and sorrows, 
our dreams and visions in an eloquent, cine- 
matic manner, then only the cinema will have 
the right to claim its place among other arts. 

The attainment of this goal depends mainly 
on you, my friends, because cinematography is 
primarily the art of the cinematographer. 

The future belongs to those among you, who 
can handle the camera with spirit and inspira- 
tion and who can put a living thought and a 
vibrant feeling between the lens and the 
screen. The future belongs to this new type 
of artist: the creative cinematographer. 



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Eighteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 



PROJECTION 



Condu&ed by EARL J. DENISON 



Congress of Cinematography and Projection Suggested 

President of American Society n n an ipi r Believes Way Found to Elimi- 
of Cinematographers Advocates Clark A S C nate I ncons i stenc y °f Cinema 
Great Conferences. Exhibitions. 



How many times hasn't the cinematogra- 
pher sat in the studio or laboratory projection 
room and viewed a print that projected per- 
fectly, only to see later, when the film is ex- 
hibited in a theatre, a heart-breaking example 
of bad screening? 

How many times hasn't one viewed a su- 
perlative exhibition of one print at one thea- 
tre and a miserable showing of the same print 
at a second house? 

These examples have forced themselves on 
all identified with the making or projection of 
motion pictures. Whether the fault has lain 
with the photography, the projection methods 
employed, the throw, the light source, or any 
of a half dozen other possible causes is always 
difficult to ascertain. 

Variance 

This much is certain: the print that often is 
the best for one type of house is the worst for 
another type. In the case of important first-run 
theatres, special prints, to meet existing condi- 
tions, often are made. But such a procedure 
clearly is impractical for every theatre in 
which a motion picture is shown. On the 
other hand, the patron in the smallest house 
surely is no less entitled to a decent exhibition 
than the audience in the most magnificent 
theatre in the land. 

Outstanding 

This condition is another of those of vital 
concern to all those connected with the mak- 
ing, distribution or the presentation of mo- 
tion pictures. In fact, by some it is regarded 
as the outstanding practical problem of the 
day. When one goes through the exhibitors' 
reports on a certain picture in the theatre own- 
ers' trade journals, and finds the photography 
raised to the sky by one exhibitor and panned 
to the dust by another, some indication is pre- 



sented of how different a grade of print may 
appear under changed circumstances. 

Uniformity 

It is impossible for the laboratories to make 
a print to meet the requirements of every thea- 
tre which shows a particular production. But 
it should not be impossible for a standard of 
various types of prints to be adopted, and, in 
turn a uniform system of projection to be es- 
tablished, the total result of which would be 
to make a certain picture appear the same on 
the screen of the meanest theatre in the small- 
est hamlet as it did on the screen of the finest 
house in New York. 

I do not mean to revolutionize equipment 
or anything of the sort. The problem is not 
one of destruction of existing apparatus or of 
vested capital. I believe that by the intelli- 
gent use of the tools that we already have on 
hand, we can approach a uniformity of screen 
presentation that will surprise even ourselves. 

United Effort 

This is not a problem of any one person or 
any one group of persons in the motion pic- 
ture profession. It is of concern to all of us. 
Therefore, the writer looks with favor on the 
calling of a Congress of Cinematography and 
Projection, at which this thing can be reasoned 
out. At this congress, there should be repre- 
sentatives not only of the cinematographers, 
but of practical projectionists, projection en- 
gineers, studio and commercial laboratories, 
lens makers, projection equipment manufac- 
turers, light source makers, directors, produc- 
ers and all others who are concerned. 

This suggestion is but briefly expressed in 
the foregoing. Many other details will sug- 
gest themselves to those who are interested. 
In all, such an undertaking, in which we all 
pool our efforts, will culminate, it is my con- 
viction, in unbelievably good results for the 
profession — not only artistically but financial- 
ly. 






December, 1926 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T O O R A P II E R 



Nineteen 



"The projectionist with his pro- 
jection equipment is largely 
the master of our photographic 

destinies 19 

Richard Barthelmess 



International Projector Corporation 

90 Gold Street, New York, N. Y. 



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Application for Patent Filed 

on Lens Stated to Work at F 1.4 



Application for letters patent on a lens 
working at F 1.4 has been filed by C. C. 
Minor, Hollywood lens manufacturer. 

Mr. Minor's work on the new lens follows 
principles contained in U. S. Patent No. 1, 
360, 667, issued to him on November 30, 1920. 

"The plan," the preamble to Mr. Minor's 
present application reads, "of splitting one of 
the two convex lenses forming part of the 
combination of a Cooke lens system, has met 
with marked success, as exemplified by sev- 
eral new types incorporating such optical 
principles. 

"The purpose and object," the preamble 
claims, "of this present application for letters 
patent is to entirely overcome the obstacles 
inherent in the construction of a system of 
four elements, whereby color correction is 
attained to a degree that both the primary and 
secondary spectrum errors are reduced to 



such a minimum that the claim of apochromat 
is wholly deserved. 

"The qualities of performance," it is fur- 
ther claimed by the preamble, "for this new 
and improved objective are those of an anas- 
tigmatically flattened field, freed from coma, 
flare, etc. To this end objectives have been 
produced capable of performance at the enor- 
mous aperture of F 1.4." 



Millions of Feet of Raw Stock 

Shipped to Hollywood via Canal 



Magnitude of Los Angeles' motion picture industry- 
is brought out in a report in the Los Angeles Times from 
the Eastman Kodak Company, to the effect that during 
1926 approximately 11,180 cases of unexposed motion- 
picture film, valued at $5,200,000, will have arrived at 
Los Angeles Harbor, via the Panama Canal. 

The water method of shipment has been found vastly 
cheaper and far safer than rail shipment, in that insur- 
ance on the commodity is much easier obtained, it was 
said. 

Weekly shipments of film to this port, according lo 
the announcement, average 215 cases. The footage for 
the 1926 total will amount to 268,520,000 feet, or enough 
to twice g'nile the globe with the celluloid strips. 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINE MATOGRAP HER 



December, 1926 



"It's raining, boys — 

let's go home!" 

THE old time battle cry of filmdom. 
Now very seldom heard. No longer 
necessary — for Cooper Hewitts have 
made indoor photography dependable, 
artistic and profitable. 

Whenever there's some particularly 
hard problem to meet, you can find Cooper 
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Advertisers Now List Films as 

Important Item in Budgets 

That use of the motion picture screen is 
an effective and profitable medium of adver- 
tising is coming into wider recognition con- 
stantly among advertisers and is claiming 
more attention as they make up their pub- 
licity budgets from year to year, was the con- 
sensus among members of the Screen Adver- 
tisers' Association at their recent mid-year 
meeting at Kansas City, presided over by A. 
V. Cauger, head of the United Film Ad 
Service of that city, in the absence of Presi- 
dent Douglas D. Rothacker of Chicago, who 
was absent on account of illness. 

Among the speakers during the three-day 
session were: Paul Kendall, advertising man- 
ager of the Long-Bell Lumber Company, 
Kansas City; Harvey Roemer, general sales 
manager of the Bell & Howell Company, 
Chicago; James P. Simpson, Dallas; George 
A. Blair, Eastman Kodak Company, Roches- 
ter; Sumter Calvert, Capital Projector Com- 
pany, Chicago; H. E. Hollister, Pyramid 
Film Company, Dayton; Lou Holland, Kan- 
sas City, and Robert A. Warfel, executive 
secretary of The Advertising Commission, 
New York. 

As a result of the meeting, the officers and 
a committee have under consideration the de- 
velopment of plans for presenting the mes- 
sage of screen advertising to the advertising 
clubs of the country in co-operation with 
which the Screen Association is affiliated as 
a department of the Advertising Commis- 
sion. 

There is a probability that the screen 
Association will conduct its annual meeting 
as a part of the convention of the Interna- 
tional Advertising Association at Denver next 
June and give up the idea of holding a sepa- 
rate meeting in February, as heretofore, al- 
though decision was deferred pending con- 
sultation with President Rothacker. Several 
members of the association feel that more ef- 
fective results would follow the holding of a 
meeting with the big convention, and are ad- 
vocating that a meeting be arranged at the 
time and also that the Screen Association set 
up an elaborate exhibit and demonstration at 
Denver. 

Mr. Gauger, who was host to the conven- 
tion and provided much entertainment, 
caused the issuance of a convention publica- 
tion under the name of "The Reel Dope." 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMAT O G R A P II E K 



Twenty-one 



DUPLICATION ^/MOTION 
PICTURE NEGATIVES 



I Cniitinurii7from Pace 9) 



posed area surrounded by an area of less ex- 
posure developed up denser than it should, 
while small areas surrounded by areas having 
greater exposure developed up with less densi- 
ty than they should. The explanation of the 
phenomena is simple. In the first case, the 
developer acting on the small exposed area 
diffuses into the surrounding gelatin as it be- 
comes exhausted, and fresh developer dif- 
fuses into the spot from all sides thus acceler- 
ating development. In the other case, when 
the small area has had less exposure than its 
environment, the opposite conditions hold, de- 
velopment of the small area being actually re- 
strained by the reaction products diffusing into 
it from all sides. If development is stopped 
at an early stage, the defect is quite pro- 
nounced. If, however, development is con- 
tinued until the image has reached maximum 
contrast, fresh developer has time to soak into 
the film from the outside and the irregularity 
is smoothed out. 

The "Mackie" line has a similar explana- 
tion to the u Eberhard" effect and is really a 
manifestation of the latter on a scale that is 
easily discernable in the projected picture 
as a sort of halo surrounding the images of 
dark objects against light toned backgrounds. 

To Be Avoided 
It is particularly desirable to avoid these 
defects in the duplicating process because, like 
graininess, they are cumulative, and they are 
largely responsible for the "duped" appear- 
ance of prints made from duplicate motion 
picture negatives prepared on a high contrast 
emulsion. 

Attempts have been made to find a devel- 
oper or developing conditions that would per- 
mit development to a low degree of contrast 
without producing the defects but with no 
success. Apparently, the only way to elimi- 
nate the fault is to use an emulsion which 
when nearly fully developed will give the 
contrast or gamma required. 

Inasmuch as motion picture negative and 
positive films do not compjetely satisfy the rig- 
orous demands made on a duplicating mate- 
rial* efforts were made to produce something 
more suitable. It was found that the charac- 



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Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 



CINOPHOT 

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CRECO 



teristics of an emulsion are greatly changed if 
a dye that absorbs the wave lengths of light to 
which the emulsion is sensitive is mixed with 
the gelatin. In the case of an ordinary emul- 
sion certain yellow dyes have this property. 
The addition of the dye has the effect of in- 
creasing the resolving power by reducing ir- 
radiation or scatter, greatly extending the lati- 
tude, and lowering the maximum contrast of 
the emulsion. By so "doctoring" a very fine 
grained emulsion, a film was produced which 
possessed in a marked degree every desired 
property with the possible exception of speed. 
The speedy unfortunately, is rather low, being 
only about one-twentieth that of regular posi- 
tive film. However, by using a suitable con- 
denser system, sufficient illumination to print 
from dense negatives at the usual step printer 
rate can easily be obtained. It is practicable 
also to do projection printing with condenser 
illumination. 

The dye used is a water soluble yellow that 
washes out during, the processing operations 
and leaves a normal appearing black and 
white film. The emulsion keeps extremely 
well and can be handled in the usual positive 
safelight. 

The use of this film, known as "Eastman 
Duplicating Film," for both master positive 
and duplicate negative, insures excellent tone 
reproduction, freedom from development de- 
fects, and a minimum of graininess. 

Tuning 
The first step in the actual process of mak- 
ing the duplicate is the timing of the original 
negative for printing. The exposure for each 
scene should be such as to clearly record the 
details in the highlights. The exposure should 
not be much greater, however, than that nec- 
essary to secure the lightest detail; otherwise, 
the graininess of the final print will be ac- 
centuated. After the original has been timed, 
it should be carefully cleaned to remove all 
traces of dirt from any scratches that may be 
present on the gelatin or support. Chamois 
skin moistened with carbon tetrachloride may 
be used for the purpose. 



!!: 



en 

be 






an 
sin 



(Continued Next Month) 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-three 



(.Continued from Pate 11) 



Laws of Reflection 

THE law ruling the regular reflection of 
light is as follows: 

"The angle that the incident ray makes with 
the normal to the reflecting surface at the 
point of incidence, is equal to the angle that 
the reflected ray makes with the same normal ; 
and the incident and the reflected rays are 
coplanar." 

For short, let us say that the angle of reflec- 
tion is equal to the angle of incidence and both 
rays are lying on the same plane. 

This being true, we can easily trace geomet- 
rically the path of an incident and its corre- 
sponding reflected rays. 




.-"V 



A B Equals Reflecting Surface. 

L Equals Luminous Point. 

L O Equals Inicident Ray. 

O N Equals Normal to A B at Point O. 

O R Equals Reflected Ray 

L' Equals Virtual Image of Point L. 

a Equals Angle of Incidence. 

a Equals Angle of Reflection. 

a Equals a'. 



Let A B (Fig. 2) be the section of the re- 
flecting surface of an opaque body, a mirror 
for instance, and let the plane of the paper be 
the plane in which lies the incident ray L O, 
emanated by the luminous point L, and let O 
be the point at which the incident ray falls 
upon the surface. 

Let O N be the normal to A B at the point 
O, that is to say, the line perpendicular to A B 
atO. 

The reflected ray will follow a path O R, 
forming with O N, an angle NOR. equal to 
the angle L O N. 

For the sake of simplicity, let us call the 
angle L O N by the letter a (alpha) 
and let the angle N O R be called a ' . 
simply, a equals a ' . 

We will then have : angle of incidence equals 
angle of reflection; or L O N equals N O R, or 
simply, a equals a . 



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FOR RENT 

Mitchell and Bell & Howell 
Cameras 

F 2.3; F 2.7; F 3.5 lenses; 40, 50, 75 mm. 
Complete Equipments 

Now Available in 

Hollywood at 

Cinematograph Film Laboratories 

861 Seward Street HOllywood 0764 

J. R. LOCKWOOD 

523 N. Orange Street Glendale, Calif. 

Phone Glendale 3361 -W 



Twenty-four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



December, 1926 



The reflected ray will also be found to lie 
on the same plane as the incident ray, in the 
figure, this plane being, as we said, the plane 
of the paper. 

If A B is the surface of a mirror, and we 
place our eye at the point R. we will see an 
image of the point L, situated at L', behind 
the mirror, on the prolongation of the ray 
O R, and at a distance from O, equal to the 
distance L O. 
Huyghens Construction of Reflected 

Rays According to His "Undulatory 
Theory" 



^ 


u '' / y ^l 




v^A^^yV 


' >' y\ Ayr ' 
isy *'* ,---'"'" \ ' 


FIGURE 3 


A B Equals Reflecting Surface. 


L Equals Luminous Body. 


L' Equals Image of Luminous Body. 


L O; L O'; L O 3 ; L O 3 ; L O 4 Equals Incident 


Rays. 
P 2 P 4 Equals Incident Wave Front. 


0';0'0"; O 2 O 2 ' ; O 3 O 3 ' ; O 4 O 4 ' Equal Re- 


flected Ravs. 


P' 2 P' 4 Equals Reflected Wave Front. 


ON;ON';0 N 2 ; O N 3 ; O N 4 Equals Normals 


to Reflecting Surface.. 



LET A B be the reflecting surface and L 
the luminous body, emanating rays in 
all directions, among which we select 
the rays L O ; L O 1 ; L : ; L O 3 ; L 0\ falling 
on the reflecting surface. 

As all these rays travel with the same ve- 
locity, at the time the ray L O will have 
reached the point P of the reflecting surface, 
the ray L O 2 will have reached the point P : 
and the rays L O 1 ; L ()'; L O 4 will have 
reached the respective points P 1 ; P 3 P 4 , form- 
ing a wave front P 2 P 4 . 

At the same instant the ray L O strikes the 
reflecting surface, the point P becomes the 
center of a disturbance, creating a wave which 
bounces away from the surface. The incident 
ray is thus reflected back upon its own path, 



in the direction O L, while the ray L P 2 , for 
instance, will have to continue to O 2 , from 
whence it is reflected in the direction O 2 O' 2 , 
forming with the normal N 2 O 2 an angle equal 
to the angle of incidence L O 2 N 2 . 

At the same instant in which the reflected 
ray O L reaches the point P', the reflected ray 
O 2 O' 2 will reach the point P' 2 , because light 
travels with the same velocity, and the dis- 
tances L O plus O P' and L O 2 plus O P' 2 are 
equal. 

Following the same construction for all the 
other rays we find the reflected light to form 
a wave front P' 1 P' 4 > whose center of curvature 
is at L', behind the reflecting surface, at the 
intersection of the prolongation of the re- 
flected rays and at a distance U P from the re- 
flecting surface, equal to the distance L P, 
which is the distance of the luminous point to 
the reflecting surface. 



IT is obvious that a luminous object, such as 
any incandescent portion of matter emits 
its own luminous rays. A non-luminous 
body is rendered visible by the rays it reflects. 
Each and every point of a non-luminous body 
becomes the center of disturbance in the lum- 
inous ether at the particular point, and the re- 
flected ray behaves as if it was originated at 
that very point of the body. 

In other words, the non-luminous body acts 
as a luminous one as long as it is stricken by in- 
cident light, and the intensity of its acquired 
luminous power is controlled by the intensity 
of the incident light from the luminous body, 
and by its own composition. 

Now, let us suppose that we place a well 
defined object in front of, and at a certain dis- 
tance from a plane mirror M, as illustrated in 

(Continued on Page 25) 




FIGURE 4 

O Equals Object. 

W Equals Reflecting Surface. 

O' Equals Virtual Image of Object O. 



December, 1926 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-five 



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1222 Guaranty Building, 

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FOR RENT OR FOR SALE 



WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERA 



WILL PUT »ou in touch wilh buyers for Bell & Howell cameras and equipment. 

Phone or write t!.e A. S. C. 1222 Guaranty BWIk. Granite 4274. 
illlvuood. California. 



FOR CASH, i scd Cell Sc Howell camera and tripod. Lenses and mounts not 
essential. Low price and good mechanical conditions are chief require- 
ments. I.u Falk, 10 We-t 33rd St., New York, N. Y. 



BELL & HOWELL or Mitchell Camera outfit; Projection Printer; Cinex 
timer; Straight Line Processing Machine; Nutting Reflectometer ; Polish- 
ing Machine; State price. Equipment. Fred JcfTeiy. Giles Street, Rose 
South Australia. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS 



BRAND new Eyerro camera, complete with evtra magazines, carrying case, 
etc.. ysOOOO . . . Also almost new Universal camera, built-in ih »_o've. 
carrying case, extra magazines, and new Burke and James tripod, $325.00, 



.arrying __ 

Frank King. 36 Crestwood Avenue, Buff do, N. V. 



BFLL & HOWELL, Eyemo Camera— 3.5 lens; Color Filter; Case; Six 100 fr. 
reels; Daylight Negative; Cost $400.00; Price $275.00. All Brand New. 
Cameron. Manhattan Beach, N. Y. 



FOR SALE— LENSES 



ONE three-inch Dahlmcyer F. 1:9, mounted for Mitchell; one two-inch Bausch 
& Lomb 1.2:7: one Dahlmeyer Pcntac 37 mm. F.2:9. Georges Benoit, 3306 
I, knoll Drive. North Hollywood. 

CARL ZEISS, F. 2.7, 50 mm. in Bell & Howell mount. Dan Clark, care 
Amer ican Society of Cinematographcr*. 

NEW 40 mm. Goerz Hypar f. 3 5. lens in Bell & Howell mount; price $50.00. 
Write Charles Clarke, 1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 



FOR RENT— CAMERAS 



FOR RENT — Bell & Howell studio equipment complete. 1 70-Deeree Shutter. 
Liberal commission to cameramen. Call Mr. Smith, Metropolitan 4686. 
Evening, oil Main 0"47. (l.os Angeles.) 

AKELFY and Bell & Howell cameras (or rent. John Boyle, 1207 Milton Ave. 
Phone Granit e 2213. Hollywood. California. 

BELL & HOWELL. Victor Milner. 2221 Observatory Ave., Los Angeles. 
California. 596-944. 

MITCHELL, and Bell & Howell Cameras. F.2:3; F.2:7; F.3:5 Lenses— 
40-sO-75 mm. Complete equipment. 1. R. Lockwood. 523 North Orange 
St., Glendale, California. Glendale 3361-W, or UOlly 0764. 

E. BURTON STEENE. Bell & Howell, and Akeley. Complete Camera Equip- 
ment. Latest models. Address American Society of Cinematographers, 
Hollywood. California. 

BELL Si HOWELL. 170. with 30. 40. 50 and 75 lens equipment. Baby Tripod. 
Also B. & H. Cine Motor. Charles Stumar. GRanite 9845. 1201 Vista 
Street. Hollywood. 

FOR RENT — One Eyemo camera, complete with all accessories. Bert Glennon, 
5905 Carlton Way, Hollywood, California. Phone Hempstead 2743. 

TWO Bell & Ho.vells. Larce Finders. Also Eyemo for rent. Lenses — F 2.5; 
2.3; 2.7 Frank M. Cotncr, 6273 Selma Ave., Hollywood. Hollywood 
s04(,. 

FOR RENT— STILL CAMERAS 

WILL RENT still camera to local parties. Special arrangements to A. S. C. 
members. Geo. Meehan, Ph. GRanite 3830, 744 Curson Ave.. Hollywood 
California. 

FOR RENT — One 4x5 Grade* Camera and one 4x5 Grade. Bert Glennon. 
i^sO Carlton Way. Hollywood. California. Phone Hempstead 271 "v 

FOR RENT— AIRPLANES 

AIRPLANES equipped to carry cameras, facilitating the photographing of 
stunts or other unusual action, for rent by the hour, day or week. Jerry 
Phillip*. Proie--innal Pilot, Clover Field, Santa Monica. California. 



WILL lease f »r Umil' period at very low rent or will sell, Bell and Howell 
camera No. 4b 1 . fully equipped, excellent condition. Call W. J. Van 
Ro -:-em 6049 Hollywood Blvd. or write E. H. Rumer, 3764 Arizona St., 
San Diego. 



(Continued from Page 24) 

Let the object be a card O, whose surface is 
perfectly defined by the lines AB; BC; CD 
and DA. 

The path of the rays emitted by the points 
A; B; C and D strike the surface M, at the 
points A'; B'; C and D' and their reflection 
A'E; B'E; C'E and D'E is easily found, ac- 
cording to the laws of reflection. 

The image of the object O will then appear 
on the prolongation of the reflected rays at O 1 
to an eye placed at the point E, and at a dis- 
tance from M equal to the distance of the ob- 
ject O from the reflecting surface. 

In other words, the image of O will appear 
at O' at the same distance as if the object was 
viewed from a point E', its view unincumber- 
ed by the mirror. 

The image O' will then appear of the same 
size as O. it will be erect, but reversed as to 
sides. 

It is evident that the construction of the in- 
cident and reflected rays can be traced from 
each and every point of the surface of the ob- 
ject and the complete image of O will then be 
found to be formed at O'. 

Such an image has no real existence, and can 
not therefore be collected on a screen. It only 
appears to the eye, as being formed at O', and 
is called "virtual". 



Intensity of Reflection Light 

IT is obvious that, as the incident light is 
partially absorbed and partially scattered, 
the intensity of the reflected light is less 
than the intensity of the incident light. 

The intensity of reflected light is also de- 
pendent upon the smoothness and degree of 
polish of the reflecting surface, upon the ob- 
liquity of the incident ray, and upon the na- 
ture of the reflective surface. 

Surfaces of different nature affect the in- 
tensity of the reflected light, even if their de- 
grees of smoothness and polish and the 
obliquity of the rays are the same. 

It is of common occurrence to observe that 
the highly reflecting silvered surface of a mir- 
ror reflects more light than an equally smooth 
surface of a sheet of white paper. 

Less commonly observed, but easily veri- 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINE MATOG RAP HER 



December, 1926 



fied, is the influence exerted by the obliquity 
of the incident ray. 

If we stand on the shore of a large body of 
water, such as a tranquil lake, we can readily 
observe that at high noon, when the sun is ap- 
proximately at the zenith of the lake surface, 
we can look at the water without being dis- 
turbed by any glaring reflection. As the sun 
nears the horizon, we will notice that a suffi- 
cient amount of sunlight is reflected by the 
water, so as to bother the sensitiveness of our 
eye. This will happen when the incident and 
reflected rays form equal angles with the nor- 
mal to the water surface. The more the sun 
continues to approach the horizon, the greater 
is the obliquity of the incident ray and the 
greater becomes the intensity of the reflected 
ray, to such an extent that if the eye is placed 
at the proper angle, the glare effects it almost 
to the same extent as if the sun was looked at 
directly. 

The smoothness of the reflecting surface is 
obviously an important factor when a maxi- 
mum of reflected light is desired. The rough- 
ness of a surface is formed by a conglomeration 
of small surfaces facing the incident light 
under different angles. In viewing such a 
surface, our eye will only be struck by the re- 
flected rays striking the surfaces whose posi- 
tion is such that they answer the laws of re- 
flection. Only a portion of the surface will 
thus respond to these requirements, and the in- 
tensity of the reflected light is then diminished 
in proportion to the degree of roughness of the 
surface. 

The infinite number of conditions in which 
light can be reflected render impractical an 
average calculation of the intensity of re- 
flected light. As a reference, taking the inci- 
dent ray perpendicular to the reflecting sur- 
face, it has been found that: 

Mercury reflects 3 7 4 of the incident light; 

Silver reflects 3 5 of the incident light when 
its surface is smooth and highly polished; 

Glass reflects 1/25 of the incident light; 

Water reflects 1/50 of the incident liirht. 



LET us note here, that in the study of 
light, when mention is made of a mir- 
ror, a distinction must be made between 
the well known object of everyday use and an 
optical mirror. 



ONE of the uses made of reflected light 
by the photographer is to reflect the 
light of a luminous body in order to 
more strongly illuminate the object he desires 
to photograph. 

Of this order are the various kind of reflec- 
tors used by the cinematographer in outdoor 
work, and the white surfaces of the interior of 
the art lamps and backing the mercury tubes 
in studio photography. 

Reflection of light is applied in the Graflex 
type of cameras, in which the image formed by 
the photographic objective is reflected by a 
45° inclined mirror, to a focusing ground 
glass. 

An interesting application of reflected light 
is the prismatic reflection and side reversal of 
the image formed on the focusing ground glass 
and the prismatic reflection and side reversal 
of the rays emanated by the subject, before en- 
tering the photographic objective. This re- 
versal of the image is extensively used in the 
photography of object destined to be repro- 
duced in printing, in the half-tone color 
process. 

(To Be Continued Next Month) 



In optics the reflecting surface alone is 
called a mirror, while in a glass mirror the 
glass is merely the support and the protection 
to the silver coating which is the real optical 
mirror. 

In fact, in a glass mirror the front surface 
of glass and the silver coating are two distinct 
reflecting surfaces and this is proven by the 
following experiment. 

Place a lighted match in front of a glass 
mirror and look at it obliquely. Two very dis- 
tinct images of the match are seen; one re- 
flected from the silver coating, and the other 
from the front surface of the glass. Further- 
more each one of these images become a lumi- 
nous object in respect to either one of the two 
reflecting surfaces, and other images of the 
match are seen which would multiply to an in- 
finite number were it not for the absorption 
and scattering of light that takes place at each 
reflection. These images are seen to gradually 
diminish in intensity, until the eye is not any 
more affected by their luminosity. 



How to Lorate Members of the 

American Society of Cinematographers 

Telephone: GRanite 4274 

OFFICERS 

Daniel B. Clark President 

L. Guy WiLKY - - First Vice President 

Frank B. Good -------- Second Vice President 

Ira H. Morgan - - - Third Vice President 

George Schneiderman --------- Treasurer 

Charles G. Clarke - - - - Secretary 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Victor Milner 
Daniel B. Clark 
George Schneiderman 
L. Guy Wilky 
Frank B. Good 



Alfred Gilks 
Charles G. Clarke 
Glen MacWilliams 
Homer A. Scott 
King D. Gray 



Fred W. Jackman 
Reginald E. Lyons 
E. Burton Steene 
Ira H. Morgan 
Floyd Jackman 



Abel. David — with Warner Brothers. 

\rnold, John— with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Barnes, George S— with Henry Kins. Samuel Goldwyn Prod. 
Beckway, Win. — . . 

Benoit, Georges— with Metropolitan Productions, Metropolitan Studios. 
Boyle John W.— With First National, Burbank. 
Brodin, Notbeit F. — with Frank Lloyd Productions, Famous Players- 

Lasky. 
Broening, 11. Lyman — with F.B.O. Studios. 
Brotherton, Joseph — 

Clark. Dan — with Tom Mix, Fox Studios. 

Clarke Chas G.— with Geo. Mel ford. Fox Studios. 

Ci wling, Herford T.— Suffolk, Va. 

Cotner, Frank M. — 

Crockett, Ernest — 

Cronjager, Hemy — with Cecil B. De Mille Studios. 

Dean, Faxon M. — with Famous Players-Lasky. San Antonio. 

Doran, Robert V. — 

Dored. John — Riga, Latvia. 

Du Par. E. B. — with Warnei Bru>.. Ne« \ ork Lily 

DuPont, Max B — 

Dubray, Joseph A. — 

Edeson, Arthur— with I'ir-t National. Burbank . 
Evans, Perry — 

Fischbeck. Harry A.— with D. W. Griffith, Famous Players-Lasky, 

New York City. 
Fisher, Ross G. — with Fred Thom-on. F. B. 0. Studios. 
Fried, Abe — with Fox Studios. 

Gaudio. Gaetano — 

Gilks, Alfred— with Famous Players-Lasky 

Glennon, Bert — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Good, Frank B — 

Gray, King D. — with Fox Studios. 

Griffin, Walter L. — with David Hartford Productions. 

Gui-s.irt. Rene — Paris, France. 

Haller, Ernest — with Robert Kane Productions, New York City. 

Ileimerl, Alois G. — 

(ackman, Floyd — with Fred W. Jackman Productions. 

I.ickm-in, Fred W. — directing Fred W. Jackman Productions. 

lennings, J. D. — with Bu-ter Keaton. 

Knechtel, Alvin V. — with First National, Burbank. 

Koenekamp, Hans F. — 

Kurrlc, Robert — 

Edi.on, Thomas A. — 
Webb, Arthur 



Landers, Sam — 

Lockwood, J. R. — 

Lundin, Walter— with Harold Lloyd Pr 

Lyons, Reginald — with Fox Studios. 



opolilnn Studios 



Players-Lasky. 



Marshall, Wm. — with Raymond Griffith. Fame 

McCord, T. D.— 

McGill, Barney — with Fox Studios. 

MacLean, Kenneth G. — with Mack Sennctt Studios. 

Ma< Williams, Glen —with Fox Studios. 

Meehan, George — with Fox Studios. 

Milner, Victor — with Famous Players-Lasky. 

Morgan, Ira H. — with Mctro-Goldwyn-Mayei Sludi 

Musuraca, Nicholas — 

Norton, Stephen S. — 



Palmer, Ernest S. — with Fox, Europe. 
Perry, Harr> — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Perry, Paul P. — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 
Polito. Sol — with Ken Maynard, First National. 

Ries, Park J.— 

Roos, Len H. — Sydney, Australia. 

Rose, Jackson J. — with Universal. 

Rosher, Charles — with F. W. Murnau, Fox Studios. 

Schneiderman, George — with Fox Studios. 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Sharp, Henry — with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. 

Snyder, Edward V. — with Pathe, Fine Arts Studio. 

Smith, Steve, Jr. — 

Steene, E. Burton — with Famous Players-Lasky, San Antonio. 

Stumar, Charles — with Universal. 

Stumar, John — with Universal. 

Tolhurst, Louis H. — producing microscopic pictures, for Pal he. 
Totheroh, Rollie II. — with Charlie Chaplin, Chaplin Studios. 
Turner, J. Robert — with Fox Studios 

Van Buren, Ned — with Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester. N. Y. 
\ \\n Enger. Charles — with Fir>[ National, Burbank. 
\ .\\i Trees, James C. — with Fir>t National, Burbank. 



Warrenton, Gilbert— 
Wcnstrom. Harold - 
Whitman, Philip II 
Wilky, L. Guy- 
Honorary Member. 
C. — Attorney 



-with Universal. 

— w it h Fi 'X Si M.I,. 



Meetings ol the American Society of Cinematographers are held a* called on Monday evenings in the A. S. C. 

1219-20-21-22 GUARANTY BUILDING 

Hollywood Boulevard and Ivar Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 



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